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    Authors: Cohen, Ismael; Wences, Giovanni; Rodriguez Contreras, Jorge; Reyes Linero, Alberto Mario; +1 Authors

    El presente estudio se enmarca dentro del paradigma de la investigación básica matemática. Nuestro trabajo está orientado hacia el planteamiento de una nueva versión conceptual y la construcción de una prueba formal del reconocido problema de clausura-complemento de Kuratowski en el marco de la teoría de los espacios vectoriales. Palabras clave: Espacios vectoriales, Problema de Kuratowski, problema de cerradura y complemento. Abstract This study is framed into the basic mathematics research paradigm. This work is geared towards the statement of a new conceptual version and to the construction of a formal proof of the well-known Kuratowski closure-complement problem in the vector space theory frame. Keywords: Kuratowski’s problem, Vector spaces, Closure-complement problem Resumo O presente estudo está enquadrado no paradigma da pesquisa matemática básica. Este trabalho está voltado para afirmação de uma nova versão conceitual e para a construção de uma prova formal do bem conhecido problema de complemento de roupas de Kuratowski no quadro da teoria linear do espaço. Palavras chave: Problema de Kuratowski, Espaços vetoriais, Problema de fechamento-complemento

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    Authors: Rosales, Edixo;

    En este trabajo X es un espacio de Banach y B(X) denota los operadores acotados. Si T∈B(X), por lat(T) entenderemos los subespacios invariantes por T. Se dice que T es lleno, si (T(M)) ̅=M, para todo M∈lat(T) (la barra indica la clausura en la topología inducida por la norma). Se prueba principalmente el siguiente resultado: Sean X un espacio de Banach y T ∈B(X) acotado por abajo. Sea K ∈Alglat(T)∩{T}' un operador de Riesz. Si K es lleno, entonces T es lleno. Aquí Alglat(T)={S∈B(X):M∈lat(T)⟾M∈lat(S)} y {T}^'={S∈B(X):S∘T=T∘S}. Palabras clave: Operador lleno, operador de Riesz, operador acotado por abajo. Abstract In this work X is a Banach space and B(X) denotes the bounded operators. If T ∈B(X), for lat(T) we will understand the invariant subspaces for T. An operator T is full, if (T(M)) ̅=M, for all M∈ latT (the bar indicates the closure in the topology induced by the norm). The following result is true: Let X be a Banach space, T ∈B(X) a bounded below operator and K ∈Alglat(T)∩{T}' a Riesz operator: If K is a full operator, then T is a full operator. Here Alglat(T)={S∈B(X):M∈lat(T)⟾M∈lat(S)} and {T}^'={S∈B(X):S∘T=T∘S}. Keywords: full operator, Riesz operator, bounded below operator.

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    Authors: Ludeña Huaman, Michael Azael; Huamán Quispe, Reneé Isabel; Tupa Quispe, Ana Luz; Serrano Flores, Carlos Alberto;

    Ursolic acid (3β-3-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound present in many medicinal herbs and edible fruits of different species of plants. Ursolic acid is now considered an important biomolecule due to its pharmacological activity and much of the research has focused on anticancer activity. To achieve the clinical application of ursolic acid, delivery nanosystems have been developed and the synthesis of its derivatives has also been carried out. In this review, we address different aspects of the chemistry of ursolic acid. Furthermore, we highlight the investigations that were carried out in Peru concerning ursolic acid. Palavras-chave: Ursolic acid, Triterpenoid, Lamiaceae, Medicinal plants. Abstract El ácido ursólico (ácido 3β-hidroxi-urs-12-en-28-óico) es un triterpenoide pentacíclico presente en varias hierbas medicinales y frutos comestibles de diferentes especies de plantas, es considerado una importante biomolécula debido a su actividad farmacológica y gran parte de las investigaciones se han enfocado en su actividad anticancerígena. Para lograr la aplicación clínica del ácido ursólico, se han desarrollado nanosistemas para su administración y también se han sintetizado gran cantidad de derivados. En esta revisión abordamos diferentes aspectos de la química del ácido ursólico, y además, destacamos las investigaciones que se llevaron a cabo en el Perú. Keywords: Ácido ursólico, Triterpenoide, Lamiaceae, Plantas medicinales.

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    Authors: Yuniusky Cruz López; Jorge Laudelino Fernández Leyva; Regla Ywalkis Borrero Springer; Maricel Trinidad Salas Gainza;

    En la formación de profesores de Química resulta indispensable desarrollar habilidades que contribuyan mediante el experimento químico al logro de los objetivos propuestos en el modelo del profesional. En el presente artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación pedagógica que se fundamentó en su carácter teórico-práctico desde el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la disciplina Química General, aplicando métodos empíricos y teóricos como el Histórico-Lógico, Sistematización Teórica, Método de observación, entre otros. El objetivo estuvo centrado en la elaboración y aplicación de tareas docentes para contribuir al desarrollo de la habilidad modelar el experimento químico de esta disciplina en la Universidad de Las Tunas. Se concibieron las tareas también desde una óptica integradora y problemática, transitando desde niveles de desempeño reproductivos hasta creativos. La introducción de estas tareas en la práctica escolar contribuyó a elevar la calidad del proceso formativo y alcanzar niveles superiores de desarrollo de esta habilidad. Palabras clave: habilidad, modelar, experimento químico, química general. In the formation of professors of Chemistry, it is indispensable to develop abilities that contribute by means of the chemical experiment to the achievement of the objectives proposed in the professional's pattern. In the current paper the results of a pedagogical research, based on the theoretical-practical character of the subject General Chemistry, were presented from a teaching-learning process point of view, applying empirical methods, suchas, The Historical-Logical Method and the observation Method, among others. The objective was centred in the elaboration and application of educational tasks to contribute to the development of the ability to model the chemical experiment of this discipline in the Universidad de las Tunas. The tasks were also conceived from an integrative and problematic point of view, passing though reproductive acting levels to creative levels. The introduction of these tasks in the school practice contributed to elevate the quality of the formative process and to reach superior levels of development of this ability. Key words: ability, to model, experience chemical, general chemistry.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Contreras Ramírez, Jesús Miguel;

    Los macromonómeros son ampliamente usados en la síntesis de polímeros ramificados mediante homo y/o copolimerización. Los macromonómeros se utilizan de forma muy exitosa en las polimerizaciones heterogéneas para la obtención de partículas poliméricas usadas como sistemas de liberación controlada de fármacos con alta aplicabilidad en el campo biomédico. Esta revisión presenta diferentes métodos de síntesis de macromonómeros con dobles enlaces como función polimerizable. Además, se hace referencia al uso de los macromonómeros en la obtención de polímeros que poseen arquitecturas definidas y novedosas, aunado a la evaluación del comportamiento cinético y de la reactividad que presentan estos macromonómeros. Por último, se menciona el uso de los monómeros macromoleculares en las polimerizaciones por dispersión como reactivo y como agente dispersante, los que pueden contribuir en gran medida en la fabricación de microesferas que ofrecen potenciales aplicaciones en diferentes campos de la biomedicina. Palabras clave: macromonómeros, polímeros ramificados, función polimerizable, redes anfifílicas Abstract Macromonomers are widely used in the synthesis of branched polymers by homo and/or copolymerization. The macromonomers are used very successfully in heterogeneous polymerizations for obtaining polymer particles used as controlled drug release systems with high applicability in the biomedical field. This review presents different synthesis methods for macromonomers with double bonds as a polymerizable function. Besides, it is analyzed the usage of macromonomers in obtaining polymers with defined and novel architectures, besides to the evaluation of the macromonomers' kinetic behavior and reactivity presented. Finally, it is analyzed the use of macromolecular monomers in dispersion polymerizations both as a reagent and as a dispersing agent, which can contribute greatly to the manufacture of microspheres that offer potential applications in different fields of biomedicine. Keywords: macromonomers, branched polymers, polymerizable function, amphiphilic networks The macromonomers are widely used in the synthesis of branched polymers by means of the homo and / or copolymerization of these; in addition currently the macromonomers are used very successfully in the heterogeneous polymerizations for obtaining polymer particles used as release systems controlled drugs, with a high applicability in the biomedical field. In the following review the different synthesis methods of macromonomers with double bonds as a polymerizable function are presented, in addition reference is made to the use of macromonomers in obtaining polymers with defined and novel architectures; together with the evaluation of the kinetic behavior and reactivity that macromonomers present. Finally, it is mentioned how macromolecular monomers are used in dispersion polymerizations as reactive and as a dispersing agent, at the same time, contributing greatly in the manufacture of microspheres with potential applications in different fields of biomedicine.

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      Este trabajo estudia operadores uniformemente estables sobre espacios de Banach en general, con el propósito de caracterizar algunos que tengan subespacios invariantes no triviales. Palabras clave: Operadores Uniformemente estables, subespacios invariantes. Abstract: This paper studies uniformly stable operators on Banach spaces in general, with the purpose of characterizing some that have non-trivial invariant subspaces. Key words: Uniformly stable operators, sub invariant spaces

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    Revista Bases de la Ciencia
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2019
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2019
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      Revista Bases de la Ciencia
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2019
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      Revista Bases de la Ciencia
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: José Gerardo Ortega Fernandez; Nicole Porta; Néstor Peña; Maybeline Danis; +2 Authors

    El ácido rosmarínico es un éster del ácido cafeico y el ácido 3,4-dihidroxifenil láctico, un fenil propanoide natural, que se encuentra principalmente en las especies de la familia Boraginaceae, la subfamilia Nepetoideae de la familia lameaceae y en algunas plantas inferiores como los helechos. Se aisló e identificó por primera vez a partir de Rosmarinus officinalis por dos químicos italianos, Scarpati y Oriente en 1958. Se realizó fraccionamiento ácido-base sobre el extracto hidroalcoholico crudo (ECH), con el propósito de obtener únicamente fracción de ácidos fuertes (Af). La misma se separó por cromatografía de columna para obtener la subfracción Af-1, a partir de la cual se aisló un sólido amarillo con PF 170 °C, el cual se caracterizó química y espectroscópicamente por UV, IR y RMN 1H, 13C y se identificó como ácido rosmarínico. Palabras clave: Boraginaceae, Cordia sebestena, fenoles, ácido rosmarínico. Abstract Different investigations on the Boraginaceae family have focused on the search for substances of proven pharmacological activity. The Cordia sebestena species, has not been studied as much, in a chemical and pharmacological way, so it is interesting to study this endemic plant in the western Venezuelan region. The plant material was collected in the city of Maracaibo, Zulia state. Raw hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from the fresh leaves by maceration with isopropanol-water (7: 3). By means of acid-base extraction, the fraction of strong acids was obtained. It was separated by column chromatography to obtain Af-1 subfraction, from which a yellow solid was isolated with mp 170 ° C, which was characterized chemically and spectroscopically by UV, IR and 1H, 13C NMR and identified as rosmarinic acid. Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid, a natural phenyl propanoid, which is found mainly in the species of the family Boraginaceae, the subfamily Nepetoideae of the family Lameaceae and in some lower plants such as Ferns. Keywords: Boraginaceae, Cordia sebestena, phenols, rosmaric acid.

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    Authors: Guzman, Oswaldo; Campos, Corina; Ruiz, Merlus; Angel, Isandra; +2 Authors

    Un análisis geomorfológico y sedimentológico fue realizado en el sector medio del Valle de Pueblo Llano con la finalidad de comprender la génesis de los sedimentos y geoformas cuaternarias presentes en el área. Cuatro sectores con características morfológicas y sedimentológicas distintivas fueron identificados: (i) depósitos en masa de flujos de detritos con una expresión superficial cónica interpretados como abanicos aluviales, (ii) depósitos de flujos unidimensionales que constituyen terrenos relativamente planos con bajas pendientes característicos de terrazas fluviales, (iii) depósitos de diamicton que constituyen un conjunto de lomos y depresiones en forma de arco asociados a un complejo de morrenas frontales, y (iv) depósitos de flujos unidimensionales que conforman terrenos con forma de lomos asimétricos, asociados a condiciones fluvio-glaciares. Estos resultados ponen en evidencia que los glaciares asociados a la Glaciación Mérida en el Valle de Pueblo Llano, alcanzaron elevaciones al menos 300 m más bajas que las reportadas previamente en la literatura para los Andes de Mérida. Además, sugieren que otros valles glaciares presentes en los Andes de Mérida pudieron haber experimentado fenómenos similares. Palabras clave: Andes de Mérida, Geomorfología y Sedimentología, Morrenas, Glaciación Mérida, Pueblo Llano. Abstract: A geomorphological and sedimentological analysis was carried out in the Middle reach of the Pueblo Llano Valley to understand sediment genesis and quaternary geoforms present in the area. Four zones with distinctive morphological and sedimentological characteristics were identified: (i) mass deposits of debris flow with a cone-shaped surface interpreted as alluvial fans, (ii) unidirectional flow deposits with relatively flat topography, with little slope, characteristic of fluvial terraces, (iii) arc-shaped diamicton deposits that constitute a set of crests and valleys, associated to a complex of frontal moraines, and (iv) unidirectional flow deposits that form terrains with the shape of asymmetric ridges, associated to a fluvio-glacial conditions. These results show that the glaciers of the Mérida Glaciation in the Pueblo Llano Valley reached elevations of at least 500 m lower than those previously reported in the literature for the Mérida Andes. In addition, they suggest that other glacial valleys present in the Andes of Mérida might have experienced similar phenomena. Keywords: Mérida Andes, Geomorphology and Sedimentolology, Moraine complex, Mérida Glaciation, Pueblo Llano.

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    Authors: Laura Soto Arrieta; Maria Berradre; Jose Ortega; Jorge Ortega; +2 Authors

    El orujo presenta en su composición altos niveles de compuestos fenólicos con propiedades antioxidantes interesantes para su utilización en alimentos y/o en diferentes sistemas biológicos. Se optimizaron las condiciones para la extracción de compuestos fenólicos empleando método de superficie de respuesta (MSR) en orujo de uvas variedad Malvasía, en el estado Zulia, Venezuela. El contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales se cuantificó por el método de Folin Ciocalteu y la actividad antioxidante del extracto por el método ABTS. Se estudiaron los efectos de la concentración del solvente y la temperatura de extracción en la evaluación del contenido de compuestos fenólicos. Las condiciones más adecuadas resultantes por el MSR para el orujo de uvas proveniente de la variedad Malvasía fue a 92,09% de etanol y 65°C. El análisis químico del extracto optimizado reportó una actividad antioxidante de 21,08 ± 2,69 mmol TEAC.100g-1. Palabras clave: Vitis Vinifera, compuestos fenólicos, extracción, optimización, antioxidante. Abstract The pomace presents high levels of phenolic compounds with interesting antioxidant properties for use in food and / or in different biological systems in its composition. The conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds were optimized using the response surface method (MSR) in grape marc Malvasia variety, in Zulia state, Venezuela. The content of total phenolic compounds was quantified by the Folin Ciocalteu Method and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by the ABTS method. The effects of the concentration of the solvent and the temperature of extraction in the evaluation of the content of phenolic compounds were studied. The most suitable conditions resulting from the MSR for the grape marc coming from the Malvasia variety was 92.5% Ethanol and 65 °C. The chemical analysis of the optimized extract reported an antioxidant activity of 21.08 ± 2.69 mmol TEAC.100g-1. Key words: Vitis Vinifera, phenolic compounds, extraction, optimization, antioxidant. The pomace presents high levels of phenolic compounds with interesting antioxidant properties for use in food and / or in different biological systems in its composition. The conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds were optimized using the response surface method (MSR) in grape marc Malvasia variety, in Zulia state, Venezuela. The content of total phenolic compounds was quantified by the Folin Ciocalteu Method and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by the ABTS method. The effects of the concentration of the solvent and the temperature of extraction in the evaluation of the content of phenolic compounds were studied. The most suitable conditions resulting from the MSR for the grape marc coming from the Malvasia variety was 92.5% Ethanol and 65 °C. The chemical analysis of the optimized extract reported an antioxidant activity of 21.08 ± 2.69 mmol TEAC.100g-1. Key words: Vitis Vinifera, phenolic compounds, extraction, optimization, antioxidant.

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      En ciencia de los materiales el dióxido de silicio, también conocido como sílice, ha recibido significante atención en diferentes áreas de investigación, ganando un espacio importante y de mucho interés entre los investigadores, debido a sus diversas aplicaciones que abarcan desde la síntesis de soportes para catalizadores hasta materiales para la liberación controlada de fármacos. Es motivo por el cual, en este manuscrito se dan a conocer aspectos químicos fundamentales e importantes sobre el proceso sol-gel en la síntesis de la sílice a partir de moléculas precursoras de alcóxidos de silicio y organosilanos. Se analiza cómo el catalizador ácido/básico y el tipo de precursor afectan a las reacciones de hidrólisis y condensación, así como a la estructura y morfología del material. Palabra clave: Sílice, Sol-gel, Hidrólisis, Condensación, Alcóxido. Abstract In materials science, silicon dioxide has received significant attention in different research areas, gaining valuable space and interest between researchers due to its diverse applications, ranging from the synthesis of supports for catalysts to materials for controlled drug liberation. Herein we describe fundamental and important chemical aspects of the sol-gel process in the synthesis of silica, starting from precursor molecules of silicon alkoxides and organosilanes. Moreover, this review analyses how the acid/basic catalyst and the type of precursor affect the hydrolysis and condensation reaction, as well as the structure and morphology of the obtained material. Keywords: Silica, Sol-gel, Hydrolysis, Condensation, Alkoxide.

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    Revista Bases de la Ciencia
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    Authors: Cohen, Ismael; Wences, Giovanni; Rodriguez Contreras, Jorge; Reyes Linero, Alberto Mario; +1 Authors

    El presente estudio se enmarca dentro del paradigma de la investigación básica matemática. Nuestro trabajo está orientado hacia el planteamiento de una nueva versión conceptual y la construcción de una prueba formal del reconocido problema de clausura-complemento de Kuratowski en el marco de la teoría de los espacios vectoriales. Palabras clave: Espacios vectoriales, Problema de Kuratowski, problema de cerradura y complemento. Abstract This study is framed into the basic mathematics research paradigm. This work is geared towards the statement of a new conceptual version and to the construction of a formal proof of the well-known Kuratowski closure-complement problem in the vector space theory frame. Keywords: Kuratowski’s problem, Vector spaces, Closure-complement problem Resumo O presente estudo está enquadrado no paradigma da pesquisa matemática básica. Este trabalho está voltado para afirmação de uma nova versão conceitual e para a construção de uma prova formal do bem conhecido problema de complemento de roupas de Kuratowski no quadro da teoria linear do espaço. Palavras chave: Problema de Kuratowski, Espaços vetoriais, Problema de fechamento-complemento

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    Authors: Rosales, Edixo;

    En este trabajo X es un espacio de Banach y B(X) denota los operadores acotados. Si T∈B(X), por lat(T) entenderemos los subespacios invariantes por T. Se dice que T es lleno, si (T(M)) ̅=M, para todo M∈lat(T) (la barra indica la clausura en la topología inducida por la norma). Se prueba principalmente el siguiente resultado: Sean X un espacio de Banach y T ∈B(X) acotado por abajo. Sea K ∈Alglat(T)∩{T}' un operador de Riesz. Si K es lleno, entonces T es lleno. Aquí Alglat(T)={S∈B(X):M∈lat(T)⟾M∈lat(S)} y {T}^'={S∈B(X):S∘T=T∘S}. Palabras clave: Operador lleno, operador de Riesz, operador acotado por abajo. Abstract In this work X is a Banach space and B(X) denotes the bounded operators. If T ∈B(X), for lat(T) we will understand the invariant subspaces for T. An operator T is full, if (T(M)) ̅=M, for all M∈ latT (the bar indicates the closure in the topology induced by the norm). The following result is true: Let X be a Banach space, T ∈B(X) a bounded below operator and K ∈Alglat(T)∩{T}' a Riesz operator: If K is a full operator, then T is a full operator. Here Alglat(T)={S∈B(X):M∈lat(T)⟾M∈lat(S)} and {T}^'={S∈B(X):S∘T=T∘S}. Keywords: full operator, Riesz operator, bounded below operator.

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    Authors: Ludeña Huaman, Michael Azael; Huamán Quispe, Reneé Isabel; Tupa Quispe, Ana Luz; Serrano Flores, Carlos Alberto;

    Ursolic acid (3β-3-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound present in many medicinal herbs and edible fruits of different species of plants. Ursolic acid is now considered an important biomolecule due to its pharmacological activity and much of the research has focused on anticancer activity. To achieve the clinical application of ursolic acid, delivery nanosystems have been developed and the synthesis of its derivatives has also been carried out. In this review, we address different aspects of the chemistry of ursolic acid. Furthermore, we highlight the investigations that were carried out in Peru concerning ursolic acid. Palavras-chave: Ursolic acid, Triterpenoid, Lamiaceae, Medicinal plants. Abstract El ácido ursólico (ácido 3β-hidroxi-urs-12-en-28-óico) es un triterpenoide pentacíclico presente en varias hierbas medicinales y frutos comestibles de diferentes especies de plantas, es considerado una importante biomolécula debido a su actividad farmacológica y gran parte de las investigaciones se han enfocado en su actividad anticancerígena. Para lograr la aplicación clínica del ácido ursólico, se han desarrollado nanosistemas para su administración y también se han sintetizado gran cantidad de derivados. En esta revisión abordamos diferentes aspectos de la química del ácido ursólico, y además, destacamos las investigaciones que se llevaron a cabo en el Perú. Keywords: Ácido ursólico, Triterpenoide, Lamiaceae, Plantas medicinales.

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    Authors: Yuniusky Cruz López; Jorge Laudelino Fernández Leyva; Regla Ywalkis Borrero Springer; Maricel Trinidad Salas Gainza;

    En la formación de profesores de Química resulta indispensable desarrollar habilidades que contribuyan mediante el experimento químico al logro de los objetivos propuestos en el modelo del profesional. En el presente artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación pedagógica que se fundamentó en su carácter teórico-práctico desde el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la disciplina Química General, aplicando métodos empíricos y teóricos como el Histórico-Lógico, Sistematización Teórica, Método de observación, entre otros. El objetivo estuvo centrado en la elaboración y aplicación de tareas docentes para contribuir al desarrollo de la habilidad modelar el experimento químico de esta disciplina en la Universidad de Las Tunas. Se concibieron las tareas también desde una óptica integradora y problemática, transitando desde niveles de desempeño reproductivos hasta creativos. La introducción de estas tareas en la práctica escolar contribuyó a elevar la calidad del proceso formativo y alcanzar niveles superiores de desarrollo de esta habilidad. Palabras clave: habilidad, modelar, experimento químico, química general. In the formation of professors of Chemistry, it is indispensable to develop abilities that contribute by means of the chemical experiment to the achievement of the objectives proposed in the professional's pattern. In the current paper the results of a pedagogical research, based on the theoretical-practical character of the subject General Chemistry, were presented from a teaching-learning process point of view, applying empirical methods, suchas, The Historical-Logical Method and the observation Method, among others. The objective was centred in the elaboration and application of educational tasks to contribute to the development of the ability to model the chemical experiment of this discipline in the Universidad de las Tunas. The tasks were also conceived from an integrative and problematic point of view, passing though reproductive acting levels to creative levels. The introduction of these tasks in the school practice contributed to elevate the quality of the formative process and to reach superior levels of development of this ability. Key words: ability, to model, experience chemical, general chemistry.

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    Authors: Contreras Ramírez, Jesús Miguel;

    Los macromonómeros son ampliamente usados en la síntesis de polímeros ramificados mediante homo y/o copolimerización. Los macromonómeros se utilizan de forma muy exitosa en las polimerizaciones heterogéneas para la obtención de partículas poliméricas usadas como sistemas de liberación controlada de fármacos con alta aplicabilidad en el campo biomédico. Esta revisión presenta diferentes métodos de síntesis de macromonómeros con dobles enlaces como función polimerizable. Además, se hace referencia al uso de los macromonómeros en la obtención de polímeros que poseen arquitecturas definidas y novedosas, aunado a la evaluación del comportamiento cinético y de la reactividad que presentan estos macromonómeros. Por último, se menciona el uso de los monómeros macromoleculares en las polimerizaciones por dispersión como reactivo y como agente dispersante, los que pueden contribuir en gran medida en la fabricación de microesferas que ofrecen potenciales aplicaciones en diferentes campos de la biomedicina. Palabras clave: macromonómeros, polímeros ramificados, función polimerizable, redes anfifílicas Abstract Macromonomers are widely used in the synthesis of branched polymers by homo and/or copolymerization. The macromonomers are used very successfully in heterogeneous polymerizations for obtaining polymer particles used as controlled drug release systems with high applicability in the biomedical field. This review presents different synthesis methods for macromonomers with double bonds as a polymerizable function. Besides, it is analyzed the usage of macromonomers in obtaining polymers with defined and novel architectures, besides to the evaluation of the macromonomers' kinetic behavior and reactivity presented. Finally, it is analyzed the use of macromolecular monomers in dispersion polymerizations both as a reagent and as a dispersing agent, which can contribute greatly to the manufacture of microspheres that offer potential applications in different fields of biomedicine. Keywords: macromonomers, branched polymers, polymerizable function, amphiphilic networks The macromonomers are widely used in the synthesis of branched polymers by means of the homo and / or copolymerization of these; in addition currently the macromonomers are used very successfully in the heterogeneous polymerizations for obtaining polymer particles used as release systems controlled drugs, with a high applicability in the biomedical field. In the following review the different synthesis methods of macromonomers with double bonds as a polymerizable function are presented, in addition reference is made to the use of macromonomers in obtaining polymers with defined and novel architectures; together with the evaluation of the kinetic behavior and reactivity that macromonomers present. Finally, it is mentioned how macromolecular monomers are used in dispersion polymerizations as reactive and as a dispersing agent, at the same time, contributing greatly in the manufacture of microspheres with potential applications in different fields of biomedicine.

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      Este trabajo estudia operadores uniformemente estables sobre espacios de Banach en general, con el propósito de caracterizar algunos que tengan subespacios invariantes no triviales. Palabras clave: Operadores Uniformemente estables, subespacios invariantes. Abstract: This paper studies uniformly stable operators on Banach spaces in general, with the purpose of characterizing some that have non-trivial invariant subspaces. Key words: Uniformly stable operators, sub invariant spaces

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    Revista Bases de la Ciencia
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    Article . 2019
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      Revista Bases de la Ciencia
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: José Gerardo Ortega Fernandez; Nicole Porta; Néstor Peña; Maybeline Danis; +2 Authors

    El ácido rosmarínico es un éster del ácido cafeico y el ácido 3,4-dihidroxifenil láctico, un fenil propanoide natural, que se encuentra principalmente en las especies de la familia Boraginaceae, la subfamilia Nepetoideae de la familia lameaceae y en algunas plantas inferiores como los helechos. Se aisló e identificó por primera vez a partir de Rosmarinus officinalis por dos químicos italianos, Scarpati y Oriente en 1958. Se realizó fraccionamiento ácido-base sobre el extracto hidroalcoholico crudo (ECH), con el propósito de obtener únicamente fracción de ácidos fuertes (Af). La misma se separó por cromatografía de columna para obtener la subfracción Af-1, a partir de la cual se aisló un sólido amarillo con PF 170 °C, el cual se caracterizó química y espectroscópicamente por UV, IR y RMN 1H, 13C y se identificó como ácido rosmarínico. Palabras clave: Boraginaceae, Cordia sebestena, fenoles, ácido rosmarínico. Abstract Different investigations on the Boraginaceae family have focused on the search for substances of proven pharmacological activity. The Cordia sebestena species, has not been studied as much, in a chemical and pharmacological way, so it is interesting to study this endemic plant in the western Venezuelan region. The plant material was collected in the city of Maracaibo, Zulia state. Raw hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from the fresh leaves by maceration with isopropanol-water (7: 3). By means of acid-base extraction, the fraction of strong acids was obtained. It was separated by column chromatography to obtain Af-1 subfraction, from which a yellow solid was isolated with mp 170 ° C, which was characterized chemically and spectroscopically by UV, IR and 1H, 13C NMR and identified as rosmarinic acid. Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid, a natural phenyl propanoid, which is found mainly in the species of the family Boraginaceae, the subfamily Nepetoideae of the family Lameaceae and in some lower plants such as Ferns. Keywords: Boraginaceae, Cordia sebestena, phenols, rosmaric acid.

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    Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Revista Bases de la ...arrow_drop_down
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2018
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