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Jagiellonian University

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193 Projects, page 1 of 39
  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 101075838
    Overall Budget: 1,494,400 EURFunder Contribution: 1,494,400 EUR

    AI-driven technologies are ready to enter urban mobility. They promise relief to the notoriously congested transport systems in pursuing sustainability goals. Since AI already outperforms humans in the most complex games (chess and Go) it is likely to win the urban mobility games as well, outperforming us e.g. in: route choices (to arrive faster), mode choices (to reduce costs), pricing strategies and fleet management (to increase market shares and profits). Tempting us and policymakers to gradually hand over our decisions to intelligent machines. The consequences of this ongoing revolution are challenging to predict and largely unknown. While the abundance of previous studies proves the positive potential of AI in urban mobility (from autonomous vehicles via optimal routing up to fleet management), the negative impact is overlooked. Conversely, our scenario of interest is the machine-dominated urban mobility system, where (collective) decisions of machine intelligence improve system-wide performance, yet at the cost of humans, now facing e.g. longer travel times, greater monetary costs or being nudged to change natural travel habits into the optimal ones - desired by the machine-centred system. Such scenarios, however, need to be discovered. To this end, COeXISTENCE embarks on the interdisciplinary expedition inside the virtual environment of urban mobility, where machines and humans play the game for limited resources. In the four pre-identified games I will explore the conflict scenarios, demonstrate them on reproducible case-studies, quantify with proposed measures and finally mitigate with a proposed multi-objective reinforcement learning framework, where machines learn to mitigate conflicts while simultaneously reaching their inherently selfish objectives. Reaching the projects' objectives will be ground-breaking when new phenomena are discovered and lead to breakthrough when they are mitigated pushing the system towards the synergy of COeXISTENCE.

  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 618347
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  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 298569
  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 101089312
    Overall Budget: 3,000,000 EURFunder Contribution: 3,000,000 EUR

    The advent of standardized small satellites called CubeSats has made astronomical research from space more accessible than ever before. The proposed ERC project directly derives from the vast research possibilities offered by this platform, and aims at the construction of a miniature UV space telescope designed specifically to detect hydrogen and deuterium around comets and asteroids through the ultra-luminous Lyman alpha transition. Thanks to the unparalleled sensitivity to these atoms, the envisioned satellite will provide definite answers to some of the most profound problems of the near Universe. First, it will enable ultra-sensitive investigation of future interstellar objects passing through the Solar System in search of their hydrogen clouds, with direct implications to our understanding of orbital anomalies in the absence of detectable dust, such as seen in ‘Oumuamua, as well as their physical nature in general. Second, the satellite will allow for deep investigation of hydrogen content around main-belt comets, probing water-ice outgassing from these bodies with a better sensitivity than the best present-day limits. The high level of sensitivity will be routinely achieved for all known objects of this class, including new main-belt comets discovered by LSST, transforming our knowledge of the ice reservoir in the outer Main Belt. Finally, the satellite will provide homogeneous, model-independent and self-consistent measurements of the D/H ratio for dozens of comets from different dynamical classes down to 12 mag of total brightness, which is a factor-of-hundred improvement in sensitivity over the state-of-the-art methods and a major leap in measurement reliability. The D/H measurements will ultimately resolve the puzzle of cometary origin of water on Earth, and unveil the link between present-day cometary reservoirs and their original place of formation in the solar nebula.

  • Funder: European Commission Project Code: 805498
    Overall Budget: 1,499,620 EURFunder Contribution: 1,499,620 EUR

    Uncertainty is everywhere, as the saying goes, but rarely considered in ethical reflections. This project aims to reinterpret ethical discussions on current advances in biomedicine: instead of understanding bioethical positions as extensions of classical normative views in ethics (consequentialism, deontologism, contractualism etc.), my project interprets them more accurately as involving various normative approaches to decision making under uncertainty. The following hard cases in bioethics provide the motivation for research: 1) Regulating scientific research under uncertainty about the ontological/moral status (e.g. parthenogenetic stem cells derived from human parthenotes) in the context of meta-reasoning under normative uncertainty. 2) The value of preventive medicine in healthcare (e.g. vaccinations) in the context of decision-making under metaphysical indeterminacy. 3) Population or reproductive decisions (e.g. preimplantation genetic diagnosis) in the context of valuing mere existence. The main drive behind this project is the rapid progress in biomedical research combined with new kinds of uncertainties. These new and “deep” uncertainties trigger specific forms of emotions and cognitions that influence normative judgments and decisions. The main research questions that will be addressed by conceptual analysis, new psychological experiments, and case studies are the following: how do the heuristics and biases (H&B) documented by behavioral scientists influence the formation of normative judgments in bioethical contexts; how to demarcate between distorted and undistorted value judgments; to what extent is it permissible for individuals or policy makers to yield to H&B. The hypothesis is that many existing bioethical rules, regulations, practices seem to have emerged from unreliable reactions, rather than by means of deliberation on the possible justifications for alternative ways to decide about them under several layers and types of uncertainty.

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