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  • ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
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  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Deni Suwardhi; Fabio Menna; Fabio Remondino; Klaus Hanke; Rizka Akmalia;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications

    Abstract. The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    B. Danthine; G. Hiebel; C. Posch; H. Stadler;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications

    Abstract. In this article a use case is presented how a semantic network can be used to enrich the existing virtual exhibition “They Shared their Destiny. Women and the Cossacks’ Tragedy in Lienz 1945” about the fate of women during the Cossack tragedy in Lienz. By connecting via CIDOC CRM information about people, events, finds and places the goal was not only to make this information interoperable, but also to integrate the resulting knowledge graph into the exhibition, thus providing a further navigation level and enhancing the visitors’ experience.First, a short introduction to the existing exhibition and the presented project is given. In the second part, the scientific background of CIDOC CRM and its semantically enriched 3D content is outlined. In the third part the implementation and the project as a use case is described with respect to the data modelling and the integration of the semantic network into the 3-dimensional environment as well as the integration of spatial aspects and other internet resources. At the end, there is a summary with an outlook on future planned projects.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Conference object . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michael Winkler; W. T. Pfeffer; Klaus Hanke;
    Project: FWF | Climate Change and Ice Ca... (P 20089), FWF | Impacts of Climate Variab... (P 22106)

    Abstract. The glaciers on the summit plateau of Kibo, the main peak of the Kilimanjaro massif (3°S, 37°E, 5895 m a.s.l.) in Tanzania, are characterized by steep ice cliffs at their margins. These form-persistent cliffs continuously retreat and, consequently, govern the decrease in plateau glacier area. In order to quantify the ice cliff recession and study their morphology, close-range terrestrial photogrammetry combined with automatic stereo matching techniques was used to derive high resolution digital surface models of a south-facing “sample cliff” at four different dates. Results confirm, firstly, the annually bimodal nature of the recession being 15 cm/month during a 4.5 month sunlit phase and 2 cm/month during the remaining 7.5 month shaded phase, and, secondly, the tendency towards an “ideal cliff orientation”, which is either south- or north-facing and about 70°-75° steep. Moreover, the hypothesis of a predefined decay period for the plateau ice is supported by this study and it is shown that terrestrial photogrammetry is not only cheap and lightweight but also very suitable for ice surveys at the decameter scale.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rutzinger, M.; Anders, K.; Bremer, M.; Höfle, Bernhard; Lindenbergh, Roderik C.; Oude Elberink, S.; Pirotti, F.; Scaioni, M.; Zieher, T.; Paparoditis, N.; +9 more
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Countries: Italy, Netherlands, Italy

    Abstract. The 3rd edition of the international summer school “Close-range Sensing Techniques in Alpine terrain” took place in Obergurgl, Austria, in June 2019. This article reports on results from the training and seminar activities and the outcome of student questionnaire survey. Comparison between the recent edition and the past edition in 2017 shows no significant differences on the level of satisfaction on organizational and training aspects. Gender balance was present both in candidates and in the outcome of selections. Selection was based on past research activities and on topic relevance. The majority of trainees were therefore doctoral candidates and postdoctoral researchers, but also motivated master students participated. The training took place through keynotes, lectures, seminars, in the field with hands-on surveys followed by data analysis in the lab, and teamwork for preparing a final team presentation over different assignments.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    M. Bremer; M. Bremer; V. Wichmann; M. Rutzinger; T. Zieher; J. Pfeiffer;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Project: EC | OPERANDUM (776848)

    Abstract. In complex mountainous terrain the mapping efficiency is a crucial factor. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based laser scanning (ULS) has the capability for efficient mapping, as it allows realizing higher flight velocities, higher flying altitude above ground level (AGL) and larger distances between neighbouring flight strips, compared to image based techniques. However, fully utilising the efficiency of the system in mission planning (especially for complex terrain projects, where occlusions and differently inclined surfaces are present) is prone to miss the project requirements in terms of point density and strip overlap. Therefore, the numerical simulation of point densities is a helpful tool for realizing a reliable planning of scan coverage. We implemented a ray-tracing-based ULS-simulator, specifically designed for emulating the mechanism of a Riegl VUX-1LR laser scanner carried by a Riegl RiCOPTER. The simulator can consider copter and scanner motion, which makes it possible to generate synthetic scan data excluding or including the aircraft movement due to aerodynamics by using either planned trajectories from a flight planning software or recorded and post-processed trajectories from an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Laser shots are simulated by intersecting rays from the virtual scanner with a mesh-based digital surface model (DSM). The results show that the tool generates plausible synthetic laser point distributions. However, this is only the case, when aircraft aerodynamics are considered, as the effect of striping due to flight control corrections during the flight is very prominent. It can be shown that applying the presented tool for mission planning (without knowing the actual flight movements) has to consider an error margin of ±50pts/m2 in order to guarantee a compliance with the planned project requirements. Nevertheless, the consideration of terrain by a high resolution DSM, especially in complex terrain, improves the correlation between simulated and real point densities significantly.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Frank Steinbacher; Martin Pfennigbauer; Markus Aufleger; Andreas Ullrich;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH

    Abstract. In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved throughout the project. During the data processing meshes for multiple purposes like monitoring sediment transport or accumulation and hydro-dynamic numeric modeling were generated. The meshes were professionally conditioned considering the adherence of, both, geometric and physical mesh quality criterions. Whereas the research is focused on the design and implementation of monitoring database structures, the airborne hydrographic data are also made available for classical processing means (cross sections, longitudinal section).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gerald Hiebel; Klaus Hanke;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications

    Abstract. The ancient mining landscape of Schwaz/Brixlegg in the Tyrol, Austria witnessed mining from prehistoric times to modern times creating a first order cultural landscape when it comes to one of the most important inventions in human history: the production of metal. In 1991 a part of this landscape was lost due to an enormous landslide that reshaped part of the mountain. With our work we want to propose a digital workflow to create a 3D semantic representation of this ancient mining landscape with its mining structures to preserve it for posterity. First, we define a conceptual model to integrate the data. It is based on the CIDOC CRM ontology and CRMgeo for geometric data. To transform our information sources to a formal representation of the classes and properties of the ontology we applied semantic web technologies and created a knowledge graph in RDF (Resource Description Framework). Through the CRMgeo extension coordinate information of mining features can be integrated into the RDF graph and thus related to the detailed digital elevation model that may be visualized together with the mining structures using Geoinformation systems or 3D visualization tools. The RDF network of the triple store can be queried using the SPARQL query language. We created a snapshot of mining, settlement and burial sites in the Bronze Age. The results of the query were loaded into a Geoinformation system and a visualization of known bronze age sites related to mining, settlement and burial activities was created.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Klaus Hanke; Michael Moser; R. Rampold;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications

    Abstract. The basis of the photogrammetric reconstruction of the altar at the monastery / church are 2 historic photos from around 1920’s as well as a 3D documentation of the church from terrestrial laser scanning. The point cloud from the laser scan was the starting point for an approximate computation of the interior and exterior orientation of that image that also contains parts of the altar area that still do exist. Using a projection of the recent geometry into the image allowed the analysis of changes of the altar ensemble since the time of image acquisition. Those parts that are still in situ are the origin for further action. Whether fragments and parts should be used further or newly positioned was decided in the next phase of reconstruction process. The focus of the first step of the workflow was at the outlines of the parts in the center of the altar. Using a monoplotting approach and assuming that the profiles are vertical and parallel to each other these object could be definitely compiled. Theses outlines also allowed an approximate determination of the interior and exterior orientation of the second historic photograph in which otherwise the complete connection to the recent altar area was missing. The side parts of the altar showed to be more complicated for reconstruction. The difference in depth of the varying edges could not be distinguished any more in the images. Such, the sequence and form of the different edges was adopted, scaled and transferred from the central part of the altar to the peripheral ones. Using this geometric information it was possible to define the necessary projection planes for the monoplotting restitution of the visible outlines. A concluding rigorous control was accomplished by back projection of the geometry into both historical images.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Conference object . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kristóf Kovács; Klaus Hanke;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications

    Abstract. The improvement of detailed surface documentation methods provides unique tool mark-study opportunities in the field of archaeological researches. One of these data collection techniques is short-range laser scanning, which creates a digital copy of the object’s morphological characteristics from high-resolution datasets. The aim of our work was the accurate documentation of a Bronze Age sluice box from Mitterberg, Austria with a spatial resolution of 0.2 mm. Furthermore, the investigation of the entirely preserved tool marks on the surface of this archaeological find was also accomplished by these datasets. The methodology of this tool mark-study can be summarized in the following way: At first, a local hydrologic analysis has been applied to separate the various patterns of tools on the finds’ surface. As a result, the XYZ coordinates of the special points, which represent the edge lines of the sliding tool marks, were calculated by buffer operations in a GIS environment. During the second part of the workflow, these edge points were utilized to manually clip the triangle meshes of these patterns in reverse engineering software. Finally, circle features were generated and analysed to determine the different sections along these sliding tool marks. In conclusion, the movement of the hand tool could be reproduced by the spatial analysis of the created features, since the horizontal and vertical position of the defined circle centre points indicated the various phases of the movements. This research shows an exact workflow to determine the fine morphological structures on the surface of the archaeological find.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andreas Mayr; Martin Rutzinger; Clemens Geitner;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH

    Abstract. To date multi-temporal 3D point clouds from close-range sensing are used for landslide and erosion monitoring in an operational manner. Morphological changes are typically derived by calculating distances between points from different acquisition epochs. The identification of the underlying processes resulting in surface changes, however, is often challenging, for example due to the complex surface structures and influences from seasonal vegetation dynamics. We present an approach for object-based 3D landslide monitoring based on topographic LiDAR point cloud time series separating specific surface change types automatically. The workflow removes vegetation and relates surface changes derived from a point cloud time series directly to (i) geomorphological object classes (landslide scarp, eroded area, deposit) and (ii) to individual, spatially contiguous objects (such as parts of the landslide scarp and clods of material moving in the landslide). We apply this approach to a time series of nine point cloud epochs from a slope affected by two shallow landslides. A parameter test addresses the influence of the registration error and the associated level of detection on the magnitude of derived object changes. The results of our case study are in accordance with field observations at the test site as well as conceptual landslide models, where retrogressive erosion of the scarp and downslope movement of the sliding mass are major principles of secondary landslide development. We conclude that the presented methods are well suited to extract information on geomorphological process dynamics from the complex point clouds and aggregate it at different levels of abstraction to assist landslide and erosion assessment.

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