This action research study aims to analyse the ways in which vicarious learning, one of the sources of self-efficacy beliefs according to Social Cognitive Theory, can materialise in the translation classroom. To achieve this aim, a mixed methodological approach was adopted based on the following techniques: the interview, the survey, classroom observation and focus groups. Results show that vicarious learning took place in the translation classroom where this study was performed both through the students’ comparison with professional translators and between peers. More particularly, a collaborative learning environment and practices such as the presentation of translation projects by the students, role-play or discovering the careers of previous graduates favoured vicarious learning and thus positively influenced the participant students’ self-efficacy beliefs, according to their perception. The results obtained contribute to shedding light on some ways to incorporate students’ self-efficacy beliefs in translator education, satisfying the need underlined by several authors.