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  • Authors: Stanevičienė, Inga; Naginienė, Rima; Baranauskienė, Dalė; Vieželienė, Dalė;

    Background and aim: Aluminium (Al) causes toxic effects on various body organs and tissues, especially nervous tissue. Studies on animal models demonstrated changes in cognitive functions and morphological features of the central nervous system after consumption of water containing elevated concentrations of aluminium. This study was aimed to evaluate long-term effects of Al on mice body weight and brain mass and to determine concentrations of Al in mice brain and blood. Materials and methods: Experiments were done on 4-6-weeks old Balb C mice. Animals were divided into three groups: control group, low dose Al group (Al 50; 50 mg Al3+/kg bw/day), high dose Al group (Al 100; 100 mg Al3+/kg bw/day). Control mice were given tap water, whereas Al treated mice received AlCl3 in drinking water for 8 weeks. [...].

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Maddox, Christopher Dale;

    There are divergent claims concerning the broad cortical organization of speechrecognition. One model holds that speech perception and comprehension is governed by a left lateralized anterior temporal lobe (ATL) pathway. Another model argues that bilateral superior temporal regions are critically important, and, in fact, represent a lower level of processing that drives ATL activation in a bottom up fashion. These models were tested in a series of auditory fMRI experiments that gradually investigated lower levels of speech analysis. The experiments contrasted listening to clear monosyllabic words, pseudowords, sentences, and word lists with unintelligible spectrally rotated and time-reversed speech. In the first experiment, posterior temporal regions did not respond differentially to sentence versus word list stimuli, consistent with the idea that bilateral regions of the superior temporal plane support speech recognition at a lower (perhaps phonological) level. An area of the ATL centered around the superior temporal sulcus (STS) was activated more for sentences than word lists, indicating that the region may be involved in sentence-level operations. In the second experiment, this same region in the left hemisphere was activated more by monosyllabic words than rotated words. This suggests that the anterior focus is not exclusively attributable to sentence-level operations. In the third experiment, lexical status was found to differentially modulate anterior and posterior STS regions. There was more activation in the aSTS bilaterally for words than pseudowords, but these conditions did not lead to activation differences in the posterior region. It appears that anterior temporal speech-selective regions respond to lexical-semantic aspects of speech, whereas posterior temporal speech-selective areas are coding lower level phonemic information.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Sandner, Magdalena; Lois, Giannis; Streit, Fabian; Zeier, Peter; +3 Authors

    Identifying individual differences in stress reactivity is of particular interest in the context of stress-related disorders and resilience. Previous studies already identified several factors mediating the individual stress response of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). However, the impact of long-term HPA axis activity on acute stress reactivity remains inconclusive. To investigate associations between long-term HPA axis variation and individual acute stress reactivity, we tested 40 healthy volunteers for affective, endocrine, physiological, and neural reactions to a modified, compact version of the established in-MR stress paradigm ScanSTRESS (ScanSTRESS-C). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) served as an integrative marker of long-term HPA axis activity. First, the ScanSTRESS-C version proved to be valid in evoking a subjective, endocrine, physiological, and neural stress response with enhanced self-reported negative affect and cortisol levels, increased heart rate as well as increased activation in the anterior insula and the dorso-anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Second and interestingly, results indicated a lower neuroendocrine stress response in individuals with higher HCC: HCC was negatively correlated with the area under the curve (respect to increase; AUCi) of saliva cortisol and with a stress-related increase in dACC activity. The present study explicitly targeted the relationship between HCC and acute stress reactivity on multiple response levels, i.e. subjective, endocrine and neural stress responses. The lower stress reactivity in individuals with higher HCC levels indicates the need for further research evaluating the role of long-term HPA axis alterations in the context of vulnerability or immunization against acute stress and following stress-related impairments.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Other ORP type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Other ORP type . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rahimpour Jounghani, Ali;

    Timing is an essential component of human actions, and is the foundation of any sort of sequential behavior, from picking up a glass to playing an instrument or dancing. Because of this, our understanding of how we represent time in the brain (i.e., the human timing system) critically relies on basic research on simple behaviors. Perception of temporal regularities is central to a wide range of basic actions, but also underpins abilities unique to humans such as the creation of complex musical scores. This dissertation is an in-depth examination of endogenously and exogenously guided timing behavior, and how context is a critical component of understanding rhythmic entrainment in humans. We previously validated “gold standard” functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings on action-based timing behavior using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) (Rahimpour et al., 2020). In particular, we observed significant hemodynamic responses in cortical areas in direct relation to the complexity of the behavior being performed. To do so, we probed multiple levels of contextual influence on action-based timing behavior and patterns of cortical activation as measured using fNIRS. Our findings highlighted several distinct, context-dependent parameters of specific timing behaviors. Here we further interrogate human timing abilities by introducing variations of our original experimental design, observing that subtle contextual variations have a significant impact on the degree of rhythmic entrainment given the presence/absence of metronomic input. We used electroencephalogram (EEG) to further validate our fNIRS findings, demonstrating that single trial neurobiological activity can be used to predict whether behavior is exogenously or endogenously guided. We also found that patterns of neural activity correspond to differential use of the internal timing system, and that specific differences in neural activity correlate with accuracy of action-based timing behavior. These findings emerged from our use of a novel deep learning approach to extract person-specific, neural-based features as predictors of behavioral performance. Finally, we examined whether fNIRS and EEG produced similar localization information, finding that the influence of training factors on cortical localization must be accounted for to make such comparisons.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Kennis, M.; Gerritsen, L.; van Dalen, M.; Williams, A.D.; +2 Authors

    Background During the last century many biological hypotheses have been postulated to underlie the psychopathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In order to gain insight in the evidence for these hypothesis from patients, a systematical search for longitudinal studies investigating biological factors before the onset of MDD was performed. Methods PubMed, PsychINFO, and Embase were used as databases. The search strategy included terms relating to (1) MDD; (2) a longitudinal design or onset/relapse/recurrence; and (3) potential biomarkers. Current leading biological models for depression were covered, including neuroimaging, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, hormones and immunology. Results PRISMA guidelines were followed and 46830 articles were initially screened, indication 642 relevant articles that were screened on full text. Eventually, 90 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results were too heterogeneous or limited to perform meta-analyses for the topics: Neuroimaging (n=19), Gut (n=1), Immunology/inflammation (n=5), Neurotrophic (n=1), Neurotransmitters (n=1), Hormones (n=62), Oxidative stress (n=1). A meta analysis was performed for cortisol, which showed that higher cortisol levels predict a 44% higher chance of developing MDD (n=14, OR: 1.44 [1.12-1.84] p = 0.004), but not having a relapse or recurrent episode (n=4, OR: 1.524 [0.801 2.899] p=0.199). Conclusions Surprisingly, although a rigorous systematic search for prospective evidence for biomarkers for depression was performed, we found limited prospective studies investigating leading biological models. Only cortisol could be identified as prospective biomarker for depression onset. More prospective studies are necessary to investigate the causes (and consequences) of depression onset, relapse and recurrence. Supported By NIAS: Netherlands Institute For Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences (grant for Claudi Bocktings group)

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Utrecht University R...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Utrecht University R...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • Authors: Palazzo, Claudio; Karim, Reatul; Mawet, Marie; Maillard, Chaterine; +3 Authors

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  • Authors: Hara, Takatoshi; Abo, Masahiro; Sasaki, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Naoki; +4 Authors

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) were administered to two patients with cognitive dysfunction following brain injury. The first case was a 67-year-old man who presented with memory dysfunction, attention dysfunction, and decreased insight following diffuse axonal injury. High-frequency rTMS (10 Hz, 2400 pulses/day) targeting the anterior cingulate using a navigation system and CR were administered for 12 days at 1 year from the onset of injury. The patient showed improved neuropsychological performance and activities of daily living. In addition, single photon emission computer tomography with Tc-ECD showed improved perfusion in the anterior cingulate gyrus. The second case was a 68-year-old man who presented with dysfunction of memory, attention, and executive function following a cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery region within the right hemisphere. This patient received 12 days (except for Sundays) of low-frequency rTMS (1 Hz, 1200 pulses/day) targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the left posterior parietal cortex and CR. Following this intervention, the patient's neuropsychological performance and activities of daily living improved. Furthermore, single photon emission computer tomography showed changes in perfusion in the rTMS target sites and areas surrounding the targets. We have shown the safety and efficacy of rTMS therapy using a navigation system combined with intensive CR on two patients with cognitive dysfunction following brain injury. In addition, we observed changes in the areas around the rTMS target sites in brain imaging data.

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    Authors: Davenport, S; Nichols, TE;

    Bansal and Peterson (2018) found that in simple stationary Gaussian simulations Random Field Theory incorrectly estimates the number of clusters of a Gaussian field that lie above a threshold. Their results contradict the existing literature and appear to have arisen due to errors in their code. Using reproducible code we demonstrate that in their simulations Random Field Theory correctly predicts the expected number of clusters and therefore that many of their results are invalid.

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  • Authors: Iravani, Mahmoud M.; Tayarani-Binazir, Kayhan; Chu, Wing B.; Jackson, Michael J.; +1 Authors

    5-Hydroxytryptamine 1a (5-HT1a) receptor agonists, such as sarizotan and tandospirone, are reported to reduce levodopainduced dyskinesia in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaques and in Parkinson's disease without worsening motor disability. However, these compounds are not specific for 5-HT1a receptors and also possess dopamine antagonist actions. We now report on the effects of (2R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin [(R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT], a selective 5-HT1a agonist lacking dopaminergic activity, on motor disability and dyskinesia (chorea and dystonia) in levodopa-primed MPTP-treated common marmosets. Administration of (R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT (0.2, 0.6, and 2.0 mg/ kg s.c), in conjunction with levodopa/ carbidopa (12.5 mg/ kg each p.o.) to levodopa-primed animals, dose-dependently reduced levodopa-induced chorea but did not affect dystonic movements. However, (R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT treatment also reduced locomotor activity and the reversal of motor disability. Administration of (R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT alone had no effects of motor behaviors. The effects of (R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT on levodopa-induced motor behaviors were antagonized by the 5-HT1a receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl] ethyl]N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide maleate (WAY-100635) (1.0 mg/ kg s. c.). Administration of (R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT (0.6 mg/ kg s. c.) also reduced chorea produced by the administration of the D-2/D-3 dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole (0.06 mg/ kg p. o.) to levodopa-primed MPTP-treated animals. However, again the increase in locomotor activity and reversal of motor disability produced by pramipexole were also inhibited. These data suggest that selective 5-HT1a agonists do not provide an effective means of suppressing levodopa-induced dyskinesia, except with worsening of parkinsonism. Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Villamor, Eduardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Alomar, Yaser Ibrahim; Passera, Sofia; +3 Authors

    Cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) represents the most commonly acquired lesion of the posterior fossa in the neonatal period. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies exploring the perinatal risk factors and neurological outcome of CBH in preterm infants. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if they examined preterm infants and reported primary data on maternal, obstetric, or perinatal characteristics, and/or outcomes of infants with and without CBH. A random-effects model was used to calculate mean differences (MD), odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found 231 potentially relevant studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria (4,236 infants, 347 CBH cases). Meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant association between CBH and multiple gestation, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, use of antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery, or infant sex. Infants with CBH had a significantly lower gestational age (6 studies, MD -1.55 weeks, 95% CI -1.93 to -1.16) and birth weight (6 studies, MD -173g, 95% CI -225 to -120), and significantly higher rates of intubation at birth, hypotension, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CBH was significantly associated with delayed mental (6 studies, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.20) and psychomotor (6 studies, OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.34 to 9.76) development, and higher rates of cerebral palsy (4 studies, OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.19). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis shows that the youngest and sickest preterm infants are at higher risk of developing CBH. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of CBH and reinforce the idea that cerebellar injury in very preterm newborns has important neurodevelopmental consequences among survivors.

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  • Authors: Stanevičienė, Inga; Naginienė, Rima; Baranauskienė, Dalė; Vieželienė, Dalė;

    Background and aim: Aluminium (Al) causes toxic effects on various body organs and tissues, especially nervous tissue. Studies on animal models demonstrated changes in cognitive functions and morphological features of the central nervous system after consumption of water containing elevated concentrations of aluminium. This study was aimed to evaluate long-term effects of Al on mice body weight and brain mass and to determine concentrations of Al in mice brain and blood. Materials and methods: Experiments were done on 4-6-weeks old Balb C mice. Animals were divided into three groups: control group, low dose Al group (Al 50; 50 mg Al3+/kg bw/day), high dose Al group (Al 100; 100 mg Al3+/kg bw/day). Control mice were given tap water, whereas Al treated mice received AlCl3 in drinking water for 8 weeks. [...].

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Maddox, Christopher Dale;

    There are divergent claims concerning the broad cortical organization of speechrecognition. One model holds that speech perception and comprehension is governed by a left lateralized anterior temporal lobe (ATL) pathway. Another model argues that bilateral superior temporal regions are critically important, and, in fact, represent a lower level of processing that drives ATL activation in a bottom up fashion. These models were tested in a series of auditory fMRI experiments that gradually investigated lower levels of speech analysis. The experiments contrasted listening to clear monosyllabic words, pseudowords, sentences, and word lists with unintelligible spectrally rotated and time-reversed speech. In the first experiment, posterior temporal regions did not respond differentially to sentence versus word list stimuli, consistent with the idea that bilateral regions of the superior temporal plane support speech recognition at a lower (perhaps phonological) level. An area of the ATL centered around the superior temporal sulcus (STS) was activated more for sentences than word lists, indicating that the region may be involved in sentence-level operations. In the second experiment, this same region in the left hemisphere was activated more by monosyllabic words than rotated words. This suggests that the anterior focus is not exclusively attributable to sentence-level operations. In the third experiment, lexical status was found to differentially modulate anterior and posterior STS regions. There was more activation in the aSTS bilaterally for words than pseudowords, but these conditions did not lead to activation differences in the posterior region. It appears that anterior temporal speech-selective regions respond to lexical-semantic aspects of speech, whereas posterior temporal speech-selective areas are coding lower level phonemic information.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Sandner, Magdalena; Lois, Giannis; Streit, Fabian; Zeier, Peter; +3 Authors

    Identifying individual differences in stress reactivity is of particular interest in the context of stress-related disorders and resilience. Previous studies already identified several factors mediating the individual stress response of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). However, the impact of long-term HPA axis activity on acute stress reactivity remains inconclusive. To investigate associations between long-term HPA axis variation and individual acute stress reactivity, we tested 40 healthy volunteers for affective, endocrine, physiological, and neural reactions to a modified, compact version of the established in-MR stress paradigm ScanSTRESS (ScanSTRESS-C). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) served as an integrative marker of long-term HPA axis activity. First, the ScanSTRESS-C version proved to be valid in evoking a subjective, endocrine, physiological, and neural stress response with enhanced self-reported negative affect and cortisol levels, increased heart rate as well as increased activation in the anterior insula and the dorso-anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Second and interestingly, results indicated a lower neuroendocrine stress response in individuals with higher HCC: HCC was negatively correlated with the area under the curve (respect to increase; AUCi) of saliva cortisol and with a stress-related increase in dACC activity. The present study explicitly targeted the relationship between HCC and acute stress reactivity on multiple response levels, i.e. subjective, endocrine and neural stress responses. The lower stress reactivity in individuals with higher HCC levels indicates the need for further research evaluating the role of long-term HPA axis alterations in the context of vulnerability or immunization against acute stress and following stress-related impairments.

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    Other ORP type . 2020
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    Authors: Rahimpour Jounghani, Ali;

    Timing is an essential component of human actions, and is the foundation of any sort of sequential behavior, from picking up a glass to playing an instrument or dancing. Because of this, our understanding of how we represent time in the brain (i.e., the human timing system) critically relies on basic research on simple behaviors. Perception of temporal regularities is central to a wide range of basic actions, but also underpins abilities unique to humans such as the creation of complex musical scores. This dissertation is an in-depth examination of endogenously and exogenously guided timing behavior, and how context is a critical component of understanding rhythmic entrainment in humans. We previously validated “gold standard” functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings on action-based timing behavior using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) (Rahimpour et al., 2020). In particular, we observed significant hemodynamic responses in cortical areas in direct relation to the complexity of the behavior being performed. To do so, we probed multiple levels of contextual influence on action-based timing behavior and patterns of cortical activation as measured using fNIRS. Our findings highlighted several distinct, context-dependent parameters of specific timing behaviors. Here we further interrogate human timing abilities by introducing variations of our original experimental design, observing that subtle contextual variations have a significant impact on the degree of rhythmic entrainment given the presence/absence of metronomic input. We used electroencephalogram (EEG) to further validate our fNIRS findings, demonstrating that single trial neurobiological activity can be used to predict whether behavior is exogenously or endogenously guided. We also found that patterns of neural activity correspond to differential use of the internal timing system, and that specific differences in neural activity correlate with accuracy of action-based timing behavior. These findings emerged from our use of a novel deep learning approach to extract person-specific, neural-based features as predictors of behavioral performance. Finally, we examined whether fNIRS and EEG produced similar localization information, finding that the influence of training factors on cortical localization must be accounted for to make such comparisons.

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    Authors: Kennis, M.; Gerritsen, L.; van Dalen, M.; Williams, A.D.; +2 Authors

    Background During the last century many biological hypotheses have been postulated to underlie the psychopathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In order to gain insight in the evidence for these hypothesis from patients, a systematical search for longitudinal studies investigating biological factors before the onset of MDD was performed. Methods PubMed, PsychINFO, and Embase were used as databases. The search strategy included terms relating to (1) MDD; (2) a longitudinal design or onset/relapse/recurrence; and (3) potential biomarkers. Current leading biological models for depression were covered, including neuroimaging, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, hormones and immunology. Results PRISMA guidelines were followed and 46830 articles were initially screened, indication 642 relevant articles that were screened on full text. Eventually, 90 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results were too heterogeneous or limited to perform meta-analyses for the topics: Neuroimaging (n=19), Gut (n=1), Immunology/inflammation (n=5), Neurotrophic (n=1), Neurotransmitters (n=1), Hormones (n=62), Oxidative stress (n=1). A meta analysis was performed for cortisol, which showed that higher cortisol levels predict a 44% higher chance of developing MDD (n=14, OR: 1.44 [1.12-1.84] p = 0.004), but not having a relapse or recurrent episode (n=4, OR: 1.524 [0.801 2.899] p=0.199). Conclusions Surprisingly, although a rigorous systematic search for prospective evidence for biomarkers for depression was performed, we found limited prospective studies investigating leading biological models. Only cortisol could be identified as prospective biomarker for depression onset. More prospective studies are necessary to investigate the causes (and consequences) of depression onset, relapse and recurrence. Supported By NIAS: Netherlands Institute For Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences (grant for Claudi Bocktings group)

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  • Authors: Palazzo, Claudio; Karim, Reatul; Mawet, Marie; Maillard, Chaterine; +3 Authors

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  • Authors: Hara, Takatoshi; Abo, Masahiro; Sasaki, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Naoki; +4 Authors

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) were administered to two patients with cognitive dysfunction following brain injury. The first case was a 67-year-old man who presented with memory dysfunction, attention dysfunction, and decreased insight following diffuse axonal injury. High-frequency rTMS (10 Hz, 2400 pulses/day) targeting the anterior cingulate using a navigation system and CR were administered for 12 days at 1 year from the onset of injury. The patient showed improved neuropsychological performance and activities of daily living. In addition, single photon emission computer tomography with Tc-ECD showed improved perfusion in the anterior cingulate gyrus. The second case was a 68-year-old man who presented with dysfunction of memory, attention, and executive function following a cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery region within the right hemisphere. This patient received 12 days (except for Sundays) of low-frequency rTMS (1 Hz, 1200 pulses/day) targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the left posterior parietal cortex and CR. Following this intervention, the patient's neuropsychological performance and activities of daily living improved. Furthermore, single photon emission computer tomography showed changes in perfusion in the rTMS target sites and areas surrounding the targets. We have shown the safety and efficacy of rTMS therapy using a navigation system combined with intensive CR on two patients with cognitive dysfunction following brain injury. In addition, we observed changes in the areas around the rTMS target sites in brain imaging data.

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    Authors: Davenport, S; Nichols, TE;

    Bansal and Peterson (2018) found that in simple stationary Gaussian simulations Random Field Theory incorrectly estimates the number of clusters of a Gaussian field that lie above a threshold. Their results contradict the existing literature and appear to have arisen due to errors in their code. Using reproducible code we demonstrate that in their simulations Random Field Theory correctly predicts the expected number of clusters and therefore that many of their results are invalid.

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