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  • Frontiers in Psychology

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yong Zhang; Yong Zhang; Ningning Cao; Chang Yue; +2 Authors

    Language switching involves multiple processing stages. Previous studies have not dissociated the cognitive process underlying language form switches and concept switches. Here, we examined the two factors using a novel language-switching paradigm. Chinese-English bilinguals named individually presented pictures in either Chinese or English according to a language cue. Pictures in two consecutive trials represented either identical, semantically related, or unrelated concepts. Results showed both language (form) switch costs and concept switch costs. The interaction between these two factors suggested that the effects were additive, with the longest naming response times observed when two pictures were semantically unrelated and involved a switch between languages. These findings suggest that the functional loci of the language control mechanism occur at multiple processing stages. Implications of the findings are discussed within current models of language processing in bilinguals.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Psychology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Psychology
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    Authors: Xiao Zhang; Christiane Lütge;

    In academic research on intercultural communication (IC), students’ perceptions and experiences regarding English as alingua franca(ELF) have been central to the discussion because they form the basis for English teaching policies and practices in multilingual and multicultural environments. Substantial theoretical research on ELF has called for a paradigm shift from emphasizing the over-simplistic correlation between language and Anglophone cultures to recognizing the legitimacy of non-native English learners’ home culture in English teaching pedagogy. Nonetheless, little empirical research has been conducted to examine how ELF speakers understand their home culture in ELF communications. Relatively fewer studies have investigated to what extent ELF users’ perceptions of home culture influence their IC practices. To address these gaps, this study aims to explore Chinese international students in a liberal arts university in the United Kingdom and their understanding of Chinese culture in authentic ELF interactions. In addition, the perceived effects of Chinese culture on students’ IC were explored in great depth. This study adopts a mixed-method approach, including a student questionnaire (N = 200) and follow-up semi-structured interviews (N = 10). Following descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of the obtained data, the findings revealed that most participants lacked a thorough understanding of their home culture, while they considered home culture playing a significant role in ELF communications. The contribution of this study builds on work in English users’ awareness of home culture in IC to identify the significance of enabling the presence of English learners’ home culture in English language teaching (ELT) classrooms.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Psychol...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Psychol...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: DOAJ
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Yilong Yang; Yilong Yang; Guoying Yang; Yadan Li; +1 Authors

    Second language (L2) listening is a common challenge for language learners. It remains largely unknown how bilinguals process L2 listening. The literature has suggested an interactive model of L2 listening processing. However, few studies have examined the model from an experimental approach. The current study tried to provide empirical evidence for the interactive model of L2 listening processing in bilinguals by exploring the relationships among English spoken word segmentation (SWS), cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and L2 listening proficiency. The results showed positive associations among SWS, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and L2 listening proficiency. Mediation analysis suggested that SWS might have a positive influence on L2 listening proficiency both directly and indirectly through cognitive inhibition and cognitive flexibility, respectively. These results imply that both bottom-up (reflected at SWS) and top-down (reflected at cognitive inhibition and flexibility) processes are engaged in bilinguals’ L2 listening processing.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Psychol...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Psychol...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: DOAJ
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      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jing Yang; Jianqiao Ye; Ruiming Wang; Ke Zhou; +2 Authors

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated influences of language contexts on inhibitory control and the underlying neural processes. Thirty Cantonese-Mandarin-English trilingual speakers, who were highly proficient in Cantonese (L1) and Mandarin (L2), and moderately proficient in English (L3), performed a picture-naming task in three dual-language contexts (L1-L2, L2-L3, and L1-L3). After each of the three naming tasks, participants performed a flanker task, measuring contextual effects on the inhibitory control system. Behavioral results showed a typical flanker effect in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition, but not in the L1-L2 condition, which indicates contextual facilitation on inhibitory control performance by the L1-L2 context. Whole brain analysis of the fMRI data acquired during the flanker tasks showed more neural activations in the right prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition on one hand as compared to the L1-L2 condition on the other hand, suggesting greater involvement of the cognitive control areas when participants were performing the flanker task in L2-L3 and L1-L3 contexts. Effective connectivity analyses displayed a cortical-subcortical-cerebellar circuitry for inhibitory control in the trilinguals. However, contrary to the right-lateralized network in the L1-L2 condition, functional networks for inhibitory control in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition are less integrated and more left-lateralized. These findings provide a novel perspective for investigating the interaction between bilingualism (multilingualism) and inhibitory control by demonstrating instant behavioral effects and neural plasticity as a function of changes in global language contexts.

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    Frontiers in Psychology
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2018
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jiao Zhang; Lin Fan;

    Executive functions (EFs) have great impact on language control indexed by language switch costs during production-based language switching. Yet, how they influence language control during comprehension-based language switching between embodied first language (L1, Chinese) emotional words and less embodied second language (L2, English) emotional words is less understood. Employing an emotional priming paradigm, this study recruited Chinese-English bilinguals as participants, and used emotional faces and words as experimental materials to explore the effects of cool [i.e., inhibitory control ability, IC ability] and hot (i.e., emotional valence and emotional congruency) EFs on language switch costs (i.e., language control) during Chinese-English emotional word comprehension. The results showed larger language switch costs in the emotional congruent condition relative to emotional conflict condition, larger Chinese switch costs than English switch costs, and larger language switch costs for negative over positive emotional words in the emotional congruent condition. In addition, high-IC participants showed larger English switch costs for negative emotional words compared with low-IC participants. These results indicated that hot EF and the embodiment of language had an impact on both language control and the modulation of cool EF on language control, and that the components of hot EFs interacted and jointly affected language control during language switching.

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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2023
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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    Authors: Lin Fan; Qiang Xu; Xiaoxi Wang; Feng Zhang; +2 Authors

    Emotionally valenced words have thus far not been empirically examined in a bilingual population with the emotional face-word Stroop paradigm. Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to identify the facial expressions of emotion with their first (L1) or second (L2) language task-irrelevant emotion words superimposed on the face pictures. We attempted to examine how the emotional content of words modulated behavioral performance and cerebral functioning in the bilinguals' two languages. The results indicated that there were significant congruency effects for both L1 and L2 emotion words, and that identifiable differences in the magnitude of the Stroop effect between the two languages were also observed, suggesting L1 is more capable of activating the emotional response to word stimuli. For event-related potentials data, an N350-550 effect was observed only in the L1 task with greater negativity for incongruent than congruent trials. The size of the N350-550 effect differed across languages, whereas no identifiable language distinction was observed in the effect of conflict slow potential (conflict SP). Finally, more pronounced negative amplitude at 230-330 ms was observed in L1 than in L2, but only for incongruent trials. This negativity, likened to an orthographic decoding N250, may reflect the extent of attention to emotion word processing at word-form level, while the N350-550 reflects a complicated set of processes in the conflict processing. Overall, the face-word congruency effect has reflected identifiable language distinction at 230-330 and 350-550 ms, which provides supporting evidence for the theoretical proposals assuming attenuated emotionality of L2 processing.

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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2016
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yong Zhang; Yong Zhang; Ningning Cao; Chang Yue; +2 Authors

    Language switching involves multiple processing stages. Previous studies have not dissociated the cognitive process underlying language form switches and concept switches. Here, we examined the two factors using a novel language-switching paradigm. Chinese-English bilinguals named individually presented pictures in either Chinese or English according to a language cue. Pictures in two consecutive trials represented either identical, semantically related, or unrelated concepts. Results showed both language (form) switch costs and concept switch costs. The interaction between these two factors suggested that the effects were additive, with the longest naming response times observed when two pictures were semantically unrelated and involved a switch between languages. These findings suggest that the functional loci of the language control mechanism occur at multiple processing stages. Implications of the findings are discussed within current models of language processing in bilinguals.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2020
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    Frontiers in Psychology
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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    Authors: Xiao Zhang; Christiane Lütge;

    In academic research on intercultural communication (IC), students’ perceptions and experiences regarding English as alingua franca(ELF) have been central to the discussion because they form the basis for English teaching policies and practices in multilingual and multicultural environments. Substantial theoretical research on ELF has called for a paradigm shift from emphasizing the over-simplistic correlation between language and Anglophone cultures to recognizing the legitimacy of non-native English learners’ home culture in English teaching pedagogy. Nonetheless, little empirical research has been conducted to examine how ELF speakers understand their home culture in ELF communications. Relatively fewer studies have investigated to what extent ELF users’ perceptions of home culture influence their IC practices. To address these gaps, this study aims to explore Chinese international students in a liberal arts university in the United Kingdom and their understanding of Chinese culture in authentic ELF interactions. In addition, the perceived effects of Chinese culture on students’ IC were explored in great depth. This study adopts a mixed-method approach, including a student questionnaire (N = 200) and follow-up semi-structured interviews (N = 10). Following descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of the obtained data, the findings revealed that most participants lacked a thorough understanding of their home culture, while they considered home culture playing a significant role in ELF communications. The contribution of this study builds on work in English users’ awareness of home culture in IC to identify the significance of enabling the presence of English learners’ home culture in English language teaching (ELT) classrooms.

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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2023
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    Frontiers in Psychology
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      Article . 2023
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yilong Yang; Yilong Yang; Guoying Yang; Yadan Li; +1 Authors

    Second language (L2) listening is a common challenge for language learners. It remains largely unknown how bilinguals process L2 listening. The literature has suggested an interactive model of L2 listening processing. However, few studies have examined the model from an experimental approach. The current study tried to provide empirical evidence for the interactive model of L2 listening processing in bilinguals by exploring the relationships among English spoken word segmentation (SWS), cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and L2 listening proficiency. The results showed positive associations among SWS, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and L2 listening proficiency. Mediation analysis suggested that SWS might have a positive influence on L2 listening proficiency both directly and indirectly through cognitive inhibition and cognitive flexibility, respectively. These results imply that both bottom-up (reflected at SWS) and top-down (reflected at cognitive inhibition and flexibility) processes are engaged in bilinguals’ L2 listening processing.

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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2022
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    Frontiers in Psychology
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      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2022
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      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jing Yang; Jianqiao Ye; Ruiming Wang; Ke Zhou; +2 Authors

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated influences of language contexts on inhibitory control and the underlying neural processes. Thirty Cantonese-Mandarin-English trilingual speakers, who were highly proficient in Cantonese (L1) and Mandarin (L2), and moderately proficient in English (L3), performed a picture-naming task in three dual-language contexts (L1-L2, L2-L3, and L1-L3). After each of the three naming tasks, participants performed a flanker task, measuring contextual effects on the inhibitory control system. Behavioral results showed a typical flanker effect in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition, but not in the L1-L2 condition, which indicates contextual facilitation on inhibitory control performance by the L1-L2 context. Whole brain analysis of the fMRI data acquired during the flanker tasks showed more neural activations in the right prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition on one hand as compared to the L1-L2 condition on the other hand, suggesting greater involvement of the cognitive control areas when participants were performing the flanker task in L2-L3 and L1-L3 contexts. Effective connectivity analyses displayed a cortical-subcortical-cerebellar circuitry for inhibitory control in the trilinguals. However, contrary to the right-lateralized network in the L1-L2 condition, functional networks for inhibitory control in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition are less integrated and more left-lateralized. These findings provide a novel perspective for investigating the interaction between bilingualism (multilingualism) and inhibitory control by demonstrating instant behavioral effects and neural plasticity as a function of changes in global language contexts.

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    Frontiers in Psychology
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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    Authors: Jiao Zhang; Lin Fan;

    Executive functions (EFs) have great impact on language control indexed by language switch costs during production-based language switching. Yet, how they influence language control during comprehension-based language switching between embodied first language (L1, Chinese) emotional words and less embodied second language (L2, English) emotional words is less understood. Employing an emotional priming paradigm, this study recruited Chinese-English bilinguals as participants, and used emotional faces and words as experimental materials to explore the effects of cool [i.e., inhibitory control ability, IC ability] and hot (i.e., emotional valence and emotional congruency) EFs on language switch costs (i.e., language control) during Chinese-English emotional word comprehension. The results showed larger language switch costs in the emotional congruent condition relative to emotional conflict condition, larger Chinese switch costs than English switch costs, and larger language switch costs for negative over positive emotional words in the emotional congruent condition. In addition, high-IC participants showed larger English switch costs for negative emotional words compared with low-IC participants. These results indicated that hot EF and the embodiment of language had an impact on both language control and the modulation of cool EF on language control, and that the components of hot EFs interacted and jointly affected language control during language switching.

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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2023
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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    Authors: Lin Fan; Qiang Xu; Xiaoxi Wang; Feng Zhang; +2 Authors

    Emotionally valenced words have thus far not been empirically examined in a bilingual population with the emotional face-word Stroop paradigm. Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to identify the facial expressions of emotion with their first (L1) or second (L2) language task-irrelevant emotion words superimposed on the face pictures. We attempted to examine how the emotional content of words modulated behavioral performance and cerebral functioning in the bilinguals' two languages. The results indicated that there were significant congruency effects for both L1 and L2 emotion words, and that identifiable differences in the magnitude of the Stroop effect between the two languages were also observed, suggesting L1 is more capable of activating the emotional response to word stimuli. For event-related potentials data, an N350-550 effect was observed only in the L1 task with greater negativity for incongruent than congruent trials. The size of the N350-550 effect differed across languages, whereas no identifiable language distinction was observed in the effect of conflict slow potential (conflict SP). Finally, more pronounced negative amplitude at 230-330 ms was observed in L1 than in L2, but only for incongruent trials. This negativity, likened to an orthographic decoding N250, may reflect the extent of attention to emotion word processing at word-form level, while the N350-550 reflects a complicated set of processes in the conflict processing. Overall, the face-word congruency effect has reflected identifiable language distinction at 230-330 and 350-550 ms, which provides supporting evidence for the theoretical proposals assuming attenuated emotionality of L2 processing.

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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2016
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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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