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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vidal, José L. Martinez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido; González, Francisco J. Egea;

    The aim of this paper is the discussion of quality control (QC) criteria for environmental monitoring of organic contaminants at trace levels in water. In addition, QC criteria in the identification and confirmation of target analytes have been considered.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kim, Ronald J.; Joudi, Fadi N.;

    We report a case of 61-year-old male who presented with chyluria after partial nephrectomy. During workup for appendicitis, an incidental exophytic renal mass was revealed on CT scan. The patient ultimately underwent uncomplicated open partial nephrectomy. Postoperatively, his JP drain output turned milky white with urine remaining clear. JP fluid analysis was consistent with lymph. At 3 weeks postsurgery, his drain output decreased, but his urine turned milky white. Urinalysis confirmed fat in the urine. CT imaging revealed chyloma/urinoma with extravasation. The patient was initially treated conservatively, with a medium-chain fatty acid diet and then ureteral stenting. His stent was eventually removed and his chlyuria resolved 14 weeks later.In nonendemic countries, nonparasitic chyluria is exceedingly rare and postsurgical chyluria even more so. We review the sequelae of untreated disease and surgical options for intractable chyluria not responsive to conservative management.In non-endemic countries, non-parasitic chyluria is exceedingly rare, and post surgical chyluria even more so. We review the sequelae of untreated disease and surgical options for intractable chyluria not responsive to conservative management.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chikkamuniyappa, Shylashree; Furman, Jaime; Scott, Rolf Sjuve;

    Pilonidal sinus is a well-recognized condition that occurs most commonly in the sacrococcygeal area of younger men. It is hypothesized to be an acquired chronic inflammation condition due mainly to hair trapped beneath the surface. A pilonidal sinus in the sacrococcygeal region is associated with recurrent infection, abscess formation, cellulitis, fistulae, and rarely, squamous cell carcinoma. A pilonidal sinus of the penis is a rare entity. The association of a penile pilonidal cyst and Actinomyces is even more uncommon with only three cases reported previously. Two cases of pilonidal sinus are reported in this paper. One of the cases was associated with actinomycosis. Pilonidal sinus of the penis should be considered in the clinical and pathological differential diagnosis and has to be distinguished from balanoposthitis, epidermal cyst, and carcinoma. The knowledge about possible association with actinomycosis is important to ensure early treatment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hashim, Hashim; Hellawell, Giles; Kahn, Leon;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fiscus, R.R.; Wang, X.; Chan, G.H.H.; Ma, A.C.Y.; +1 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lahmiti, Saad; Elhoudzi, Jamila; Baki, Salwa; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim;

    Although pleural effusion is a rare cause of respiratory distress in newborns, being familiar with this disease is very important because of the generally favorable prognosis when the diagnosis is done early and therapy is prompt. We report a case of a full-term baby diagnosed with respiratory distress after 1 week of life. An X-ray of his chest showed a left pleural effusion. Moreover, a thoracentesis combined with a biochemical study of the pleural fluid confirmed the diagnosis of chylothorax. In our case, the conservative therapy was successful. The baby was followed up for a period of 6 months, with no evidence of recurrence. We have concluded, therefore, that conservative management should be the first line of treatment in chylothorax cases. If it does not work, a surgical approach might be considered.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pastrana-Rios, Belinda; Medina, Zuleika; Ocana, Wanda;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Graham, John;

    After a combined enzymic and mechanical disruption of the spinal cord tissue, the low-density motoneurons band at the interface of a 1.06-g/ml barrier through which other contaminating cells sediment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fedecka-Bruner, Barbara; Penninger, Josef; Vaigot, Pierre; Lehmann, Anne; +2 Authors

    Thymocyte differentiation obeys the same fundamental principles in mammals as in avian species. This parallelism does not only affect the developmentally controlled acquisition of CD3, 4, 8, and TcR isotype expression, but also concerns CD25, the light chain of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). On chicken thymocytes, surface CD25, which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody INN Ch16, is first observed during day 11 of embryonic life, and peaks at day 14, when it is expressed by about one-third of all lymphoid cells. CD25 is found on subsets of all ,thymocyte populations as defined by TcRαβ, TcRγδ, 2, CD4, and CD8 expression, cortical or medullary localization, and is also present on a subset of intrathymic nurse-cell lymphocytes. These findings suggest phylogenetic conservation of the IL-2/IL-2R-triggered differentiation pathway previously described for mammalian species, thus under-lining its probable functional importance.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: McClung, Colleen A.;

    Drug addiction is a devastating disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Through better understanding of the genetic variations that create a vulnerability for addiction and the molecular mechanisms that underlie the progression of addiction, better treatment options can be created for those that suffer from this condition. Recent studies point to a link between abnormal or disrupted circadian rhythms and the development of addiction. In addition, studies suggest a role for specific genes that make up the molecular clock in the regulation of drug sensitivity, sensitization, and reward. The influence of circadian genes and rhythms on drug-induced behaviors may be mediated through the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. This system has long been implicated in the development of addiction, and recent evidence supports a regulatory role for the brain's central pacemaker and circadian gene expression in the regulation of dopaminergic transmission. This review highlights the association between circadian genes and drug addiction, and the possible role of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in this association.

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1,214 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vidal, José L. Martinez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido; González, Francisco J. Egea;

    The aim of this paper is the discussion of quality control (QC) criteria for environmental monitoring of organic contaminants at trace levels in water. In addition, QC criteria in the identification and confirmation of target analytes have been considered.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Kim, Ronald J.; Joudi, Fadi N.;

    We report a case of 61-year-old male who presented with chyluria after partial nephrectomy. During workup for appendicitis, an incidental exophytic renal mass was revealed on CT scan. The patient ultimately underwent uncomplicated open partial nephrectomy. Postoperatively, his JP drain output turned milky white with urine remaining clear. JP fluid analysis was consistent with lymph. At 3 weeks postsurgery, his drain output decreased, but his urine turned milky white. Urinalysis confirmed fat in the urine. CT imaging revealed chyloma/urinoma with extravasation. The patient was initially treated conservatively, with a medium-chain fatty acid diet and then ureteral stenting. His stent was eventually removed and his chlyuria resolved 14 weeks later.In nonendemic countries, nonparasitic chyluria is exceedingly rare and postsurgical chyluria even more so. We review the sequelae of untreated disease and surgical options for intractable chyluria not responsive to conservative management.In non-endemic countries, non-parasitic chyluria is exceedingly rare, and post surgical chyluria even more so. We review the sequelae of untreated disease and surgical options for intractable chyluria not responsive to conservative management.

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    Authors: Chikkamuniyappa, Shylashree; Furman, Jaime; Scott, Rolf Sjuve;

    Pilonidal sinus is a well-recognized condition that occurs most commonly in the sacrococcygeal area of younger men. It is hypothesized to be an acquired chronic inflammation condition due mainly to hair trapped beneath the surface. A pilonidal sinus in the sacrococcygeal region is associated with recurrent infection, abscess formation, cellulitis, fistulae, and rarely, squamous cell carcinoma. A pilonidal sinus of the penis is a rare entity. The association of a penile pilonidal cyst and Actinomyces is even more uncommon with only three cases reported previously. Two cases of pilonidal sinus are reported in this paper. One of the cases was associated with actinomycosis. Pilonidal sinus of the penis should be considered in the clinical and pathological differential diagnosis and has to be distinguished from balanoposthitis, epidermal cyst, and carcinoma. The knowledge about possible association with actinomycosis is important to ensure early treatment.

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    Authors: Hashim, Hashim; Hellawell, Giles; Kahn, Leon;
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    Authors: Fiscus, R.R.; Wang, X.; Chan, G.H.H.; Ma, A.C.Y.; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Lahmiti, Saad; Elhoudzi, Jamila; Baki, Salwa; Aboussad, Abdelmounaim;

    Although pleural effusion is a rare cause of respiratory distress in newborns, being familiar with this disease is very important because of the generally favorable prognosis when the diagnosis is done early and therapy is prompt. We report a case of a full-term baby diagnosed with respiratory distress after 1 week of life. An X-ray of his chest showed a left pleural effusion. Moreover, a thoracentesis combined with a biochemical study of the pleural fluid confirmed the diagnosis of chylothorax. In our case, the conservative therapy was successful. The baby was followed up for a period of 6 months, with no evidence of recurrence. We have concluded, therefore, that conservative management should be the first line of treatment in chylothorax cases. If it does not work, a surgical approach might be considered.

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    Authors: Pastrana-Rios, Belinda; Medina, Zuleika; Ocana, Wanda;
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    Authors: Graham, John;

    After a combined enzymic and mechanical disruption of the spinal cord tissue, the low-density motoneurons band at the interface of a 1.06-g/ml barrier through which other contaminating cells sediment.

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    Authors: Fedecka-Bruner, Barbara; Penninger, Josef; Vaigot, Pierre; Lehmann, Anne; +2 Authors

    Thymocyte differentiation obeys the same fundamental principles in mammals as in avian species. This parallelism does not only affect the developmentally controlled acquisition of CD3, 4, 8, and TcR isotype expression, but also concerns CD25, the light chain of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). On chicken thymocytes, surface CD25, which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody INN Ch16, is first observed during day 11 of embryonic life, and peaks at day 14, when it is expressed by about one-third of all lymphoid cells. CD25 is found on subsets of all ,thymocyte populations as defined by TcRαβ, TcRγδ, 2, CD4, and CD8 expression, cortical or medullary localization, and is also present on a subset of intrathymic nurse-cell lymphocytes. These findings suggest phylogenetic conservation of the IL-2/IL-2R-triggered differentiation pathway previously described for mammalian species, thus under-lining its probable functional importance.

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    Authors: McClung, Colleen A.;

    Drug addiction is a devastating disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Through better understanding of the genetic variations that create a vulnerability for addiction and the molecular mechanisms that underlie the progression of addiction, better treatment options can be created for those that suffer from this condition. Recent studies point to a link between abnormal or disrupted circadian rhythms and the development of addiction. In addition, studies suggest a role for specific genes that make up the molecular clock in the regulation of drug sensitivity, sensitization, and reward. The influence of circadian genes and rhythms on drug-induced behaviors may be mediated through the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. This system has long been implicated in the development of addiction, and recent evidence supports a regulatory role for the brain's central pacemaker and circadian gene expression in the regulation of dopaminergic transmission. This review highlights the association between circadian genes and drug addiction, and the possible role of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in this association.

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