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593 Research products

  • 2013-2022
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  • Neuroinformatics

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other ORP type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other ORP type . 2020
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    Authors: Villamor, Eduardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Alomar, Yaser Ibrahim; Passera, Sofia; +3 Authors

    Cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) represents the most commonly acquired lesion of the posterior fossa in the neonatal period. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies exploring the perinatal risk factors and neurological outcome of CBH in preterm infants. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if they examined preterm infants and reported primary data on maternal, obstetric, or perinatal characteristics, and/or outcomes of infants with and without CBH. A random-effects model was used to calculate mean differences (MD), odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found 231 potentially relevant studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria (4,236 infants, 347 CBH cases). Meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant association between CBH and multiple gestation, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, use of antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery, or infant sex. Infants with CBH had a significantly lower gestational age (6 studies, MD -1.55 weeks, 95% CI -1.93 to -1.16) and birth weight (6 studies, MD -173g, 95% CI -225 to -120), and significantly higher rates of intubation at birth, hypotension, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CBH was significantly associated with delayed mental (6 studies, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.20) and psychomotor (6 studies, OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.34 to 9.76) development, and higher rates of cerebral palsy (4 studies, OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.19). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis shows that the youngest and sickest preterm infants are at higher risk of developing CBH. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of CBH and reinforce the idea that cerebellar injury in very preterm newborns has important neurodevelopmental consequences among survivors.

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    Other ORP type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Kristinsson, Sigfús Helgi; Busby, Natalie; Rorden, Christopher; Newman-Norlund, Roger; +8 Authors

    The association between age and language recovery in stroke remains unclear. Here, we used neuroimaging data to estimate brain age, a measure of structural integrity, and examined the extent to which brain age at stroke onset is associated with (i) cross-sectional language performance, and (ii) longitudinal recovery of language function, beyond chronological age alone. A total of 49 participants (age: 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 25 female) underwent routine clinical neuroimaging (T1) and a bedside evaluation of language performance (Bedside Evaluation Screening Test-2) at onset of left hemisphere stroke. Brain age was estimated from enantiomorphically reconstructed brain scans using a machine learning algorithm trained on a large sample of healthy adults. A subsample of 30 participants returned for follow-up language assessments at least 2 years after stroke onset. To account for variability in age at stroke, we calculated proportional brain age difference, i.e. the proportional difference between brain age and chronological age. Multiple regression models were constructed to test the effects of proportional brain age difference on language outcomes. Lesion volume and chronological age were included as covariates in all models. Accelerated brain age compared with age was associated with worse overall aphasia severity (F(1, 48) = 5.65, P = 0.022), naming (F(1, 48) = 5.13, P = 0.028), and speech repetition (F(1, 48) = 8.49, P = 0.006) at stroke onset. Follow-up assessments were carried out ≥2 years after onset; decelerated brain age relative to age was significantly associated with reduced overall aphasia severity (F(1, 26) = 5.45, P = 0.028) and marginally failed to reach statistical significance for auditory comprehension (F(1, 26) = 2.87, P = 0.103). Proportional brain age difference was not found to be associated with changes in naming (F(1, 26) = 0.23, P = 0.880) and speech repetition (F(1, 26) = 0.00, P = 0.978). Chronological age was only associated with naming performance at stroke onset (F(1, 48) = 4.18, P = 0.047). These results indicate that brain age as estimated based on routine clinical brain scans may be a strong biomarker for language function and recovery after stroke. Funding Information: This study was supported by the following grant sponsors: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (P50 DC014664; DC008355); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NS054266). Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Peer reviewed

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Landers, Maud; Sitskoorn, Margriet; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; +1 Authors

    Background: Over the past decade, the functional importance of white matter pathways has been increasingly acknowledged in neurosurgical planning. A method to directly study anatomo-functional correlations is direct electrical stimulation (DES). DES has been widely accepted by neurosurgeons as a reliable tool to minimize the occurrence of permanent postoperative motor, vision and language deficits. In recent years, DES has also been used for stimulation mapping of other cognitive functions, such as executive functions and visuospatial awareness. Methods: The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence so far from DES studies on subcortical pathways that are involved in visuospatial awareness and in the following three executive functions: (1) inhibitory control, (2) working memory and (3) cognitive flexibility. Results: Eleven articles reported on intraoperative electrical stimulation of white matter pathways to map the cognitive functions and explicitly clarified which subcortical tract was stimulated. The results indicate that the right SLF-II is involved in visuospatial awareness, the left SLF-III and possibly the right SLF-I are involved in working memory and the cingulum is involved in cognitive flexibility. Conclusions: We were unable to draw any more specific conclusions, nor unequivocally establish the critical involvement of pathways in executive functions or visuospatial awareness due to the heterogeneity of the study types and methods, and the limited number of studies that assessed these relationships. Possible approaches for future research to obtain converging and more definite evidence for the involvement of pathways in specific cognitive functions are discussed.

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    NARCIS
    Other ORP type . 2022
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      Other ORP type . 2022
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    Authors: Fovet, Thomas; Orlov, Natasza; Dyck, Miriam; Allen, Paul; +2 Authors

    Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF). During fMRI-NF, brain activity is measured and fed back in real time to the participant in order to help subjects to progressively achieve voluntary control over their own neural activity. Precisely defining the target brain area/network(s) appears critical in fMRI-NF protocols. After reviewing the available neurocognitive models for AVHs, we elaborate on how recent findings in the field may help to develop strong a priori strategies for fMRI-NF target localization. The first approach relies on imaging-based “trait markers” (i.e., persistent traits or vulnerability markers that can also be detected in the presymptomatic and remitted phases of AVHs). The goal of such strategies is to target areas that show aberrant activations during AVHs or are known to be involved in compensatory activation (or resilience processes). Brain regions, from which the NF signal is derived, can be based on structural MRI and neurocognitive knowledge, or functional MRI information collected during specific cognitive tasks. Because hallucinations are acute and intrusive symptoms, a second strategy focuses more on “state markers.” In this case, the signal of interest relies on fMRI capture of the neural networks exhibiting increased activity during AVHs occurrences, by means of multivariate pattern recognition methods. The fine-grained activity patterns concomitant to hallucinations can then be fed back to the patients for therapeutic purpose. Considering the potential cost necessary to implement fMRI-NF, proof-of-concept studies are urgently required to define the optimal strategy for application in patients with AVHs. This technique has the potential to establish a new brain imaging-guided psychotherapy for patients that do not respond to conventional treatments and take functional neuroimaging to therapeutic applications.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Psychia...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Rahimpour Jounghani, Ali;

    Timing is an essential component of human actions, and is the foundation of any sort of sequential behavior, from picking up a glass to playing an instrument or dancing. Because of this, our understanding of how we represent time in the brain (i.e., the human timing system) critically relies on basic research on simple behaviors. Perception of temporal regularities is central to a wide range of basic actions, but also underpins abilities unique to humans such as the creation of complex musical scores. This dissertation is an in-depth examination of endogenously and exogenously guided timing behavior, and how context is a critical component of understanding rhythmic entrainment in humans. We previously validated “gold standard” functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings on action-based timing behavior using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) (Rahimpour et al., 2020). In particular, we observed significant hemodynamic responses in cortical areas in direct relation to the complexity of the behavior being performed. To do so, we probed multiple levels of contextual influence on action-based timing behavior and patterns of cortical activation as measured using fNIRS. Our findings highlighted several distinct, context-dependent parameters of specific timing behaviors. Here we further interrogate human timing abilities by introducing variations of our original experimental design, observing that subtle contextual variations have a significant impact on the degree of rhythmic entrainment given the presence/absence of metronomic input. We used electroencephalogram (EEG) to further validate our fNIRS findings, demonstrating that single trial neurobiological activity can be used to predict whether behavior is exogenously or endogenously guided. We also found that patterns of neural activity correspond to differential use of the internal timing system, and that specific differences in neural activity correlate with accuracy of action-based timing behavior. These findings emerged from our use of a novel deep learning approach to extract person-specific, neural-based features as predictors of behavioral performance. Finally, we examined whether fNIRS and EEG produced similar localization information, finding that the influence of training factors on cortical localization must be accounted for to make such comparisons.

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    Authors: Savari, Sh.; Safahieh, A.R.; Bita Archangi, B.; Savari, A.; +1 Authors

    The bioavailability of methylmercury (MeHg) in the brains of orange spotted groupers, captured from four creeks of Mahshahr embayment was measured. Then the effects of this pollutant on the regulation of gene expression, acetylcholinesterase transcript levels was chosen in order to monitor the amounts of methylmercury concentrations in the creeks, and the fluctuations of mRNA expressions in the brain and their effect on fish health. Fishes were collected from Zangi, Ghanam, Marymous and Petrochemical Creeks, and their brains were removed by dissection. In parallel with these experiments some fishes were exposed to methylmerucry chloride in the Fisheries center and the amount of their gene expression was assessed via Real-Time PCR method. The lethal concentration of methylmerucry causing the mortality of half of the fish population after 96 hr (LC50-96) was assessed and gene expression of sub-lethal concentration (more and less than 10% of LC50-96) were analyzed. Gene expression studies revealed that the most polluted creek was the Petrochemical Creek, and the least polluted one was Marymous Creek. This regulation was assessed by the effect of MeHg on the gene expression, meaning the more gene expression, the less polluted and vice versa. From this study we concluded that acetylcholinesterase gene expression can serve as a biomarker of the effect of methylmercury, which can provide a good estimation of the amount of methylmercuric availability in the brain of Epinephelus coioides and its effect on the brain neurotransmission pathway. Published

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    2016
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      2016
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    Authors: Nogales, Cristian; Mamdouh, Zeinab M; List, Markus; Kiel, Christina; +2 Authors

    For complex diseases, most drugs are highly ineffective, and the success rate of drug discovery is in constant decline. While low quality, reproducibility issues, and translational irrelevance of most basic and preclinical research have contributed to this, the current organ-centricity of medicine and the 'one disease-one target-one drug' dogma obstruct innovation in the most profound manner. Systems and network medicine and their therapeutic arm, network pharmacology, revolutionize how we define, diagnose, treat, and, ideally, cure diseases. Descriptive disease phenotypes are replaced by endotypes defined by causal, multitarget signaling modules that also explain respective comorbidities. Precise and effective therapeutic intervention is achieved by synergistic multicompound network pharmacology and drug repurposing, obviating the need for drug discovery and speeding up clinical translation.

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  • Authors: Graaf, J.W. (Jan Willem) de;

    William James stated: "Individuality outruns all classification, yet we insist on classifying every one we meet under some general label". It is argued that people classify to make sense of their world. By labelling (repeating) patterns, we learn to navigate through our world and through our lives. Often, classifying is more important for the person who classifies, than for the classified. This is all the more true if the classified cannot be clearly defined, as is the case in our subject. Only if a disorder can be established indisputably (for example, after infection with x disease y arises) the "benefits" are for both the person who classifies (who can earn a living, eg as a doctor, or pharmacist) and the person that is classified. In all other cases the "merits" of the classification are difficult to determine.

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    Authors: Norton, Anderson H. III; Seok, Youngmin; Choi-Koh, Sangsook;

    This paper reports on an investigation of mathematics anxiety (MA) among 40 Korean undergraduate students, using cognitive neuroscience. In Spring 2015, we collected data on correct response rates and reaction times from computer-based activities related to quadratic functions. We also measured brain response through event related potentials (ERP). Results demonstrate that students with higher mathematics anxiety (HMA) took more time than students with lower mathematics anxiety (LMA), both in translating equations to graphs and in translating graphs to equations. Moreover, based on analysis of ERP, brain waves of the HMA group recorded higher amplitude. In specific, both groups showed higher amplitude in translation from graphs to equation than vice versa. Higher amplitudes indicate greater demands on working memory, which we discuss in the concluding section, especially with regard to MA.

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    VTechWorks
    2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

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    Authors: Villamor, Eduardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Alomar, Yaser Ibrahim; Passera, Sofia; +3 Authors

    Cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) represents the most commonly acquired lesion of the posterior fossa in the neonatal period. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies exploring the perinatal risk factors and neurological outcome of CBH in preterm infants. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if they examined preterm infants and reported primary data on maternal, obstetric, or perinatal characteristics, and/or outcomes of infants with and without CBH. A random-effects model was used to calculate mean differences (MD), odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found 231 potentially relevant studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria (4,236 infants, 347 CBH cases). Meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant association between CBH and multiple gestation, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, use of antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery, or infant sex. Infants with CBH had a significantly lower gestational age (6 studies, MD -1.55 weeks, 95% CI -1.93 to -1.16) and birth weight (6 studies, MD -173g, 95% CI -225 to -120), and significantly higher rates of intubation at birth, hypotension, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CBH was significantly associated with delayed mental (6 studies, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.20) and psychomotor (6 studies, OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.34 to 9.76) development, and higher rates of cerebral palsy (4 studies, OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.19). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis shows that the youngest and sickest preterm infants are at higher risk of developing CBH. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of CBH and reinforce the idea that cerebellar injury in very preterm newborns has important neurodevelopmental consequences among survivors.

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    Authors: Kristinsson, Sigfús Helgi; Busby, Natalie; Rorden, Christopher; Newman-Norlund, Roger; +8 Authors

    The association between age and language recovery in stroke remains unclear. Here, we used neuroimaging data to estimate brain age, a measure of structural integrity, and examined the extent to which brain age at stroke onset is associated with (i) cross-sectional language performance, and (ii) longitudinal recovery of language function, beyond chronological age alone. A total of 49 participants (age: 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 25 female) underwent routine clinical neuroimaging (T1) and a bedside evaluation of language performance (Bedside Evaluation Screening Test-2) at onset of left hemisphere stroke. Brain age was estimated from enantiomorphically reconstructed brain scans using a machine learning algorithm trained on a large sample of healthy adults. A subsample of 30 participants returned for follow-up language assessments at least 2 years after stroke onset. To account for variability in age at stroke, we calculated proportional brain age difference, i.e. the proportional difference between brain age and chronological age. Multiple regression models were constructed to test the effects of proportional brain age difference on language outcomes. Lesion volume and chronological age were included as covariates in all models. Accelerated brain age compared with age was associated with worse overall aphasia severity (F(1, 48) = 5.65, P = 0.022), naming (F(1, 48) = 5.13, P = 0.028), and speech repetition (F(1, 48) = 8.49, P = 0.006) at stroke onset. Follow-up assessments were carried out ≥2 years after onset; decelerated brain age relative to age was significantly associated with reduced overall aphasia severity (F(1, 26) = 5.45, P = 0.028) and marginally failed to reach statistical significance for auditory comprehension (F(1, 26) = 2.87, P = 0.103). Proportional brain age difference was not found to be associated with changes in naming (F(1, 26) = 0.23, P = 0.880) and speech repetition (F(1, 26) = 0.00, P = 0.978). Chronological age was only associated with naming performance at stroke onset (F(1, 48) = 4.18, P = 0.047). These results indicate that brain age as estimated based on routine clinical brain scans may be a strong biomarker for language function and recovery after stroke. Funding Information: This study was supported by the following grant sponsors: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (P50 DC014664; DC008355); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NS054266). Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Landers, Maud; Sitskoorn, Margriet; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; +1 Authors

    Background: Over the past decade, the functional importance of white matter pathways has been increasingly acknowledged in neurosurgical planning. A method to directly study anatomo-functional correlations is direct electrical stimulation (DES). DES has been widely accepted by neurosurgeons as a reliable tool to minimize the occurrence of permanent postoperative motor, vision and language deficits. In recent years, DES has also been used for stimulation mapping of other cognitive functions, such as executive functions and visuospatial awareness. Methods: The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence so far from DES studies on subcortical pathways that are involved in visuospatial awareness and in the following three executive functions: (1) inhibitory control, (2) working memory and (3) cognitive flexibility. Results: Eleven articles reported on intraoperative electrical stimulation of white matter pathways to map the cognitive functions and explicitly clarified which subcortical tract was stimulated. The results indicate that the right SLF-II is involved in visuospatial awareness, the left SLF-III and possibly the right SLF-I are involved in working memory and the cingulum is involved in cognitive flexibility. Conclusions: We were unable to draw any more specific conclusions, nor unequivocally establish the critical involvement of pathways in executive functions or visuospatial awareness due to the heterogeneity of the study types and methods, and the limited number of studies that assessed these relationships. Possible approaches for future research to obtain converging and more definite evidence for the involvement of pathways in specific cognitive functions are discussed.

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    Authors: Fovet, Thomas; Orlov, Natasza; Dyck, Miriam; Allen, Paul; +2 Authors

    Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF). During fMRI-NF, brain activity is measured and fed back in real time to the participant in order to help subjects to progressively achieve voluntary control over their own neural activity. Precisely defining the target brain area/network(s) appears critical in fMRI-NF protocols. After reviewing the available neurocognitive models for AVHs, we elaborate on how recent findings in the field may help to develop strong a priori strategies for fMRI-NF target localization. The first approach relies on imaging-based “trait markers” (i.e., persistent traits or vulnerability markers that can also be detected in the presymptomatic and remitted phases of AVHs). The goal of such strategies is to target areas that show aberrant activations during AVHs or are known to be involved in compensatory activation (or resilience processes). Brain regions, from which the NF signal is derived, can be based on structural MRI and neurocognitive knowledge, or functional MRI information collected during specific cognitive tasks. Because hallucinations are acute and intrusive symptoms, a second strategy focuses more on “state markers.” In this case, the signal of interest relies on fMRI capture of the neural networks exhibiting increased activity during AVHs occurrences, by means of multivariate pattern recognition methods. The fine-grained activity patterns concomitant to hallucinations can then be fed back to the patients for therapeutic purpose. Considering the potential cost necessary to implement fMRI-NF, proof-of-concept studies are urgently required to define the optimal strategy for application in patients with AVHs. This technique has the potential to establish a new brain imaging-guided psychotherapy for patients that do not respond to conventional treatments and take functional neuroimaging to therapeutic applications.

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    Authors: Rahimpour Jounghani, Ali;

    Timing is an essential component of human actions, and is the foundation of any sort of sequential behavior, from picking up a glass to playing an instrument or dancing. Because of this, our understanding of how we represent time in the brain (i.e., the human timing system) critically relies on basic research on simple behaviors. Perception of temporal regularities is central to a wide range of basic actions, but also underpins abilities unique to humans such as the creation of complex musical scores. This dissertation is an in-depth examination of endogenously and exogenously guided timing behavior, and how context is a critical component of understanding rhythmic entrainment in humans. We previously validated “gold standard” functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings on action-based timing behavior using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) (Rahimpour et al., 2020). In particular, we observed significant hemodynamic responses in cortical areas in direct relation to the complexity of the behavior being performed. To do so, we probed multiple levels of contextual influence on action-based timing behavior and patterns of cortical activation as measured using fNIRS. Our findings highlighted several distinct, context-dependent parameters of specific timing behaviors. Here we further interrogate human timing abilities by introducing variations of our original experimental design, observing that subtle contextual variations have a significant impact on the degree of rhythmic entrainment given the presence/absence of metronomic input. We used electroencephalogram (EEG) to further validate our fNIRS findings, demonstrating that single trial neurobiological activity can be used to predict whether behavior is exogenously or endogenously guided. We also found that patterns of neural activity correspond to differential use of the internal timing system, and that specific differences in neural activity correlate with accuracy of action-based timing behavior. These findings emerged from our use of a novel deep learning approach to extract person-specific, neural-based features as predictors of behavioral performance. Finally, we examined whether fNIRS and EEG produced similar localization information, finding that the influence of training factors on cortical localization must be accounted for to make such comparisons.

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    Authors: Savari, Sh.; Safahieh, A.R.; Bita Archangi, B.; Savari, A.; +1 Authors

    The bioavailability of methylmercury (MeHg) in the brains of orange spotted groupers, captured from four creeks of Mahshahr embayment was measured. Then the effects of this pollutant on the regulation of gene expression, acetylcholinesterase transcript levels was chosen in order to monitor the amounts of methylmercury concentrations in the creeks, and the fluctuations of mRNA expressions in the brain and their effect on fish health. Fishes were collected from Zangi, Ghanam, Marymous and Petrochemical Creeks, and their brains were removed by dissection. In parallel with these experiments some fishes were exposed to methylmerucry chloride in the Fisheries center and the amount of their gene expression was assessed via Real-Time PCR method. The lethal concentration of methylmerucry causing the mortality of half of the fish population after 96 hr (LC50-96) was assessed and gene expression of sub-lethal concentration (more and less than 10% of LC50-96) were analyzed. Gene expression studies revealed that the most polluted creek was the Petrochemical Creek, and the least polluted one was Marymous Creek. This regulation was assessed by the effect of MeHg on the gene expression, meaning the more gene expression, the less polluted and vice versa. From this study we concluded that acetylcholinesterase gene expression can serve as a biomarker of the effect of methylmercury, which can provide a good estimation of the amount of methylmercuric availability in the brain of Epinephelus coioides and its effect on the brain neurotransmission pathway. Published

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    2016
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      2016
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    Authors: Nogales, Cristian; Mamdouh, Zeinab M; List, Markus; Kiel, Christina; +2 Authors

    For complex diseases, most drugs are highly ineffective, and the success rate of drug discovery is in constant decline. While low quality, reproducibility issues, and translational irrelevance of most basic and preclinical research have contributed to this, the current organ-centricity of medicine and the 'one disease-one target-one drug' dogma obstruct innovation in the most profound manner. Systems and network medicine and their therapeutic arm, network pharmacology, revolutionize how we define, diagnose, treat, and, ideally, cure diseases. Descriptive disease phenotypes are replaced by endotypes defined by causal, multitarget signaling modules that also explain respective comorbidities. Precise and effective therapeutic intervention is achieved by synergistic multicompound network pharmacology and drug repurposing, obviating the need for drug discovery and speeding up clinical translation.

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  • Authors: Graaf, J.W. (Jan Willem) de;

    William James stated: "Individuality outruns all classification, yet we insist on classifying every one we meet under some general label". It is argued that people classify to make sense of their world. By labelling (repeating) patterns, we learn to navigate through our world and through our lives. Often, classifying is more important for the person who classifies, than for the classified. This is all the more true if the classified cannot be clearly defined, as is the case in our subject. Only if a disorder can be established indisputably (for example, after infection with x disease y arises) the "benefits" are for both the person who classifies (who can earn a living, eg as a doctor, or pharmacist) and the person that is classified. In all other cases the "merits" of the classification are difficult to determine.

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    Authors: Norton, Anderson H. III; Seok, Youngmin; Choi-Koh, Sangsook;

    This paper reports on an investigation of mathematics anxiety (MA) among 40 Korean undergraduate students, using cognitive neuroscience. In Spring 2015, we collected data on correct response rates and reaction times from computer-based activities related to quadratic functions. We also measured brain response through event related potentials (ERP). Results demonstrate that students with higher mathematics anxiety (HMA) took more time than students with lower mathematics anxiety (LMA), both in translating equations to graphs and in translating graphs to equations. Moreover, based on analysis of ERP, brain waves of the HMA group recorded higher amplitude. In specific, both groups showed higher amplitude in translation from graphs to equation than vice versa. Higher amplitudes indicate greater demands on working memory, which we discuss in the concluding section, especially with regard to MA.

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    VTechWorks
    2019
    License: CC BY
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      VTechWorks
      2019
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