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University of Opole
Country: Poland
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5 Projects, page 1 of 1
  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: EP/K017438/1
    Funder Contribution: 71,958 GBP

    First-order logic is a formal language for describing structured ensembles of objects and data. The use of first-order logic to specify, query and manipulate such structured data is now firmly embedded in the theory and practice of a wide range of academic disciplines. Automating the process of deductive reasoning in first-order logic is therefore a central challenge in Computer Science. However, reasoning with first-order logic is known to be undecidable: it is in principle impossible to write a computer program that can reliably determine all logical consequences expressible using this formalism. On the other hand, it has long been understood that, by restricting the language of first-order logic in various ways, we obtain 'fragments' of logic in which decidability is restored. Furthermore, we observe a trade-off between expressive power and computational manageability: the smaller a fragment is---i.e. the less expressive it is---the easier it is to reason in. The research proposed here will investigate several very expressive fragments of first-order logic---those near the upper limit of decidability---and determine their decidability/computational complexity. We take as our point of departure three fragments of first-order logic which are known to be decidable: the 'two-variable fragment', the 'guarded fragment' and the 'fluted fragment'. We investigate the effect of extending the expressive power of these logics in three ways (severally, or in combination). The first extension we consider involves numerical quantifiers, which allow us to place (upper or lower) bounds on how many objects satisfy some given property. The second extension we consider involves the use of transitive relations such as 'is taller than' or `earns more money then'. (Such relations have special logical properties that need to be taken into account in reasoning problems.) The third extension we consider involves the use of equivalence relations such as 'is the same height as' or 'has the same tax code as'. In this way, we obtain a collection of fragments of first-order logic for which it is currently open whether reasoning is decidable. We propose to resolve these open problems. For those fragments which we show to be decidable, we shall obtain (as a by-product of our proof) an algorithm for reasoning within the fragments in question; for those shown to be undecidable, we know that no such algorithm exists. Moreover, for the decidable fragments, we can quantify the difficulty of reasoning within them, and even identify the specific kinds of formulas that are responsible for the difficult cases. Thus, our research represents a contribution to the enterprise of using first-order logic to describe, query or manipulate structured data.

  • Funder: UKRI Project Code: NE/H021868/1
    Funder Contribution: 569,600 GBP

    The Cretaceous, 146-66 million years ago, experienced high levels of atmospheric CO2, and the warmest climates and highest global sea-levels in the last 300 Ma. On several occasions, the oceans became abruptly depleted in oxygen, so-called oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), when organic matter accumulated in the oceans, producing widespread black shales that now act as oil source rocks. However, the mechanisms that caused these events remain hotly debated. This proposal aims to use a new multi-dynamic approach to better understand the mechanisms that caused the onset, duration and cessation of global carbon burial events during the Late Cretaceous. Burial of organic matter leads to the preferential removal of isotopically light carbon from the oceans, increasing the 13C/12C ratio of seawater and, via the atmospheric CO2 reservoir, the entire Earth surface system. Weathering releases 12C back to the surface carbon cycle. Carbonates and organic matter in rocks preserve changes in C-isotope ratios through time, providing a basis for C-isotope stratigraphy. Major changes are synchronous and global in extent, and we have proposed that C-isotope variation in the Late Cretaceous may be used as a proxy for global sea-level change; this remains to be tested. Osmium, a platinum group element with a short ocean residence time of <40 kyr, also shows isotopic variation in seawater through time, being controlled predominantly by two end-member components: weathering of crust and input from volcanic activity (mantle). These have drastically different ratios, so Os isotopes potentially may provide high-resolution stratigraphic control during times of palaeoenvironmental change, such as episodes of increased weathering or volcanic input. The modern oceans display a uniform Os-isotope ratio, but our new data for Os isotopes through an OAE at ~94 Ma indicate that the Atlantic displayed diachronous shifts in Os isotopes. This offers an exciting potential new tool for studying palaeocean-mixing. However, this OAE may be a unique event with regard to oceanic Os; further regions and OAEs need to be tested. This project will use C-isotope stratigraphy from organic matter to correlate global successions from diverse environments, palaeolatitudes and oceanic settings. The time interval to be investigated, 101 - 83 Ma, was characterized by two OAEs and other significant changes in the carbon cycle. We aim to answer the following: (1) Are secular C- and Os-isotope curves related to sea-level change? (2) Can Os-isotope stratigraphy be used for chemostratigraphy: is it synchronous or diachronous? (3) Do OAEs coincide with Os-isotope excursions, and what was the steady state of the oceans? (4) What are the relationships between sea-level change, climate and ocean anoxia; can we finally identify the key forcing mechanism for widespread ocean stagnation? Sites in Canada, France, Czech Republic, Far East Russia, Ecuador, South Atlantic, and offshore Australia will be studied. The relative sea-level histories for each basin, correlated using C-isotopes, will be used to test relationships between C-isotope stratigraphy and sea-level change. Key stratigraphic time intervals will be characterised for Os isotopes and trace-metals to: establish the evolution of Os isotopes in the Late Cretaceous oceans; evaluate possible regional variation in the Os-isotope composition of seawater; establish levels of seawater oxygenation in the associated water masses; and identify the causes of widespread ocean stagnation. Results from our Cretaceous extreme-greenhouse study will provide unique constraints for modelling interactions between, and the impacts of, sea-level and climate change, and perturbations of the global carbon cycle for an icecap-free Earth; the increasingly likely near-future for our planet. The proposed research will aid in understanding whether periods of ocean stagnation are a likely future consequence of present-day global warming.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 101017248
    Funder Contribution: 1,999,200 EUR

    Since its inception, the European University Network FORTHEM has boosted cooperation between its participating institutions. With this proposal, FORTHEM plans to intensify common R&I activities, promote joint concepts and strategies, foster the co-creation of science, and reduce inequalities between members by sharing good practices and resources, both technological and human. FIT FORTHEM will build up knowledge and structures, including a virtual joint support centre, leading to an efficient pooling of resources and providing a home for FORTHEM’s activities in R&I and social, cultural and entrepreneurial interaction. A dedicated WP will nurture a deep mutual understanding between all actors, and another WP will ensure mutual exchange both internally and with external stakeholders. We will develop common agendas for R&I activities including a joint open science policy, plan the efficient use of common or shared resources, and reinforce a lively intersectoral exchange. In doing so, the specificities of each member will be taken into account to receive tailored support. Activities will be supported by seven FORTHEM Labs, designed to advance collaborative research and establish new forms of cooperation. These co-creation labs will formulate needs and test new models and be the incubators of transformation in FIT FORTHEM. As a result, FIT FORTHEM will significantly contribute to making FORTHEM a united entity with strong higher education and R&I strategies and tight links to its socio-economic environment. It will promote well-functioning living FORTHEM Labs that excel in research and breed a solid innovative and entrepreneurial spirit. FIT FORTHEM will join forces with local, regional, and European networks, and current and future alliances in order to maximize this effect. Since FORTHEM is potentially representative of around 90% of universities in Europe, FIT FORTHEM can provide reproducible models in the upcoming transformation processes faced by all universities.

  • Funder: EC Project Code: 726997
    Overall Budget: 2,111,990 EURFunder Contribution: 2,111,990 EUR

    Empirically informing a European theory of justice is a complex and challenging endeavour, however the emergence of current social crisis, and the resulting inequalities and unfairness, bring about the need to revise the premises that facilitate translation of the theory into concrete guidance to effective social policies and coherent programs and practices. To respond to this challenge, a trans-disciplinary Consortium has been organized to provide a comprehensive series of empirical data, in different ecological levels, in order to understand differences in perceptions of inequality. Through a case study on an extreme expression of inequality and unfairness - LONG-TERM HOMELESSNESS – organized in a multi-method and convergent design, HOME_EU is focused on understanding: a) How much inequality do EU Citizens accept regarding Homelessness; b) How the people with a lived-experience of Homelessness (both present and past) perceive the opportunities, choices and capability gains with the services and the existing social policies; c) What strategies consider the service providers to be more effective in reversing Homelessness; d) How social policies and policy key stakeholders contribute to effectively reverse Homelessness; and e) Develop a generalizable indicator (correlating the different ecological levels of analysis) based on the data gathered by each partner country on the key elements of policy and program efficacy. We believe that with this journey into an extreme situation, we are able to generate translational knowledge about the ecology of long-term Homelessness and contribute towards the advancement of an empirically based EU theory & practice of justice as fairness.

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  • Funder: EC Project Code: 873087
    Overall Budget: 16,171,600 EURFunder Contribution: 15,008,500 EUR

    SHOP4CF aims to find the right balance between cost-effective automation, repetitive tasks and involve the human workers in areas such as adaptability, creativity and agility where they create the biggest added value. Also to pursue the highly-connected factory model to reap the benefits of all the data generated within the factory. Tapping into those data streams and human capital requires creating favorable technological, economical and societal conditions. SHOP4CF will do so by relying on the following: • A platform developed on an open architecture encompassing technologies based on RAMI 4.0 and FIWARE Technologies which can support humans in production activities and providing basic implementation as a free, open-source solution. Including 30 components developed within SHOP4CF project by top RTOs from all over Europe. • Implementing pilots acting as the testing facilities and seeds for adoption of the platform. 4 large scale pilots lead by industrial leaders in Europe and 30 FSTP Pilots selected through 5 competitive open calls that will receive technical, business and access to investment support. • A marketplace as one-stop-shop for SMEs (developers and end users) to access essential services for digital transformation including business modelling, technical support, access to skills and finance. • Building a vibrant and growing community around the platform necessary to create the adoption critical mass. • Leading pre-standardization activities in the areas of collaborative robotics, AGVs and use of IoT devices on the shopfloor. SHOP4CF will continue its operations with a self-sustainable non-profit association with members all over Europe that could be integrated with the one created by DIH2 project. SHOP4CF will demonstrate that public funded research can help SMEs & Mid-Caps achieve digital excellence and global competitiveness through adopting advanced robotics solutions in human-centric digitalization

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