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University of Vienna

Country: Austria

University of Vienna

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636 Projects, page 1 of 128
  • Funder: EC Project Code: 101042570
    Overall Budget: 1,460,600 EURFunder Contribution: 1,460,600 EUR

    Modern humans are defined and sustained by interactions and networks. In Paleolithic contexts, reconstructing interactions and networks is limited to inferences based on material culture or direct evidence of biological relatedness, but evidence on the latter in the form of human fossils is very rare. Still, archaeogenetic research can formulate supra-regional models for broad time periods based on only a few genomes by distinguishing ancient clades, but not to the level of interactions between human groups of particular cultural complexes. Recently, archaeological sediments and speleothems - karstic cave formations - have been revealed as a further genomic archive for past environments and past human populations initiating a new phase in archaeogenetic research. These new archives have the potential to greatly expand the archaeogenetic record as they stem from ubiquitous environmental sources and they do provide the spatial and temporal resolution to zoom into population dynamics at the group level. However, what this ancient DNA (aDNA) originates from and under what conditions it preserves over time are still open questions. I here suggest placing this paleogenomic data into a microstratigraphic framework, where individual depositional events are recorded in microscopic features, to overcome these problems and to provide high-resolution time series of population interactions. Using an interdisciplinary tool kit, I will (I) reconstruct the source, origin, and deposition of sedimentary and speleothem aDNA in archaeological contexts, (II) identify ideal preservation contexts for this type of aDNA with a focus on in-field assessments and (III) extract genomic time series from archaeological sediments and speleothems. I will apply this approach to Upper Paleolithic sites in Georgia to reconstruct the relatedness of the people using individual sites over time and across contemporaneous sites set against regional expressions of climate and paleoenvironment change.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 101030987
    Overall Budget: 186,167 EURFunder Contribution: 186,167 EUR

    The quantum entanglement (QE) of macroscopic mechanical oscillators is a unique resource to examine fundamental principles of quantum mechanics at the interface with classical physics.The emerging field of quantum optomechanics is meant to be a benchmark to study quantum phenomena on a macroscale. This Project is aimed to generate and study QE between center-of-mass motion of 2 macroscopic mechanical oscillators –optically levitated particles – a cutting-edge experimental platform offering outstanding control over particles motion, potential landscape and reservoirs. Importantly both particles will be charged to generate long range QE via Coulomb interaction. This study of electromagnetically induced QE is essential to examine consistency of macroscopic systems to basic principles of quantum mechanics. Going in complete parallel to a linear theory of quantum gravity it facilitates our understanding of quantization and vacuum fluctuations of a gravitational field and paves the way for quantum gravitational table-top experiments. The physical system under investigation is a general testbed for experiments at the interface of thermodynamics, information theory & quantum physics, with applications in quantum information technologies, sensing & metrology. This study is timely and highly relevant to the current EU research trends, it goes in line with prioritised research directions of H2020-EU123 programme following 2 out of 5 selected areas: Quantum metrology & sensing and Fundamental quantum science. This Project will be implemented in the group of Prof Aspelmeyer who are leading experts in quantum optomechanics. My background in light-matter interaction and open quantum systems perfectly fits the host group expertise in quantum control and their state-of-the-art facilities. This Fellowship will greatly improve my leadership skills, strongly diversify my knowledge, establish new academic links and boost my track record that would have a significant impact on my career.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 274895
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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 897827
    Overall Budget: 186,167 EURFunder Contribution: 186,167 EUR

    The proposed project brings together the applicant, a promising early career researcher (Mark Thomas Young) with a prolific and internationally renowned supervisor (Mark Coeckelbergh), hosted by one of the foremost centers for the philosophy of technology in Europe (University of Vienna). The primary objective is to develop a new philosophical approach to the study of automation that challenges dominant conceptions of automation as technologies that operate without human involvement by highlighting the wide variety of ongoing skillful practices upon which they depend. Drawing on perspectives from feminist studies of technology, the project will (1) identify the different forms of human agency upon which automating technologies depend, (2) explore the processes by which they come to be hidden from view and finally (3) examine the ethical concerns surrounding their erasure. In addition to making a substantial contribution to existing literature on automation in the philosophy of technology, the theoretical approach this project develops will also be useful for historical and sociological studies of technology alongside designers interested in the social impacts of automating technologies. By proposing a novel conception of automation which is useful across disciplines, this research addresses the secondary objective of this project; to establish the project manager as a leading voice in the philosophy of technology and to provide him training and experience that will enable him to attain his long-term career goal of a permanent position in philosophy. In addition to disseminating research results through the production of articles, a journal special issue and the organization of academic events on the theme of automation, this project will also utilize forms of public outreach which are intended to raise public awareness of the human agency underlying automation and the ethical concerns associated with its erasure.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 701944
    Overall Budget: 243,209 EURFunder Contribution: 243,209 EUR

    Epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation (DNAm) can store cell memories of past life experiences. Thanks to this property, these marks hold great potential as biomarkers for personalized management of diseases arising from gene-environment interactions such as obesity and associated disorders. However, realizing this potential requires large-scale longitudinal studies that evaluate epigenetic markers under consideration of pertinent lifestyle and genetic factors. The goal of the proposed project is to fill this research gap by identifying, for the first time in a large-scale longitudinal study, epigenetic biomarkers of disease status and reversal for personalized management of obesity and diabetes. To attain this goal I will i) Identify overweight -associated DNAm markers by comparing DNAm patterns of 400 obese subjects before and after a randomized controlled weight-loss intervention, ii) Assess the relationship of the identified markers with gene-diet interactions, and their reversibility in response to weight-loss, iii) Test the validity of these markers, alone and in combination with genetic analysis, as biomarkers for prediction of weight-loss performance and diabetes status/reversal. Expected outcomes: I) Drive innovation in personalized medicine by identifying epigenetic markers of disease status and reversal in obesity and diabetes, ii) Expand our understanding of how epigenetic, genetic and dietary factors interact with each other in the development and reversal of obesity, iii) Equip me with the knowledge and skills needed to become an independent scientist. The quality of the research, hosting arrangements and collaborations will provide me with the best opportunities to expand my expertise in epigenetics, apply it to research on human disease, and reinforce my professional maturity for securing a faculty position in Europe.

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