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  • Authors: Fallot, Abigaïl; Greppi, Marianela; Marin, Josefina; Mardones, Juan; +1 Authors

    The economic assessment of climate change adaptation basically consists in balancing costs and benefits of actions considered when addressing climate change (CC) threats. The purpose of economic evaluation in the assessment process of CC adaptation actions is essentially to provide figures for the comparison of different possibilities. In the context of the 3 EcoAdapt south American sites (Los Perico-Manantiales watershed in Argentina – BMJ, Zapoco watershed in Bolivia – BMCh and Alto Malleco in Chile – BMAAM), economic evaluation is to rely on a shared understanding of local contexts and the economic drivers of current dynamics. We focus on specific actions considered in these contexts so as to address unsustainable dynamics. The present report D3.4 provides a framework for economic evaluation: its context and the approach under development; the elements of costs and benefits that enter the analysis; and how uncertainty and irreversibility can be accounted for when using economic evaluation results. The initial panorama of the context of the economic evaluation recalls synthetically what we know about the territories and their people in terms of scales, activities and living conditions and about the extent to which they are affected by climate. Such introduction aims at facilitating the understanding of the types of actions considered for climate change adaptation. Then the economist standpoint on climate adaptation is explained and the perimeter of the evaluation is defined: 15 actions in BMJ, 11 in BMCh and 9 in BMAAM. Twelve fields of investigation are identified, for which available information is synthetized and on-going research on the elements of costs and benefits is described, so as to both make a progress status, and actualize the road map for integrating economic evaluation in modelling (task 3.2), scenario development (task 4.2) and implementation (task 5.3). A final section illustrates the possible use of the economic analysis to reveal or highlight specific characteristics of the actions considered, for instance: their time horizons and links with inexplicit future benefits or costs; their progressive definition that requires to start the evaluation; their reliance on resources considered free.

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    Authors: Leclerc, Grégoire;

    We introduce Fuzzy Cognitive Modelling (FCM) and provide step by step guidance and tips for using iModeler (both qualitative and quantitative approaches), the use of FCM in EcoAdapt Story and Simulation (S&S) approach based on Structured Decision Making, and briefly describe the FCM models being developed in the three study sites. This version correspond to iModeler version 4 (January 2004).

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    Agritrop
    Book . 2015
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  • Authors: Fallot, Abigaïl; Le Coq, Jean-François; Salinas, Julio Cesar; Aguilar, Teresa; +3 Authors

    International audience; Climate threats exacerbate issues of natural resource management in rural landscapes, namely water, forest and agricultural land. In order to consistently address these issues, we highlight the usefulness of a joint vision of the landscape where the actors share their knowledge on the mechanisms at work when considering the central problem that affect the landscape as well as the proposed solutions. On the basis of several case studies, we present and analyze participatory conceptual modelling as a process and a series of methods that allow building a shared understanding of the landscape as a socio-ecological system. The case study that better illustrates the diversity of suitable methods and necessary adjustments in the modelling process, is the Zapoco watershed in the Chiquitano Model Forest (Bolivia), characterized both by its natural richness and its economic poverty. In the framework of the research-action EcoAdapt project for community-based adaptation at the landscape level, we reviewed the modelling approaches which better served our purpose and ended in the articulation of tools belonging to different approaches. As a main result, we obtained graphical representations that the actors can easily understand and use to describe their context (Open Standards for the Practices of Conservation), their practices (Problem-Actors-Resources-Dynamics-Interactions) and their history (Resilience thinking). In a practical way, the models built address the complexity of the landscape and bring into focus needs for research (knowledge gaps, main uncertainties) and for action (coordination failures, unsustainable dynamics). From the perspective of companion modelling, we finally discuss the outreach of participatory conceptual modelling in the promotion of climate smart agriculture.

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    Authors: Delgado Serrano, María del Mar; Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Matzdorf, Bettina; Leclerc, Gregoire;

    This Special Feature gathers the results of five research projects funded by the 7th Research Framework Program of the European Union and aims to identify successful cases of community-based management of environmental challenges in Latin America. The funding scheme, Research for the benefit of Civil Society Organizations, fostered innovative research approaches between civil society and research organizations. More than 20 field sites have been explored, and issues such as trade-offs between conservation and development, scientific versus local knowledge, social learning, ecosystem services, community owned solutions, scaling-up and scalingout strategies, the influence of context and actors in effective environmental management and governance, and the conflicts of interests around natural resources have been addressed. Based on our experiences as project coordinators, in this editorial we reflect on some of the important lessons gained for research praxis and impact, focusing on knowledge of governance models and their scaling-out and scaling-up, and on methods and tools to enable action research at the science–civil society interface. The results highlight the richness of community-based management experiences that exist in Latin America and the diversity of approaches to encourage the sustainable community-based management of environmental challenges.

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    Agritrop
    Article . 2017
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    Ecology and Society
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    Ecology and Society
    Article . 2017
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    Ecology and Society
    Article . 2017
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    Ecology and Society
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    Ecology and Society
    Article . 2016
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      Agritrop
      Article . 2017
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      Ecology and Society
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      Ecology and Society
      Article . 2017
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      Ecology and Society
      Article . 2017
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      Ecology and Society
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      Ecology and Society
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Fernández, Alfonso; Muñoz, Ariel; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; +8 Authors

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ∼ 37–42∘ S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial (∼ 37∘ 40′ S–38∘ 50′ S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record (∼ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management.

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  • Authors: Rixen, Annabel; Le Coq, Jean-François; Fallot, Abigaïl; Ruiz, Cintia; +1 Authors

    The socio-ecological system of the Jujuy Model Forest territory is analyzed within the framework of conceptual models, constructed using the participatory method PARDI (Problem, Actors, Resources, Dynamics, Interactions). Two principal models focus on water quality and availability in two areas: an upstream Catchment zone and a downstream Irrigation zone. Socio-ecological dynamics there are linked to diverse processes: social (population increase, immigration and urbanization), ecological (state of the upper basin and land use downstream) and economic (development models, prices and market fluctuations). Four complementary sub-models account for: pollution, erosion, sedimentation and deforestation, highlighting the central role of these processes for water quality and availability in the future. In the Catchment zone, water is first of all affected by the state of its sources (Rio Grande and Perico rivers, rainfall). The demand for drinking water to supply the municipalities and agricultural activities in the downstream zone put pressure on its availability. The water from the catchment basins also plays a central role in fishing, tourism, agriculture and livestock activities located nearby. In the Irrigation zone, water serves two main uses: as drinking (domestic) water for residents and as irrigation water, mainly in tobacco and sugarcane production. In both areas, water quality is decreasing because of pollution, classified as either solid (garbage), biological (sewage, animal waste) or chemical (agricultural inputs and industrial chemicals). In the long term, current dynamics can have strong impacts on public health, the desirability of the area for tourism and its economy. Local responses include: improvements to the efficiency of the irrigation system and other hydro-infrastructure, environmental awareness, and alternative development models adapted to a sustainable management. With a view to future planning, we identify decision rules that modify local actors’ practices in the context of climate change.; Se analiza el sistema socio-ecológico conformado por el Bosque Modelo Jujuy en Argentina, a través de la construcción participativa de modelos conceptuales por el método PARDI (Problema, Actores, Dinámica e Interacciones). Dos modelos enfocados sobre la calidad y cantidad del agua representan dos zonas principales: la Zona de los Diques y la Zona de Riego. Las dinámicas socio-ecológicas allí son vinculados a diversos procesos sociales (aumento de la población, inmigración y urbanización), ecológicos (estado de la cuenca alta y uso de la tierra río abajo), y económicos (modelos de desarrollo, fluctuaciones de precios y mercados). Presentamos cuatro sub-modelos de: contaminación, erosión, sedimentación y deforestación, por el rol central de esos procesos en la calidad y disponibilidad del agua al futuro. En la zona de los diques, el agua depende primero del estado de sus fuentes (Río Grande, Río Perico, lluvias). La demanda de agua potable para las municipalidades y la producción agrícola en la zona abajo ejercen presión sobre la disponibilidad de agua. El agua de los diques, juega igualmente un rol central en las actividades de pesca, turismo, agricultura y ganado en su entorno. En la zona de riego, el agua está compartida entre agua potable y agua para riego, del tabaco y de la caña de azúcar principalmente. En ambos zonas, la calidad del agua está bajando a causa de su contaminación: solida (basura), biológica (cloacas, desechos de animales), y química (agroquímicos, químicos industriales). Al largo plazo, identificamos fuertes impactos potenciales de las dinámicas actuales sobre la salud pública, lo atractivo turístico de la zona y su economía. Varias respuestas se presentan: mejoras en la eficiencia del sistema de riego y otras infraestructuras hídricas; conciencia ambiental; modelos de desarrollo alternativos adaptados a un manejo sostenible. Para la planificación al futuro, identificamos las reglas de decisión que están modificando las prácticas de los actores en el contexto del cambio climático.

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  • Authors: Cuevas, Melissa; Fallot, Abigaïl;

    57 pages; This paper presents a diagnosis of the existing information, quantitative and qualitative, on the main activities in the selected landscapes in terms of employment, water situation and land use , in three Model Forests in Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. The Chiquitano Model Forest is located in one of the last tropical dry forest regions of South America, in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. The municipal district of Concepcion represents an area of 28,514 square kilometers and a population of about 21,000 persons. The main activities in terms of employment in Concepción are agriculture, livestock and forestry, followed by manufacturing and trade. The Jujuy Model Forest is located in the departments of El Carmen and San Antonio, in the province of Jujuy, Argentina. The area is of 1,602 km2 and the population of 101,505 persons. The main activities in terms of employment in El Carmen and San Antonio are agriculture, livestock and forestry, followed by the trade and public administration. The Araucarias de Alto Malleco Model Forest is located in the communes of Lonquimay and Caracautin in the province of Malleco in Region XIX, Chile. The territory is 5,578 km wide and hosts about 27,000 persons. The main sources of income of these communes are livestock, forestry and agriculture, followed by trade and tourism. Lonquimay livestock is predominantly transhumant between wintering and summer pastures, due to the geographic and climatic conditions.; Este documento presenta un diagnóstico de la información existente, a nivel cuantitativo y cualitativo, de las actividades principales en el territorio seleccionado en términos del empleo, la situación del agua y el uso de la tierra en tres Bosques Modelos en Bolivia, Argentina y Chile. El Bosque Modelo Chiquitano se encuentra ubicado en una de las últimas regiones forestales tropicales secas de América del Sur, en el departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. El municipio de Concepción representa un área de 28,514 km2 y una población de 21,000 personas (estimación 2010), 89% con necesidades básicas insatisfechas en cuanto al servicio de agua. Las actividades principales en términos de empleo en Concepción son la agricultura, la ganadería y la silvicultura, seguidas de la industria manufacturera y el comercio. El Bosque Modelo Jujuy se encuentra ubicado en los departamentos de El Carmen y San Antonio, en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Representa un área de 912 + 690 = 1,602 km2 y una población de 97,039 + 4,466 = 101,505 personas (censo 2010). 29% de los hogares sufren de privación material. Las actividades principales del municipio en términos de empleo son la agricultura, la ganadería y la silvicultura, seguidas del comercio y la administración pública. El Bosque Modelo Araucarias de Alto Malleco se encuentra ubicado en la XIX Región, Chile e incluye las comunas de Lonquimay y Curacautín. Representa un área de 3,914 + 1,664 = 5,578 km2 y una población de 15,376 + 11,482 = 26,858 habitantes (estimación 2011) con tasas de pobreza alcanzando 34%. Las principales fuentes de ingreso de estas comunas son la ganadería, la actividad forestal y la agricultura, seguidas del comercio y el turismo. La ganadería en Lonquimay en general es de trashumancia entre invernadas y veranadas, debido a las condiciones geográficas y climáticas.

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  • Authors: Fallot, Abigaïl;

    This short guide presents and details the different steps for the participatory construction of a conceptual model that serves the analysis of local socio-ecological dynamics focusing on an issue of natural resource management. This methodological note in spanish compiles different documents and presentations on the ARDI method, participatory modelling and the analysis of socio-ecological dynamics, by Christophe Le Page, Michel Etienne, Jérôme Queste, Guy Trébuil, Julio César Salinas, and Jean-François Le Coq.; La guía presenta y detalla brevemente los diferentes pasos para la construcción participativa de un modelo conceptual que facilita el análisis de las dinámicas socio ecológicas a partir de una problemática de manejo de recursos naturales. Esta nota metodológica en español es una compilación de diferentes documentos y cursos sobre el método ARDI, la modelación participativa y el análisis de las dinámicas socio-ecológicas, por Christophe Le Page, Michel Etienne, Jérôme Queste, Guy Trébuil, Julio César Salinas, and Jean-François Le Coq.

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  • Authors: Cuevas, Melissa; Fallot, Abigaïl;

    With the intention to precise the contribution of water to the socio-economy of Forest Model Landscape, several methodological proposals are revised, that allow to estimate water consumption. Three main methods are considered on the basis of their scope and implementation case: water footprint; estimation from an input-output matrix; life-cycle analysis inventories. They are presented in a synthetic way, highlighting their specificities and possible relevance in the contexts of rural territories with knowledge gaps on the water situation.

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  • Authors: Fallot, Abigaïl;

    This short guide presents and details the different steps for the participatory construction of a conceptual model that serves the analysis of local socio-ecological dynamics focusing on an issue of natural resource management. This methodological note in spanish compiles different documents and presentations on the ARDI method, participatory modelling and the analysis of socio-ecological dynamics, by Christophe Le Page, Michel Etienne, Jérôme Queste, Guy Trébuil, Julio César Salinas, and Jean-François Le Coq.; La guía presenta y detalla brevemente los diferentes pasos para la construcción participativa de un modelo conceptual que facilita el análisis de las dinámicas socio ecológicas a partir de una problemática de manejo de recursos naturales. Esta nota metodológica en español es una compilación de diferentes documentos y cursos sobre el método ARDI, la modelación participativa y el análisis de las dinámicas socio-ecológicas, por Christophe Le Page, Michel Etienne, Jérôme Queste, Guy Trébuil, Julio César Salinas, and Jean-François Le Coq.

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  • Authors: Fallot, Abigaïl; Greppi, Marianela; Marin, Josefina; Mardones, Juan; +1 Authors

    The economic assessment of climate change adaptation basically consists in balancing costs and benefits of actions considered when addressing climate change (CC) threats. The purpose of economic evaluation in the assessment process of CC adaptation actions is essentially to provide figures for the comparison of different possibilities. In the context of the 3 EcoAdapt south American sites (Los Perico-Manantiales watershed in Argentina – BMJ, Zapoco watershed in Bolivia – BMCh and Alto Malleco in Chile – BMAAM), economic evaluation is to rely on a shared understanding of local contexts and the economic drivers of current dynamics. We focus on specific actions considered in these contexts so as to address unsustainable dynamics. The present report D3.4 provides a framework for economic evaluation: its context and the approach under development; the elements of costs and benefits that enter the analysis; and how uncertainty and irreversibility can be accounted for when using economic evaluation results. The initial panorama of the context of the economic evaluation recalls synthetically what we know about the territories and their people in terms of scales, activities and living conditions and about the extent to which they are affected by climate. Such introduction aims at facilitating the understanding of the types of actions considered for climate change adaptation. Then the economist standpoint on climate adaptation is explained and the perimeter of the evaluation is defined: 15 actions in BMJ, 11 in BMCh and 9 in BMAAM. Twelve fields of investigation are identified, for which available information is synthetized and on-going research on the elements of costs and benefits is described, so as to both make a progress status, and actualize the road map for integrating economic evaluation in modelling (task 3.2), scenario development (task 4.2) and implementation (task 5.3). A final section illustrates the possible use of the economic analysis to reveal or highlight specific characteristics of the actions considered, for instance: their time horizons and links with inexplicit future benefits or costs; their progressive definition that requires to start the evaluation; their reliance on resources considered free.

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    Authors: Leclerc, Grégoire;

    We introduce Fuzzy Cognitive Modelling (FCM) and provide step by step guidance and tips for using iModeler (both qualitative and quantitative approaches), the use of FCM in EcoAdapt Story and Simulation (S&S) approach based on Structured Decision Making, and briefly describe the FCM models being developed in the three study sites. This version correspond to iModeler version 4 (January 2004).

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    Agritrop
    Book . 2015
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  • Authors: Fallot, Abigaïl; Le Coq, Jean-François; Salinas, Julio Cesar; Aguilar, Teresa; +3 Authors

    International audience; Climate threats exacerbate issues of natural resource management in rural landscapes, namely water, forest and agricultural land. In order to consistently address these issues, we highlight the usefulness of a joint vision of the landscape where the actors share their knowledge on the mechanisms at work when considering the central problem that affect the landscape as well as the proposed solutions. On the basis of several case studies, we present and analyze participatory conceptual modelling as a process and a series of methods that allow building a shared understanding of the landscape as a socio-ecological system. The case study that better illustrates the diversity of suitable methods and necessary adjustments in the modelling process, is the Zapoco watershed in the Chiquitano Model Forest (Bolivia), characterized both by its natural richness and its economic poverty. In the framework of the research-action EcoAdapt project for community-based adaptation at the landscape level, we reviewed the modelling approaches which better served our purpose and ended in the articulation of tools belonging to different approaches. As a main result, we obtained graphical representations that the actors can easily understand and use to describe their context (Open Standards for the Practices of Conservation), their practices (Problem-Actors-Resources-Dynamics-Interactions) and their history (Resilience thinking). In a practical way, the models built address the complexity of the landscape and bring into focus needs for research (knowledge gaps, main uncertainties) and for action (coordination failures, unsustainable dynamics). From the perspective of companion modelling, we finally discuss the outreach of participatory conceptual modelling in the promotion of climate smart agriculture.

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    Authors: Delgado Serrano, María del Mar; Mistry, Jayalaxshmi; Matzdorf, Bettina; Leclerc, Gregoire;

    This Special Feature gathers the results of five research projects funded by the 7th Research Framework Program of the European Union and aims to identify successful cases of community-based management of environmental challenges in Latin America. The funding scheme, Research for the benefit of Civil Society Organizations, fostered innovative research approaches between civil society and research organizations. More than 20 field sites have been explored, and issues such as trade-offs between conservation and development, scientific versus local knowledge, social learning, ecosystem services, community owned solutions, scaling-up and scalingout strategies, the influence of context and actors in effective environmental management and governance, and the conflicts of interests around natural resources have been addressed. Based on our experiences as project coordinators, in this editorial we reflect on some of the important lessons gained for research praxis and impact, focusing on knowledge of governance models and their scaling-out and scaling-up, and on methods and tools to enable action research at the science–civil society interface. The results highlight the richness of community-based management experiences that exist in Latin America and the diversity of approaches to encourage the sustainable community-based management of environmental challenges.

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    Agritrop
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    Ecology and Society
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    Ecology and Society
    Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Fernández, Alfonso; Muñoz, Ariel; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; +8 Authors

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ∼ 37–42∘ S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial (∼ 37∘ 40′ S–38∘ 50′ S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record (∼ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management.

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  • Authors: Rixen, Annabel; Le Coq, Jean-François; Fallot, Abigaïl; Ruiz, Cintia; +1 Authors

    The socio-ecological system of the Jujuy Model Forest territory is analyzed within the framework of conceptual models, constructed using the participatory method PARDI (Problem, Actors, Resources, Dynamics, Interactions). Two principal models focus on water quality and availability in two areas: an upstream Catchment zone and a downstream Irrigation zone. Socio-ecological dynamics there are linked to diverse processes: social (population increase, immigration and urbanization), ecological (state of the upper basin and land use downstream) and economic (development models, prices and market fluctuations). Four complementary sub-models account for: pollution, erosion, sedimentation and deforestation, highlighting the central role of these processes for water quality and availability in the future. In the Catchment zone, water is first of all affected by the state of its sources (Rio Grande and Perico rivers, rainfall). The demand for drinking water to supply the municipalities and agricultural activities in the downstream zone put pressure on its availability. The water from the catchment basins also plays a central role in fishing, tourism, agriculture and livestock activities located nearby. In the Irrigation zone, water serves two main uses: as drinking (domestic) water for residents and as irrigation water, mainly in tobacco and sugarcane production. In both areas, water quality is decreasing because of pollution, classified as either solid (garbage), biological (sewage, animal waste) or chemical (agricultural inputs and industrial chemicals). In the long term, current dynamics can have strong impacts on public health, the desirability of the area for tourism and its economy. Local responses include: improvements to the efficiency of the irrigation system and other hydro-infrastructure, environmental awareness, and alternative development models adapted to a sustainable management. With a view to future planning, we identify decision rules that modify local actors’ practices in the context of climate change.; Se analiza el sistema socio-ecológico conformado por el Bosque Modelo Jujuy en Argentina, a través de la construcción participativa de modelos conceptuales por el método PARDI (Problema, Actores, Dinámica e Interacciones). Dos modelos enfocados sobre la calidad y cantidad del agua representan dos zonas principales: la Zona de los Diques y la Zona de Riego. Las dinámicas socio-ecológicas allí son vinculados a diversos procesos sociales (aumento de la población, inmigración y urbanización), ecológicos (estado de la cuenca alta y uso de la tierra río abajo), y económicos (modelos de desarrollo, fluctuaciones de precios y mercados). Presentamos cuatro sub-modelos de: contaminación, erosión, sedimentación y deforestación, por el rol central de esos procesos en la calidad y disponibilidad del agua al futuro. En la zona de los diques, el agua depende primero del estado de sus fuentes (Río Grande, Río Perico, lluvias). La demanda de agua potable para las municipalidades y la producción agrícola en la zona abajo ejercen presión sobre la disponibilidad de agua. El agua de los diques, juega igualmente un rol central en las actividades de pesca, turismo, agricultura y ganado en su entorno. En la zona de riego, el agua está compartida entre agua potable y agua para riego, del tabaco y de la caña de azúcar principalmente. En ambos zonas, la calidad del agua está bajando a causa de su contaminación: solida (basura), biológica (cloacas, desechos de animales), y química (agroquímicos, químicos industriales). Al largo plazo, identificamos fuertes impactos potenciales de las dinámicas actuales sobre la salud pública, lo atractivo turístico de la zona y su economía. Varias respuestas se presentan: mejoras en la eficiencia del sistema de riego y otras infraestructuras hídricas; conciencia ambiental; modelos de desarrollo alternativos adaptados a un manejo sostenible. Para la planificación al futuro, identificamos las reglas de decisión que están modificando las prácticas de los actores en el contexto del cambio climático.

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  • Authors: Cuevas, Melissa; Fallot, Abigaïl;

    57 pages; This paper presents a diagnosis of the existing information, quantitative and qualitative, on the main activities in the selected landscapes in terms of employment, water situation and land use , in three Model Forests in Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. The Chiquitano Model Forest is located in one of the last tropical dry forest regions of South America, in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. The municipal district of Concepcion represents an area of 28,514 square kilometers and a population of about 21,000 persons. The main activities in terms of employment in Concepción are agriculture, livestock and forestry, followed by manufacturing and trade. The Jujuy Model Forest is located in the departments of El Carmen and San Antonio, in the province of Jujuy, Argentina. The area is of 1,602 km2 and the population of 101,505 persons. The main activities in terms of employment in El Carmen and San Antonio are agriculture, livestock and forestry, followed by the trade and public administration. The Araucarias de Alto Malleco Model Forest is located in the communes of Lonquimay and Caracautin in the province of Malleco in Region XIX, Chile. The territory is 5,578 km wide and hosts about 27,000 persons. The main sources of income of these communes are livestock, forestry and agriculture, followed by trade and tourism. Lonquimay livestock is predominantly transhumant between wintering and summer pastures, due to the geographic and climatic conditions.; Este documento presenta un diagnóstico de la información existente, a nivel cuantitativo y cualitativo, de las actividades principales en el territorio seleccionado en términos del empleo, la situación del agua y el uso de la tierra en tres Bosques Modelos en Bolivia, Argentina y Chile. El Bosque Modelo Chiquitano se encuentra ubicado en una de las últimas regiones forestales tropicales secas de América del Sur, en el departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. El municipio de Concepción representa un área de 28,514 km2 y una población de 21,000 personas (estimación 2010), 89% con necesidades básicas insatisfechas en cuanto al servicio de agua. Las actividades principales en términos de empleo en Concepción son la agricultura, la ganadería y la silvicultura, seguidas de la industria manufacturera y el comercio. El Bosque Modelo Jujuy se encuentra ubicado en los departamentos de El Carmen y San Antonio, en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Representa un área de 912 + 690 = 1,602 km2 y una población de 97,039 + 4,466 = 101,505 personas (censo 2010). 29% de los hogares sufren de privación material. Las actividades principales del municipio en términos de empleo son la agricultura, la ganadería y la silvicultura, seguidas del comercio y la administración pública. El Bosque Modelo Araucarias de Alto Malleco se encuentra ubicado en la XIX Región, Chile e incluye las comunas de Lonquimay y Curacautín. Representa un área de 3,914 + 1,664 = 5,578 km2 y una población de 15,376 + 11,482 = 26,858 habitantes (estimación 2011) con tasas de pobreza alcanzando 34%. Las principales fuentes de ingreso de estas comunas son la ganadería, la actividad forestal y la agricultura, seguidas del comercio y el turismo. La ganadería en Lonquimay en general es de trashumancia entre invernadas y veranadas, debido a las condiciones geográficas y climáticas.

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