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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrew Linn;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press

    Abstract This chapter deals with the processes by which the European vernaculars gained prestige vis-à-vis Latin from the late Middle Ages onwards. It addresses the “idea” of a standard language and how this has been advanced by particular actors and institutions across Europe, focusing primarily on the period from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century. It also considers whether standard languages are now outmoded concepts and suggests that we are now in a period characterized by destandardization.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2002
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jianhan Zhu; Jun Hong; John Hughes;
    Publisher: Springer

    The large number of Web pages on many Web sites has raised\ud navigational problems. Markov chains have recently been used to model user navigational behavior on the World Wide Web (WWW). In this paper, we propose a method for constructing a Markov model of a Web site based on past\ud visitor behavior. We use the Markov model to make link predictions that assist new users to navigate the Web site. An algorithm for transition probability\ud matrix compression has been used to cluster Web pages with similar transition behaviors and compress the transition matrix to an optimal size for efficient probability calculation in link prediction. A maximal forward path method is used to further improve the efficiency of link prediction. Link prediction has been implemented in an online system called ONE (Online Navigation Explorer) to assist users' navigation in the adaptive Web site.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Oraee, Behdeen; Tavassoli, Mahdi; Oraee, Kazem;
    Publisher: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
    Country: United Kingdom

    Since the advent of New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), shotcrete as a primary means of support in tunnels has been widely applied. It’s most important features are durability, speed of application and cost effectiveness. This paper introduces some tables that provide guidelines for the thickness of shotcrete required in some common situations of mine roadways. In order to devise such tables, two different arch sections, together with three different overburden types, were considered. Geotechnical parameters such as apparent cohesion and angle of internal friction of surrounding rocks were chosen, based on the five-category classification of Bieniawski. Two K0 factors (the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress) and an average rock density were utilized. Using numerical methods, 60 models were then devised in this way. By applying interaction diagrams of axial force and the bending moment for different thicknesses of shotcrete, appropriate shotcrete thickness for these models were calculated. The results of this research, as well as the methodology applied, can be used in mining roadway support design and all types of civil engineering tunnels.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Book . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    M-Dyaa Albakour; Udo Kruschwitz; Nikolaos Nanas; Yunhyong Kim; Dawei Song; Maria Fasli; Anne De Roeck;
    Publisher: Springer-Verlag
    Project: UKRI | Automatic Adaptation of K... (EP/F035357/1)

    User evaluations of search engines are expensive and not easy to replicate. The problem is even more pronounced when assessing adaptive search systems, for example system-generated query modification suggestions that can be derived from past user interactions with a search engine. Automatically predicting the performance of different modification suggestion models before getting the users involved is therefore highly desirable. AutoEval is an evaluation methodology that assesses the quality of query modifications generated by a model using the query logs of past user interactions with the system. We present experimental results of applying this methodology to different adaptive algorithms which suggest that the predicted quality of different algorithms is in line with user assessments. This makes AutoEval a suitable evaluation framework for adaptive interactive search engines.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Asanga Nimalasena; Vladimir Getov;
    Publisher: Springer

    Key feature of a context-aware application is the ability to adapt based on the change of context. Two approaches that are widely used in this regard are the context-action pair mapping where developers match an action to execute for a particular context change and the adaptive learning where a context-aware application refines its action over time based on the preceding action’s outcome. Both these approaches have limitation which makes them unsuitable in situations where a context-aware application has to deal with unknown context changes. In this paper we propose a framework where adaptation is carried out via concurrent multi-action evaluation of a dynamically created action space. This dynamic creation of the action space eliminates the need for relying on the developers to create context-action pairs and the concurrent multi-action evaluation reduces the adaptation time as opposed to the iterative approach used by adaptive learning techniques. Using our reference implementation of the framework we show how it could be used to dynamically determine the threshold price in an e-commerce system which uses the name-your-own-price (NYOP) strategy.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Roman Shrestha; Cornelius Glackin; Julie Wall; Nigel Cannings;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Birds embody particular phonic and visual traits that distinguish them from 10,000 distinct bird species worldwide. Birds are also perceived to be indicators of biodiversity due to their propensity for responding to changes in their environment. An effective, automatic wildlife monitoring system based on bird bioacoustics, which can support manual classification, can be pivotal for the protection of the environment and endangered species. In modern machine learning, real-life bird audio classification is still considered as an esoteric challenge owing to the convoluted patterns present in bird song, and the complications that arise when numerous bird species are present in a common setting. Existing avian bioacoustic monitoring systems struggle when multiple bird species are present in an audio segment. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Network bird audio diarization system that incorporates object detection in the spectral domain and performs diarization of 50 bird species to effectively tackle the `which bird spoke when?' problem. Benchmark results are presented using the Bird Songs from Europe dataset achieving a Diarization Error Rate of 21.81, Jaccard Error Rate of 20.94 and F1, precision and recall values of 0.85, 0.83 and 0.87 respectively.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Charles B. Haley; Robin Laney; Jonathan D. Moffett; Bashar Nuseibeh;
    Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

    This position paper describes work on trust assumptions in the con-text of security requirements. We show how trust assumptions can affect the scope of the analysis, derivation of security requirements, and in some cases how functionality is realized. An example shows how trust assumptions are used by a requirements engineer to help define and limit the scope of analysis and to document the decisions made during the process.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Angelo Antonio Salatino; Francesco Osborne; Thiviyan Thanapalasingam; Enrico Motta;
    Publisher: Springer

    Classifying research papers according to their research topics is an important task to improve their retrievability, assist the creation of smart analytics, and support a variety of approaches for analysing and making sense of the research environment. In this paper, we present the CSO Classifier, a new unsupervised approach for automatically classifying research papers according to the Computer Science Ontology (CSO), a comprehensive ontology of re-search areas in the field of Computer Science. The CSO Classifier takes as input the metadata associated with a research paper (title, abstract, keywords) and returns a selection of research concepts drawn from the ontology. The approach was evaluated on a gold standard of manually annotated articles yielding a significant improvement over alternative methods. Conference paper at TPDL 2019

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Leo Havemann;
    Publisher: Springer Singapore
    Country: United Kingdom

    Introduces the notion of OER and situates it within a wider open education movement, which has more recently seen a turn to the consideration of 'open educational practices'.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sylvest, Matthew E.; Dixon, John C.; Conway, Susan J.; Patel, Manish R.; McElwaine, Jim N.; Hagermann, Axel; Barnes, Adam;
    Publisher: The Geological Society of London
    Project: EC | UPWARDS (633127), EC | EPN2020-RI (654208)

    Martian gullies were initially hypothesized to be carved by liquid water, due to their resemblance to gullies on Earth. Recent observations have highlighted significant sediment transport events occurring in Martian gullies at times and places where CO2 ice should be actively sublimating. Here we explore the role of CO2 sublimation in mobilizing sediment through laboratory simulation. In our previous experimental work, we reported the first observations of sediment slope movement triggered by the sublimation of CO2 frost. We used a Mars regolith simulant near the angle of repose. The current study extends our previous work by including two additional substrates, fine and coarse sand, and by testing slope angles down to 10°. We find that the Mars regolith simulant is active down to 17°, the fine sand is active only near the angle of repose and the coarse sand shows negligible movement. Using an analytical model, we show that under Martian gravity motion should be possible at even lower slope angles. We conclude that these mass-wasting processes could be involved in shaping Martian gullies at the present day and intriguingly the newly reported CO2-creep process could provide an alternative explanation for putative solifluction lobes on Mars.

search
Include:
683 Research products, page 1 of 69
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrew Linn;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press

    Abstract This chapter deals with the processes by which the European vernaculars gained prestige vis-à-vis Latin from the late Middle Ages onwards. It addresses the “idea” of a standard language and how this has been advanced by particular actors and institutions across Europe, focusing primarily on the period from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century. It also considers whether standard languages are now outmoded concepts and suggests that we are now in a period characterized by destandardization.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2002
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jianhan Zhu; Jun Hong; John Hughes;
    Publisher: Springer

    The large number of Web pages on many Web sites has raised\ud navigational problems. Markov chains have recently been used to model user navigational behavior on the World Wide Web (WWW). In this paper, we propose a method for constructing a Markov model of a Web site based on past\ud visitor behavior. We use the Markov model to make link predictions that assist new users to navigate the Web site. An algorithm for transition probability\ud matrix compression has been used to cluster Web pages with similar transition behaviors and compress the transition matrix to an optimal size for efficient probability calculation in link prediction. A maximal forward path method is used to further improve the efficiency of link prediction. Link prediction has been implemented in an online system called ONE (Online Navigation Explorer) to assist users' navigation in the adaptive Web site.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Oraee, Behdeen; Tavassoli, Mahdi; Oraee, Kazem;
    Publisher: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
    Country: United Kingdom

    Since the advent of New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), shotcrete as a primary means of support in tunnels has been widely applied. It’s most important features are durability, speed of application and cost effectiveness. This paper introduces some tables that provide guidelines for the thickness of shotcrete required in some common situations of mine roadways. In order to devise such tables, two different arch sections, together with three different overburden types, were considered. Geotechnical parameters such as apparent cohesion and angle of internal friction of surrounding rocks were chosen, based on the five-category classification of Bieniawski. Two K0 factors (the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress) and an average rock density were utilized. Using numerical methods, 60 models were then devised in this way. By applying interaction diagrams of axial force and the bending moment for different thicknesses of shotcrete, appropriate shotcrete thickness for these models were calculated. The results of this research, as well as the methodology applied, can be used in mining roadway support design and all types of civil engineering tunnels.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Book . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    M-Dyaa Albakour; Udo Kruschwitz; Nikolaos Nanas; Yunhyong Kim; Dawei Song; Maria Fasli; Anne De Roeck;
    Publisher: Springer-Verlag
    Project: UKRI | Automatic Adaptation of K... (EP/F035357/1)

    User evaluations of search engines are expensive and not easy to replicate. The problem is even more pronounced when assessing adaptive search systems, for example system-generated query modification suggestions that can be derived from past user interactions with a search engine. Automatically predicting the performance of different modification suggestion models before getting the users involved is therefore highly desirable. AutoEval is an evaluation methodology that assesses the quality of query modifications generated by a model using the query logs of past user interactions with the system. We present experimental results of applying this methodology to different adaptive algorithms which suggest that the predicted quality of different algorithms is in line with user assessments. This makes AutoEval a suitable evaluation framework for adaptive interactive search engines.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Asanga Nimalasena; Vladimir Getov;
    Publisher: Springer

    Key feature of a context-aware application is the ability to adapt based on the change of context. Two approaches that are widely used in this regard are the context-action pair mapping where developers match an action to execute for a particular context change and the adaptive learning where a context-aware application refines its action over time based on the preceding action’s outcome. Both these approaches have limitation which makes them unsuitable in situations where a context-aware application has to deal with unknown context changes. In this paper we propose a framework where adaptation is carried out via concurrent multi-action evaluation of a dynamically created action space. This dynamic creation of the action space eliminates the need for relying on the developers to create context-action pairs and the concurrent multi-action evaluation reduces the adaptation time as opposed to the iterative approach used by adaptive learning techniques. Using our reference implementation of the framework we show how it could be used to dynamically determine the threshold price in an e-commerce system which uses the name-your-own-price (NYOP) strategy.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Roman Shrestha; Cornelius Glackin; Julie Wall; Nigel Cannings;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Birds embody particular phonic and visual traits that distinguish them from 10,000 distinct bird species worldwide. Birds are also perceived to be indicators of biodiversity due to their propensity for responding to changes in their environment. An effective, automatic wildlife monitoring system based on bird bioacoustics, which can support manual classification, can be pivotal for the protection of the environment and endangered species. In modern machine learning, real-life bird audio classification is still considered as an esoteric challenge owing to the convoluted patterns present in bird song, and the complications that arise when numerous bird species are present in a common setting. Existing avian bioacoustic monitoring systems struggle when multiple bird species are present in an audio segment. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Network bird audio diarization system that incorporates object detection in the spectral domain and performs diarization of 50 bird species to effectively tackle the `which bird spoke when?' problem. Benchmark results are presented using the Bird Songs from Europe dataset achieving a Diarization Error Rate of 21.81, Jaccard Error Rate of 20.94 and F1, precision and recall values of 0.85, 0.83 and 0.87 respectively.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Charles B. Haley; Robin Laney; Jonathan D. Moffett; Bashar Nuseibeh;
    Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

    This position paper describes work on trust assumptions in the con-text of security requirements. We show how trust assumptions can affect the scope of the analysis, derivation of security requirements, and in some cases how functionality is realized. An example shows how trust assumptions are used by a requirements engineer to help define and limit the scope of analysis and to document the decisions made during the process.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Angelo Antonio Salatino; Francesco Osborne; Thiviyan Thanapalasingam; Enrico Motta;
    Publisher: Springer

    Classifying research papers according to their research topics is an important task to improve their retrievability, assist the creation of smart analytics, and support a variety of approaches for analysing and making sense of the research environment. In this paper, we present the CSO Classifier, a new unsupervised approach for automatically classifying research papers according to the Computer Science Ontology (CSO), a comprehensive ontology of re-search areas in the field of Computer Science. The CSO Classifier takes as input the metadata associated with a research paper (title, abstract, keywords) and returns a selection of research concepts drawn from the ontology. The approach was evaluated on a gold standard of manually annotated articles yielding a significant improvement over alternative methods. Conference paper at TPDL 2019

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Leo Havemann;
    Publisher: Springer Singapore
    Country: United Kingdom

    Introduces the notion of OER and situates it within a wider open education movement, which has more recently seen a turn to the consideration of 'open educational practices'.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sylvest, Matthew E.; Dixon, John C.; Conway, Susan J.; Patel, Manish R.; McElwaine, Jim N.; Hagermann, Axel; Barnes, Adam;
    Publisher: The Geological Society of London
    Project: EC | UPWARDS (633127), EC | EPN2020-RI (654208)

    Martian gullies were initially hypothesized to be carved by liquid water, due to their resemblance to gullies on Earth. Recent observations have highlighted significant sediment transport events occurring in Martian gullies at times and places where CO2 ice should be actively sublimating. Here we explore the role of CO2 sublimation in mobilizing sediment through laboratory simulation. In our previous experimental work, we reported the first observations of sediment slope movement triggered by the sublimation of CO2 frost. We used a Mars regolith simulant near the angle of repose. The current study extends our previous work by including two additional substrates, fine and coarse sand, and by testing slope angles down to 10°. We find that the Mars regolith simulant is active down to 17°, the fine sand is active only near the angle of repose and the coarse sand shows negligible movement. Using an analytical model, we show that under Martian gravity motion should be possible at even lower slope angles. We conclude that these mass-wasting processes could be involved in shaping Martian gullies at the present day and intriguingly the newly reported CO2-creep process could provide an alternative explanation for putative solifluction lobes on Mars.

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