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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shahid Mahboob; Khalid A. Al-Ghanim; Fahad A. Al-Misned; Tehniat Shahid; Salma Sultana; Tayyaba Sultan; Bilal Hussain; Zubair Ahmed;
    Publisher: MDPI

    This research work was carried out to determine the effects of water contamination on the fatty acid (FA) profile of periphyton, zoobenthos, two Chinese carps and a common carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ctenopharygodon idella and Cyprinus carpio), captured from highly polluted (HP), less polluted (LP), and non-polluted (NP) sites of the Indus river. We found that the concentration of heavy metals in the river water from the polluted locations exceeded the permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Fatty acid profiles in periphyton, zoobenthos, H. molitrix, C. idella, and C. carpio in the food web of river ecosystems with different pollution levels were assessed. Lauric acid and arachidic acids were not detected in the biomass of periphyton and zoobenthos from HP and LP sites compared to NP sites. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosadienoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid were not recorded in the biomass samples of periphyton and zoobenthos in both HP and LP sites. Caprylic acid, lauric acid, and arachidic acid were not found in H. molitrix, C. idella, and C. carpio captured from HP. In this study, 6 and 9 omega series FAs were identified in the muscle samples of H. molitrix, C. idella and C. carpio captured from HP and LP sites compared to NP sites, respectively. Less polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in the muscle samples of H. molitrix, C. idella, and C. carpio collected from HP than from LP. The heavy metals showed significant negative correlations with the total FAs in periphyton, zoobenthos, and fish samples.

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