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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Matthew E. Gladden;
    Publisher: Lodz University Press
    Country: Poland

    Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are offering new avenues for economic empowerment to individuals around the world. However, they also provide a powerful tool that facilitates criminal activities such as human trafficking and illegal weapons sales that cause great harm to individuals and communities. Cryptocurrency advocates have argued that the ethical dimensions of cryptocurrency are not qualitatively new, insofar as money has always been understood as a passive instrument that lacks ethical values and can be used for good or ill purposes. In this paper, we challenge such a presumption that money must be ‘value-neutral.’ Building on advances in artificial intelligence, cryptography, and machine ethics, we argue that it is possible to design artificially intelligent cryptocurrencies that are not ethically neutral but which autonomously regulate their own use in a way that reflects the ethical values of particular human beings – or even entire human societies. We propose a technological framework for such cryptocurrencies and then analyse the legal, ethical, and economic implications of their use. Finally, we suggest that the development of cryptocurrencies possessing ethical as well as monetary value can provide human beings with a new economic means of positively influencing the ethos and values of their societies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Matti Kummu; Hans de Moel; Philip J. Ward; Olli Varis;
    Countries: Netherlands, Finland, Netherlands

    VK: T20702 Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water. Peer reviewed

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Long Qu; Jiaming He; Chadi Assi;
    Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

    The performance of wireless multihop networks depends on the achievable channel capacity for each transmission link as well as the level of spectrum spatial reuse in the network. For the latter one, successive interference cancellation (SIC) has emerged as an advanced PHY technique with the ability of decoding two or more overlapping signals and therefore allowing multiple concurrent transmissions. Effectively managing the transmission concurrency over the shared medium ensures good quality of transmission and therefore results in higher achievable transmission data rates. In this paper, we seek to understand the benefits of SIC and its interference management capabilities in a multi-rate multihop wireless network. To characterize the network performance under these characteristics, we follow a cross-layer design approach and formulate the joint routing and scheduling problem with rate control as a mixed integer linear program with the objective to maximize the minimum flow throughput. Given its large scale and combinatorial complexity, we follow a decomposition approach using column generation to solve the problem. However, the complexity of solving exactly the pricing subproblem limits the application of the model to very small size network instances. We develop one efficient greedy method for solving exactly the pricing subproblem as well as a simulated annealing based heuristic approach with very good performance. Our results indicate that SIC benefits strongly depend on the strength of the received signals. We show that transmission links with fixed higher data rates do not necessarily yield higher SIC gains because higher transmission rates result in sparser network topologies and thus less flexible routing. Larger networks with SIC capabilities and bitrate adaptation however are most effective in controlling the interference and improving the spatial reuse and thus reap the largest benefits with gains exceeding 20% over networks only with SIC capabilities or only with rate control.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Jantiena B. Sebens; Tineke Koch; Gert J. Ter Horst; Jakob Korf;

    Both acute and long-term effects of haloperidol and clozapine on Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in several rat forebrain areas were quantified. Rats were treated with saline (1 ml/kg.day, control), haloperidol (1 mg/kg.day) and clozapine (20 mg/kg.day) i.p. for 21 days. Two hours before perfusion fixation a single (acute treatment) or last (long-term treatment) dose of the drug was given. Drug-induced catalepsy and gain in body weight were also measured. A single dose of haloperidol produced large increases in Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens and central amygdala. Following long-term treatment these increases were reduced in all nuclei studied, except the lateral septum. Acute clozapine treatment had slight (if any) effects on the number of Fos-like immunoreactivity-expressing nuclei in the striatum, but the increases in the nucleus accumbens, the lateral septum, the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus and the central amygdala were substantial. Long-term clozapine treatment reduced the acute response significantly in all the areas except the nucleus accumbens. Both haloperidol and clozapine treatment reduced the weight gain of the rats. Haloperidol, but not clozapine, induced catalepsy that remained maximal during the long-term haloperidol treatment. These results indicate that in most brain areas high Fos-protein levels are not necessary to maintain antipsychotic activity or side-effects. The persisting effect of clozapine in the nucleus accumbens may be of significance to the efficacy of this drug in treatment-refractory schizophrenia.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bernard Barrere;
    Publisher: PERSEE Program

    After some theorical remarks, the blending of popular motifs with the themes of a pseudo-bourgeois model about "l'amour fou", is analysed from various points of view (characters, time and structure, themes and places). Then, the article deals with the interweaving of new elements into the narrative (cinema, songs from hispanic countriesradio-broadcasted novéis, surrealistic héroes), through the mixing of blood and genres, might not the author be claiming thereby his own half-cast nature in a novel about cross breeding ? Après quelques remarques théoriques, le recoupement des motifs populaires avec les thèmes d'un faux roman bourgeois sur "l'amour fou" est évoqué sous divers titres (personnages, temps et structures, thématiques et lieux). Des harmoniques nouvelles (cinémas, chansons des mondes hispaniques, radio-romans, échos surréalistes) s'intégrant au récit sont analysés ensuite. Grâce à ce métissage des genres et des sangs, l'auteur ne revendiquerait-il pas ainsi le sien propre, dans un roman des métissages ? Presentadas algunas puntualizaciones teóricas, el entramado de motivos populares con los temas de una falsa novela burguesa sobre "l'amour fou" se evoca bajo varios enfoques (personajes, tiempo y estructuras, temáticas y lugares). Unas armonías nuevas (cine, canciones de los mundos hispánicos, radionovelas, ecos surrealistas) que se van fundiendo en el relato se analizan luego. Mediante ese mestizaje de géneros y sangres, ¿no reivindicaría así el autor el suyo en esa novela de los mestizajes? Barrere Bernard. Les greffes du roman populaire sur la vieille souche de Macondo. In: Bulletin Hispanique, tome 104, n°2, 2002. pp. 987-1018.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Julianto Patawaran; Alvama Pattiserlihun; Ferdy S. Rondonuwu;
    Publisher: Universitas Tidar
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Massimo Nespolo; Bernd Souvignier;
    Countries: Netherlands, France

    International audience; Author(s) of this paper may load this reprint on their own web site or institutional repository provided that this cover page is retained. Republication of this article or its storage in electronic databases other than as specified above is not permitted without prior permission in writing from the IUCr. For further information see http://journals.iucr.org/services/authorrights.html Many research topics in condensed matter research, materials science and the life sciences make use of crystallographic methods to study crystalline and non-crystalline matter with neutrons, X-rays and electrons. Articles published in the Journal of Applied Crystallography focus on these methods and their use in identifying structural and diffusion-controlled phase transformations, structure–property relationships, structural changes of defects, interfaces and surfaces, etc. Developments of instrumentation and crystallographic apparatus, theory and interpretation, numerical analysis and other related subjects are also covered. The journal is the primary place where crystallographic computer program information is published.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Abelardo Bento Araújo;
    Publisher: Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa, Pos Graduacao e Inovacao - UFF

    Com base na economia política, este artigo traz uma discussão teórica sobre as especificidades do trabalho educativo, tendo em vista os problemas de compreensão do que seja seu produto. Colocam-se em pauta as consequências do monitoramento da qualidade da educação, quando esse conjunto de políticas pretende tornar avaliável o trabalho educativo por meio de escores de rendimento em testes em larga escala.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marina Azzimonti-Renzo; Matthew Talbert;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Standard real business cycle theory predicts that consumption should be smoother than output, as observed in developed countries. In emerging economies, however, consumption is more volatile than income. In this paper the authors provide a novel explanation of this phenomenon, the ‘consumption volatility puzzle,’ based on political frictions. They develop a dynamic stochastic political economy model where parties that disagree on the size of government (right-wing and left-wing) alternate in power and face aggregate uncertainty. While productivity shocks affect only consumption through responses to output, political shocks (switches in political ideology) change the composition between private and public consumption for a given output size via changes in the level of taxes. Since emerging economies are characterized by less stable governments and more polarized societies, the effects of political shocks are more pronounced. For a reasonable set of parameters the authors confirm the empirical relationship between political polarization and the ratio of consumption volatility to output volatility across countries.

  • Publication . Article . 1911
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lawrence Martin;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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