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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2020
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: NeuroVault
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2020
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
  • Authors: Thibaut, Aurore; Russo, C.; Morales-Quezada, L.; Hurtado-Puerto, A.; +4 Authors

    Transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive neuromodulatory brain stimulation techniques whose effects on human brain and behavior have been studied individually. In the present study we aimed to quantify the effects of tDCS and tPCS, individually and in combination, on cortical activity, sensitivity and pain-related assessments in healthy individuals in order to understand their neurophysiological mechanisms and potential applications in clinical populations. A total of 48 healthy individuals participated in this randomized double blind sham controlled study. Participants were randomized to receive a single stimulation session of either: active or sham tPCS and active or sham tDCS. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), sensitivity and pain assessments were used before and after each stimulation session. We observed that tPCS had a higher effect on power, as compared to tDCS, in several bandwidths on various cortical regions: the theta band in the parietal region (p = 0.021), the alpha band in the temporal (p = 0.009), parietal (p = 0.0063), and occipital (p < 0.0001) regions. We found that the combination of tPCS and tDCS significantly decreased power in the low beta bandwidth of the frontal (p = 0.0006), central (p = 0.0001), and occipital (p = 0.0003) regions, when compared to sham stimulation. Additionally, tDCS significantly increased power in high beta over the temporal (p = 0.0015) and parietal (p = 0.0007) regions, as compared to sham. We found no effect on sensitivity or pain-related assessments. We concluded that tPCS and tDCS have different neurophysiological mechanisms, elicit distinct signatures, and that the combination of the two leads to no effect or a decrease on qEEG power. Further studies are required to examine the effects of these techniques on clinical populations in which EEG signatures have been found altered. © 2016

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  • Authors: DELVENNE, Eléonore; Farnir, Florent; GUIOT, Julien; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste; +1 Authors

    The prevalence of Nocardia infections is increasing because of both improved detection laboratory techniques and a higher number of immunosuppressed patients. We report the case of a patient with brain abcesses resulting from Nocardia farcinica cerebral dissemination associated with lung infection, endocarditis and ocular lesions for which we suspected a similar origin. This case gives the opportunity to discuss the main issues of these infections and the current therapeutic guidelines.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ziegler, Erik; Rouillard, Maud; André, Elodie; Coolen, Tim; +4 Authors

    Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach-track density imaging (TDI). Twenty-seven non-demented Parkinsons patients (mean disease duration: 5years, mean score on the Hoehn & Yahr scale=1.5) were compared with 26 elderly controls matched for age, sex, and education level. Track density images were created by sampling each subjects spatially normalized fiber tracks in 1mm isotropic intervals and counting the fibers that passed through each voxel. Whole-brain voxel-based analysis was performed and significance was assessed with permutation testing. Statistically significant increases in track density were found in the Parkinsons patients, relative to controls. Clusters were distributed in disease-relevant areas including motor, cognitive, and limbic networks. From the lower medulla to the diencephalon and striatum, clusters encompassed the known location of the locus coeruleus and pedunculopontine nucleus in the pons, and from the substantia nigra up to medial aspects of the posterior putamen, bilaterally. The results identified in brainstem and nigrostriatal pathways show a large overlap with the known distribution of neuropathological changes in non-demented PD patients. Our results also support an early involvement of limbic and cognitive networks in Parkinsons disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2014
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: NeuroVault
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2014
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  • Authors: Rochat, Lucien; Van der Linden, Martial; Renaud, Olivier; Epiney, Jean-Benoît; +4 Authors

    Objective: To examine the relationship between reward sensitivity and self-reported apathy in stroke patients and to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of both reward sensitivity and apathy. Methods: In this prospective study, 55 chronic stroke patients were administered a questionnaire to assess apathy and a laboratory task to examine reward sensitivity by measuring motivationally driven behavior ("reinforcement-related speeding"). Fifteen participants without brain damage served as controls for the laboratory task. Negative mood, working memory, and global cognitive functioning were also measured to determine whether reward insensitivity and apathy were secondary to cognitive impairments or negative mood. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of reward sensitivity and apathy. Results: Participants showed reinforcement-related speeding in the highly reinforced condition of the laboratory task. However, this effect was significant for the controls only. For patients, poorer reward sensitivity was associated with greater self-reported apathy (p < 0.05) beyond negative mood and after lesion size was controlled for. Neither apathy nor reward sensitivity was related to working memory or global cognitive functioning. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping showed that damage to the ventral putamen and globus pallidus, dorsal thalamus, and left insula and prefrontal cortex was associated with poorer reward sensitivity. The putamen and thalamus were also involved in self-reported apathy. Conclusions: Poor reward sensitivity in stroke patients with damage to the ventral basal ganglia, dorsal thalamus, insula, or prefrontal cortex constitutes a core feature of apathy. These results provide valuable insight into the neural mechanisms and brain substrate underlying apathy. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    Other ORP type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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      Other ORP type . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: den Boer, Johan A.; de Vries, Erik F.; Borra, Ronald; van Waarde, Aren; +2 Authors

    Background: Over the last decades many brain imaging studies have contributed to new insights in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. However, in spite of these developments, progress in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for prevalent psychiatric health conditions has been limited. Objective: In this review we discuss translational, diagnostic and methodological issues that have hampered drug development in CNS disorders with a particular focus on psychiatry. The role of preclinical models is critically reviewed and opportunities for brain imaging in early stages of drug development using PET and fMRI are discussed. The role of PET and fMRI in drug development is reviewed emphasizing the need to engage in collaborations between industry, academia and phase I units. Conclusion: Brain imaging technology has revolutionized the study of psychiatric illnesses and during the last decade neuroimaging has provided valuable insights at different levels of analysis and brain organization, such as effective connectivity (anatomical), functional connectivity patterns and neurochemical information that may support both preclinical and clinical drug development. Since there is no unifying pathophysiological theory of individual psychiatric syndromes and since many symptoms cut across diagnostic boundaries, a new theoretical framework has been proposed that may help in defining new targets for treatment and thus enhance drug development in CNS diseases. In addition, it is argued that new proposals for data-mining and mathematical modelling as well as freely available databanks for neural network and neurochemical models of rodents combined with revised psychiatric classification will lead to validated new targets for drug development.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Other ORP type . 2022
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Other ORP type . 2022
      Data sources: NARCIS
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Villamor, Eduardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Alomar, Yaser Ibrahim; Passera, Sofia; +3 Authors

    Cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) represents the most commonly acquired lesion of the posterior fossa in the neonatal period. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies exploring the perinatal risk factors and neurological outcome of CBH in preterm infants. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if they examined preterm infants and reported primary data on maternal, obstetric, or perinatal characteristics, and/or outcomes of infants with and without CBH. A random-effects model was used to calculate mean differences (MD), odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found 231 potentially relevant studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria (4,236 infants, 347 CBH cases). Meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant association between CBH and multiple gestation, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, use of antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery, or infant sex. Infants with CBH had a significantly lower gestational age (6 studies, MD -1.55 weeks, 95% CI -1.93 to -1.16) and birth weight (6 studies, MD -173g, 95% CI -225 to -120), and significantly higher rates of intubation at birth, hypotension, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CBH was significantly associated with delayed mental (6 studies, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.20) and psychomotor (6 studies, OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.34 to 9.76) development, and higher rates of cerebral palsy (4 studies, OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.19). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis shows that the youngest and sickest preterm infants are at higher risk of developing CBH. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of CBH and reinforce the idea that cerebellar injury in very preterm newborns has important neurodevelopmental consequences among survivors.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Other ORP type . 2019
      Data sources: NARCIS
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kristinsson, Sigfús Helgi; Busby, Natalie; Rorden, Christopher; Newman-Norlund, Roger; +8 Authors

    The association between age and language recovery in stroke remains unclear. Here, we used neuroimaging data to estimate brain age, a measure of structural integrity, and examined the extent to which brain age at stroke onset is associated with (i) cross-sectional language performance, and (ii) longitudinal recovery of language function, beyond chronological age alone. A total of 49 participants (age: 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 25 female) underwent routine clinical neuroimaging (T1) and a bedside evaluation of language performance (Bedside Evaluation Screening Test-2) at onset of left hemisphere stroke. Brain age was estimated from enantiomorphically reconstructed brain scans using a machine learning algorithm trained on a large sample of healthy adults. A subsample of 30 participants returned for follow-up language assessments at least 2 years after stroke onset. To account for variability in age at stroke, we calculated proportional brain age difference, i.e. the proportional difference between brain age and chronological age. Multiple regression models were constructed to test the effects of proportional brain age difference on language outcomes. Lesion volume and chronological age were included as covariates in all models. Accelerated brain age compared with age was associated with worse overall aphasia severity (F(1, 48) = 5.65, P = 0.022), naming (F(1, 48) = 5.13, P = 0.028), and speech repetition (F(1, 48) = 8.49, P = 0.006) at stroke onset. Follow-up assessments were carried out ≥2 years after onset; decelerated brain age relative to age was significantly associated with reduced overall aphasia severity (F(1, 26) = 5.45, P = 0.028) and marginally failed to reach statistical significance for auditory comprehension (F(1, 26) = 2.87, P = 0.103). Proportional brain age difference was not found to be associated with changes in naming (F(1, 26) = 0.23, P = 0.880) and speech repetition (F(1, 26) = 0.00, P = 0.978). Chronological age was only associated with naming performance at stroke onset (F(1, 48) = 4.18, P = 0.047). These results indicate that brain age as estimated based on routine clinical brain scans may be a strong biomarker for language function and recovery after stroke. Funding Information: This study was supported by the following grant sponsors: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (P50 DC014664; DC008355); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NS054266). Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Peer reviewed

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dias, Lara Marlene Faria;

    A Sociedade Europeia de Pesquisa do Sono realizou muito recentemente um estudo, onde mostrou que a prevalência média de adormecimento ao volante nos últimos 2 anos foi de 17%. Além disto, tem sido provado por todo o mundo que a sonolência durante a condução é uma das principais causas de acidentes de trânsito. Torna-se assim conveniente, o desenvolvimento de sistemas que analisem a suscetibilidade de um determinado condutor para adormecer no trânsito, bem como de ferramentas que monitorem em tempo real o estado físico e mental do condutor, para alertarem nos momentos críticos. Apesar do estudo do sono se ter iniciado há vários anos, a maioria das investigações focaram-se no ciclo normal do sono, estudando os indivíduos de forma relaxada e de olhos fechados. Só mais recentemente, têm surgido os estudos que se focam nas situações de sonolência em atividade, como _e o caso da condução. Uma grande parte Dos estudos da sonolência em condução têm utilizado a eletroencefalografia (EEG), de forma a perceber se existem alterações nas diferentes bandas de frequência desta, que possam indicar o estado de sonolência do condutor. Além disso, a evolução da sonolência a partir de alterações no piscar dos olhos (que podem ser vistas nos sinais EEG) também tem sido alvo de grande pesquisa, tendo vindo a revelar resultados bastante promissores. Neste contexto e em parceria com a empresa HealthyRoad, esta tese está integrada no projeto HealthyDrive, que visa o desenvolvimento de um sistema de alerta e deteção de sinais de fadiga e sonolência nos condutores de veículos automóveis. A contribuição desta tese no projeto prendeu-se com o estudo da sonolência dos indivíduos em condução a partir de sinais EEG, para desta forma investigar possíveis indicadores dos diferentes níveis desta que possam ser utilizados pela empresa no projeto. Foram recolhidos e analisados 17 sinais EEG de indivíduos em simulação de condução. Além disso foram desenvolvidos dois métodos de análise destes sinais: O primeiro para a deteção e análise dos piscar de olhos a partir de EEG, o segundo para análise do espetro de potência. Ambos os métodos foram utilizados para analisar os sinais recolhidos e investigar que tipo de relação existe entre a sonolência do condutor e as alterações nos piscares dos olhos, bem como as alterações do espetro do EEG. Os resultados mostraram uma correlação entre a duração do piscar de olhos e a sonolência do condutor. Com o aumento da sonolência velicou-se um aumento da duração do piscar, desencadeado principalmente pelo aumento na duração de fecho, que chegou aos 51.2%. Em relação ao espectro de potência, os resultados sugerem que a potência relativa de todas as bandas analisadas fornecem informações relevantes sobre a sonolência do condutor. Além disso, o parâmetro (_+_)/_ demostrou estar relacionado com variações da sonolência, diminuindo com o seu avanço e aumentando significativamente (111%) no instante em que os condutores adormeceram. The European Society of Sleep Research recently conducted a study whose results howed that the average prevalence of prevalence of drowsiness in individuals during driving activities was 17% over the last two years. Similarly to this, several other studies showed that sleepiness during driving is one of the main causes of traffic accidents. Due to this fact, it is necessary the development of systems capable of analysing the susceptibility of a particular driver falling asleep in traffic. In addition, the creation of tools to monitor the physical and mental state of the driver in real time is faced as an essential point. Although the sleep study started several years ago, most in researches have focused on the normal sleep cycle by studying relaxed and closed eyes subjects. More recently, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on sleepiness situations in activity, such as driving. A large piece of the driving drowsiness studies have sed the electroencephalogram (EEG) to observe changes in its different frequency bands, indicating the driver drowsiness state. Moreover, the study of drowsiness from the variability of eye blinks which have shown a significant relationship with drowsiness, and can be observed in the EEG. In this context and in partnership with HealthyRoad Company, this thesis is integrated in the HealthyDrive project. The project seeks to develop a detection and alert system of the drivers fatigue and sleepiness. This work’s contribution to the HealthyDrive project is linked to the experimental study of the subjects’ drowsiness while driving simulations. The purpose is to determine possible indicators of the drowsiness levels that may be used posteriorly by the company. A set of experiments were conducted and 17 EEG signals were collected and analysed while driving simulations. In addition, two methods of EEG analysis were developed. The first was designed to detect and analyze the eye blink of the EEG data. The second was developed to analyze the EEG power spectrum. Both methods were used to analyze the collected signals and thereby to determine the relation between the driver’s drowsiness and the eye blink changes, as well as the EEG spectrum changes. The results show a high correlation between the eye blink measures and driver’s drowsiness. As the drowsiness increases it was observed an increase of the eye blink duration, mainly triggered by the increase in the eye closure duration which reached 51.2%. Regarding the power spectrum, the results suggest that the relative power of all analyzed bands give relevant information about the driver drowsiness. Furthermore, the ratio (θ+α)/β as shown to be intimately related to drowsiness variations, by decreasing with its advance and increasing significantly (111%) at the same time that drivers fall asleep.

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2,593 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2020
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      NeuroVault
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  • Authors: Thibaut, Aurore; Russo, C.; Morales-Quezada, L.; Hurtado-Puerto, A.; +4 Authors

    Transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive neuromodulatory brain stimulation techniques whose effects on human brain and behavior have been studied individually. In the present study we aimed to quantify the effects of tDCS and tPCS, individually and in combination, on cortical activity, sensitivity and pain-related assessments in healthy individuals in order to understand their neurophysiological mechanisms and potential applications in clinical populations. A total of 48 healthy individuals participated in this randomized double blind sham controlled study. Participants were randomized to receive a single stimulation session of either: active or sham tPCS and active or sham tDCS. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), sensitivity and pain assessments were used before and after each stimulation session. We observed that tPCS had a higher effect on power, as compared to tDCS, in several bandwidths on various cortical regions: the theta band in the parietal region (p = 0.021), the alpha band in the temporal (p = 0.009), parietal (p = 0.0063), and occipital (p < 0.0001) regions. We found that the combination of tPCS and tDCS significantly decreased power in the low beta bandwidth of the frontal (p = 0.0006), central (p = 0.0001), and occipital (p = 0.0003) regions, when compared to sham stimulation. Additionally, tDCS significantly increased power in high beta over the temporal (p = 0.0015) and parietal (p = 0.0007) regions, as compared to sham. We found no effect on sensitivity or pain-related assessments. We concluded that tPCS and tDCS have different neurophysiological mechanisms, elicit distinct signatures, and that the combination of the two leads to no effect or a decrease on qEEG power. Further studies are required to examine the effects of these techniques on clinical populations in which EEG signatures have been found altered. © 2016

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  • Authors: DELVENNE, Eléonore; Farnir, Florent; GUIOT, Julien; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste; +1 Authors

    The prevalence of Nocardia infections is increasing because of both improved detection laboratory techniques and a higher number of immunosuppressed patients. We report the case of a patient with brain abcesses resulting from Nocardia farcinica cerebral dissemination associated with lung infection, endocarditis and ocular lesions for which we suspected a similar origin. This case gives the opportunity to discuss the main issues of these infections and the current therapeutic guidelines.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ziegler, Erik; Rouillard, Maud; André, Elodie; Coolen, Tim; +4 Authors

    Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach-track density imaging (TDI). Twenty-seven non-demented Parkinsons patients (mean disease duration: 5years, mean score on the Hoehn & Yahr scale=1.5) were compared with 26 elderly controls matched for age, sex, and education level. Track density images were created by sampling each subjects spatially normalized fiber tracks in 1mm isotropic intervals and counting the fibers that passed through each voxel. Whole-brain voxel-based analysis was performed and significance was assessed with permutation testing. Statistically significant increases in track density were found in the Parkinsons patients, relative to controls. Clusters were distributed in disease-relevant areas including motor, cognitive, and limbic networks. From the lower medulla to the diencephalon and striatum, clusters encompassed the known location of the locus coeruleus and pedunculopontine nucleus in the pons, and from the substantia nigra up to medial aspects of the posterior putamen, bilaterally. The results identified in brainstem and nigrostriatal pathways show a large overlap with the known distribution of neuropathological changes in non-demented PD patients. Our results also support an early involvement of limbic and cognitive networks in Parkinsons disease.

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2014
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      NeuroVault
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  • Authors: Rochat, Lucien; Van der Linden, Martial; Renaud, Olivier; Epiney, Jean-Benoît; +4 Authors

    Objective: To examine the relationship between reward sensitivity and self-reported apathy in stroke patients and to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of both reward sensitivity and apathy. Methods: In this prospective study, 55 chronic stroke patients were administered a questionnaire to assess apathy and a laboratory task to examine reward sensitivity by measuring motivationally driven behavior ("reinforcement-related speeding"). Fifteen participants without brain damage served as controls for the laboratory task. Negative mood, working memory, and global cognitive functioning were also measured to determine whether reward insensitivity and apathy were secondary to cognitive impairments or negative mood. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of reward sensitivity and apathy. Results: Participants showed reinforcement-related speeding in the highly reinforced condition of the laboratory task. However, this effect was significant for the controls only. For patients, poorer reward sensitivity was associated with greater self-reported apathy (p < 0.05) beyond negative mood and after lesion size was controlled for. Neither apathy nor reward sensitivity was related to working memory or global cognitive functioning. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping showed that damage to the ventral putamen and globus pallidus, dorsal thalamus, and left insula and prefrontal cortex was associated with poorer reward sensitivity. The putamen and thalamus were also involved in self-reported apathy. Conclusions: Poor reward sensitivity in stroke patients with damage to the ventral basal ganglia, dorsal thalamus, insula, or prefrontal cortex constitutes a core feature of apathy. These results provide valuable insight into the neural mechanisms and brain substrate underlying apathy. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: den Boer, Johan A.; de Vries, Erik F.; Borra, Ronald; van Waarde, Aren; +2 Authors

    Background: Over the last decades many brain imaging studies have contributed to new insights in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. However, in spite of these developments, progress in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for prevalent psychiatric health conditions has been limited. Objective: In this review we discuss translational, diagnostic and methodological issues that have hampered drug development in CNS disorders with a particular focus on psychiatry. The role of preclinical models is critically reviewed and opportunities for brain imaging in early stages of drug development using PET and fMRI are discussed. The role of PET and fMRI in drug development is reviewed emphasizing the need to engage in collaborations between industry, academia and phase I units. Conclusion: Brain imaging technology has revolutionized the study of psychiatric illnesses and during the last decade neuroimaging has provided valuable insights at different levels of analysis and brain organization, such as effective connectivity (anatomical), functional connectivity patterns and neurochemical information that may support both preclinical and clinical drug development. Since there is no unifying pathophysiological theory of individual psychiatric syndromes and since many symptoms cut across diagnostic boundaries, a new theoretical framework has been proposed that may help in defining new targets for treatment and thus enhance drug development in CNS diseases. In addition, it is argued that new proposals for data-mining and mathematical modelling as well as freely available databanks for neural network and neurochemical models of rodents combined with revised psychiatric classification will lead to validated new targets for drug development.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Villamor, Eduardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Alomar, Yaser Ibrahim; Passera, Sofia; +3 Authors

    Cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) represents the most commonly acquired lesion of the posterior fossa in the neonatal period. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies exploring the perinatal risk factors and neurological outcome of CBH in preterm infants. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if they examined preterm infants and reported primary data on maternal, obstetric, or perinatal characteristics, and/or outcomes of infants with and without CBH. A random-effects model was used to calculate mean differences (MD), odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found 231 potentially relevant studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria (4,236 infants, 347 CBH cases). Meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant association between CBH and multiple gestation, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, use of antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery, or infant sex. Infants with CBH had a significantly lower gestational age (6 studies, MD -1.55 weeks, 95% CI -1.93 to -1.16) and birth weight (6 studies, MD -173g, 95% CI -225 to -120), and significantly higher rates of intubation at birth, hypotension, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CBH was significantly associated with delayed mental (6 studies, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.20) and psychomotor (6 studies, OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.34 to 9.76) development, and higher rates of cerebral palsy (4 studies, OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.19). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis shows that the youngest and sickest preterm infants are at higher risk of developing CBH. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of CBH and reinforce the idea that cerebellar injury in very preterm newborns has important neurodevelopmental consequences among survivors.

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    Other ORP type . 2019
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