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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Errol Lord; Kurt Sylvan;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Reasons fundamentalists maintain that we can analyze all derivative normative properties in terms of normative reasons. These theorists famously encounter the Wrong Kind of Reasons (WKR) problem, since not all reasons for reactions seem relevant for reasons-based analyses. Some have argued that this problem is a general one for many theorists, and claim that this lightens the burden for reasons fundamentalists. We argue in this paper that the reverse is true: the generality of the problem makes life harder for reasons fundamentalists. We do this in two stages. First, we show that reflection on the generality of the distinction between wrong-kind reasons and right-kind reasons shows that not all right-kind reasons are normative reasons. So, not only do reasons-based analyses require a distinction between right-kind reasons and wrong-kind reasons, they also need a distinction between normative right-kind reasons from nonnormative right-kind reasons. We call this the Right Kind of Reasons Problem. In the second stage of the paper, we argue that reasons fundamentalism places tight constraints on its proper solution: in particular, it forbids one from appealing to anything normative to distinguish normative RKRs from nonnormative RKRs. It hence seems that reasons fundamentalists can only appeal to natural facts to solve the problem, but it is unclear which ones can do the job. So, reflection on the generality of the distinction only multiplies the fundamentalist’s problems. We end by exploring several solutions to these problems, and recommend a form of constitutivism as the best.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jianhua Wu; Shihua Zhu; Guiqing Lily Yao; Mohammed A Mohammed; Tom Marshall;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Country: United Kingdom

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines indicate eligibility for lipid lowering drugs, but it is not known to what extent GPs' follow guidelines in routine clinical practice or whether additional clinical factors systematically influence their prescribing decisions. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was undertaken using electronic primary care records from 421 UK general practices. At baseline (May 2008) patients were aged 30 to 74 years, free from cardiovascular disease and not taking lipid lowering drugs. The outcome was prescription of a lipid lowering drug within the next two years. The proportions of eligible and ineligible patients prescribed lipid lowering drugs were reported and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and prescribing. RESULTS: Of 365,718 patients with complete data, 13.8% (50,558) were prescribed lipid lowering drugs: 28.5% (21,101/74,137) of those eligible and 10.1% (29,457/291,581) of those ineligible. Only 41.7% (21,101/50,558) of those prescribed lipid lowering drugs were eligible. In multivariable analysis prescribing was most strongly associated with increasing age (OR for age ≥ 65 years 4.21; 95% CI 4.05-4.39); diabetes (OR 4.49; 95% CI 4.35-4.64); total cholesterol level ≥ 7 mmol/L (OR 2.20; 95% CI 2.12-2.29); and ≥ 4 blood pressure measurements in the past year (OR 4.24; 95% CI 4.06-4.42). The predictors were similar in eligible and ineligible patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention are prescribed to ineligible patients. There is underuse of lipid lowering drugs in eligible patients.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Norhazlina Hamid; Robert John Walters; Gary Wills;
    Publisher: IACSIT Press
    Country: United Kingdom

    The aim of this research is to design a new architecture for large-scale clusters to improve the communication within the interconnection network to gain higher performance. The new architecture will be based on clusters built using workstations containing multi cored processors in a multi-cluster architecture in the presence of uniform traffic. Multi-core technology is proposed to achieve higher performance without driving up power consumption and heat, which is the main concern in a single-core processor. The architecture will avoid congestion and deadlocks in the network to guarantee faster message transmission. The architecture performance will be validated through simulation, experimental and measurements under various working conditions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Foster, R.M.; Macleod Clark, J.L.; Curson, J.;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background The make-up of the health and social care workforce is influenced by the career decisions and pathways taken by professionals within that workforce. This poster reports the pilot phase of a longitudinal study exploring the early career pathways of health and social care professionals. The pilot study group comprised a sample of recent graduates from 10 different programmes taught at the University of Southampton and the University of Portsmouth. Methods Contact details were provided by a group of health and social care students during their final year of study: either 2006 or 2007. In autumn 2008, a random sample of 200 of these students, who had now graduated, was selected. The selected graduates were then sent a questionnaire survey. A reminder letter and second questionnaire were sent to those from whom no reply had been received after two weeks. The survey results were analysed using Excel and SPSS.Results Questionnaires were returned from graduates in 10 professions. All the respondents were currently in paid employment and most were working in the profession for which they had graduated. Over half had had at least one other job since graduating. The majority of respondents planned to continue working in their current profession, around a third expected to stay in their current job for less than a year. Implications Results from this study will highlight the career pathways taken by health and social care graduates and will enhance understanding of their career patterns, thus informing workforce planning for service providers.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Graham D. Quartly;
    Country: United Kingdom

    TOPEX and Jason were the first two dual-frequency altimeters in space, with both operating at Ku- and C-band. Each thus gives two measurements of the normalized backscatter, sigma0, (from which wind speed is calculated) and two estimates of wave height. Departures from a well-defined relationship between the Ku- and C-band sigma0 values give an indication of rain.This paper investigates differences between the two instruments using data from Jason's verification phase. Jason's Ku-band estimates of wave height are ~1.8% less than TOPEX's, whereas its sigma0 values are higher. When these effects have been removed the root mean square (r.m.s.) mismatch between TOPEX and Jason's Ku-band observations is close to that for TOPEX's observations at its two frequencies, and the changes in sigma0 with varying wave height conditions are the same for the two altimeters. Rain flagging and quantitative estimates of rain rate are both based on the atmospheric attenuation derived from the sigma0 measurements at the two frequencies. The attenuation estimates of TOPEX and Jason agree very well, and a threshold of -0.5 dB is effective at removing the majority of spurious data records from the Jason GDRs. In the high sigma0 regime, anomalous data can be cause by processes other than rain. Consequently, for these low wind conditions, neither can reliable rain detection be based on altimetry alone, nor can a generic rain flag be expected to remove all suspect data.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brooks, Jacob R.; Dusane, Devendra; Moore, Kelly; Gupta, Tripti Thapa; Delury, Craig; Aiken, Sean; Laycock, Phillip A.; Sullivan, Anne; Granger, Jeffrey F.; Dipane, Matthew V.; +2 more
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: United Kingdom

    Introduction: Bacterial biofilms are an important virulence factor in chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and other orthopedic infection since they are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host immunity. Antibiotics are mixed into carriers such as bone cement and calcium sulfate bone void fillers to achieve sustained high concentrations of antibiotics required to more effectively manage biofilm infections through local release. The effect of antibiotic diffusion from antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (ALCS-B) in combination with PMMA bone cement spacers on the spread and killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen41 (PA-Xen41) biofilm was investigated using a “large agar plate” model scaled for clinical relevance. Methods: Bioluminescent PA-Xen41 biofilms grown on discs of various orthopedic materials were placed within a large agar plate containing a PMMA full-size mock “spacer” unloaded or loaded with vancomycin and tobramycin, with or without ALCS-B. The amount of biofilm spread and log reduction on discs at varying distances from the spacer was assessed by bioluminescent imaging and viable cell counts. Results: For the unloaded spacer control, PA-Xen41 spread from the biofilm to cover the entire plate. The loaded spacer generated a 3 cm zone of inhibition and significantly reduced biofilm bacteria on the discs immediately adjacent to the spacer but low or zero reductions on those further away. The combination of ALCS-B and a loaded PMMA spacer greatly reduced bacterial spread and resulted in significantly greater biofilm reductions on discs at all distances from the spacer. Discussion: The addition of ALCS-B to an antibiotic-loaded spacer mimic increased the area of antibiotic coverage and efficacy against biofilm, suggesting that a combination of these depots may provide greater physical antibiotic coverage and more effective dead space management, particularly in zones where the spread of antibiotic is limited by diffusion (zones with little or no fluid motion).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hall, Richard;
    Publisher: University of Southampton
    Country: United Kingdom

    The ecology of the fungus, Vertlciilium lecanii, and its potential as a microbiological insect cide against the aphids, MyzuS persicae, Macrosiphoniella sanborni and Brachycaudus helichrysz, on glasshouse chrysanthemums have been examined.To achieve reproducibility, a single-spore isolate of V. lecanii, C-3, was used and designated as standard. It produced conidiospores on solid media and, more abundantly and readily, blastospores in liquid media. In nutritional studies, submerged production of conidiospores was not achieved. In aqueous suspension, conidiospores survived longer than blastospores. Conidiospores exposed below 80% relative humidity soon died, the speed of death depending on the spore microenvironment.A bioassay technique was developed and is believed to be the first statistically reliable method of quantifying fungal spore pathogenicity towards insects. With M. sanborni.the semi-weighted mean lethal concentration 50% of 28 assays was 1.83 x 10"' spore /ml suspension (fiducial limits, 1.45 and 2.31). All but one of 15 V„ lecanii strains, some pathogens of other insects and some probable hynerparasxtes of rust fungi, were similar in pathogenicity to C-3, Five other strains, all from rust or mildew fungi, were apathogenxc. B ..astospores of C—3 were approximately twice as pathogenic as conidiosporeso With single- and multi-spore isolates, repeated passage through apaids or subcu, ture on agars scarcely altered pathogenicity, but subculture greatly chanced colonial morphology.In glasshouses, blastospores and conidiospores produced similar levels of aphid control. Spore sprays established excellent control of My. persicae within 2-3 weeks, maintaining control for up to 8 weeks. Also, B. helichrysi was controlled in vegetative plant tips but not on tightly closed flower buds. Control of M. sanborni was usually unsatisfactory. In laboratory bioassays, all 3 aphid species were equally susceptible to V. lecariii suggesting that behavioural and ecological factors explain differences in glasshouses. V. lecanii could be used advantageously in integrated control systems on chrysanthemums.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leung, P.K.;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) can be used to store energy on the large and medium scale(kW – MW), particularly in applications such as load levelling of electrical powersupplies, power quality control application and facilitating renewable energy deployment.In this thesis, the development of a divided and undivided zinc-cerium redox flow batteryfrom its fundamental chemistry in aqueous methanesulfonic acid has been described. Thiscomprehensive investigation has focused on the selection of electrode materials,evaluation of zinc corrosion of the negative electrode, characterization of the redox flowbattery and the cycling performance. Voltammetric studies of both the zinc and the ceriumhalf-cell reactions have been carried out under various operating conditions and forelectrolyte compositions. These studies suggested that the positive electrode reactioncould limit the use of higher current densities. After testing a range of two- andthree-dimensional positive electrode materials, only three-dimensional platinised titaniummesh and carbon felts were capable of discharge at 50 mA cm-2 with high charge ( > 70 %)and voltage ( > 60 %) efficiencies in an divided system based on the optimum electrolytecompositions obtained in the half-cell studies. In order to avoid the diffusion of protonsacross the membrane and to simplify the construction, an undivided, membranelesssystem was proposed. With specific design arrangement and carbon felt positive electrode,this system can operate at room temperature with a high energy efficiency (~ 75 %)instead of 60 oC as reported in the patented system in the literature. In order to facilitatezinc electrodeposition and prevent zinc corrosion, several electrolytic additives andcorrosion inhibitors have been suggested. Further challenges and research directions arealso discussed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Potter, S; Conroy, E; Williamson, P; Thrush, S; Whisker, L; Skillman, J; Barnes, N; Cutress, R; Teasdale, E; Mills, N; +8 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background Implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) is the most commonly performed reconstructive procedure in the UK. The introduction of techniques to augment the subpectoral pocket has revolutionised the procedure, but there is a lack of high-quality outcome data to describe the safety or effectiveness of these techniques. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the best way of comparing treatments, but surgical RCTs are challenging. The iBRA (implant breast reconstruction evaluation) study aims to determine the feasibility, design and conduct of a pragmatic RCT to examine the effectiveness of approaches to IBBR. Methods/design The iBRA study is a trainee-led research collaborative project with four phases: Phase 1 – a national practice questionnaire (NPQ) to survey current practice Phase 2 – a multi-centre prospective cohort study of patients undergoing IBBR to evaluate the clinical and patient-reported outcomes Phase 3– an IBBR-RCT acceptability survey and qualitative work to explore patients’ and surgeons’ views of proposed trial designs and candidate outcomes. Phase 4 – phases 1 to 3 will inform the design and conduct of the future RCT All centres offering IBBR will be encouraged to participate by the breast and plastic surgical professional associations (Association of Breast Surgery and British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons). Data collected will inform the feasibility of undertaking an RCT by defining current practice and exploring issues surrounding recruitment, selection of comparator arms, choice of primary outcome, sample size, selection criteria, trial conduct, methods of data collection and feasibility of using the trainee collaborative model to recruit patients and collect data. Discussion The preliminary work undertaken within the iBRA study will determine the feasibility, design and conduct of a definitive RCT in IBBR. It will work with the trainee collaborative to build capacity by creating an infrastructure of research-active breast and plastic surgeons which will facilitate future high-quality research that will ultimately improve outcomes for all women seeking reconstructive surgery.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alotaibi, Sara Jeza; Wald, Mike;
    Country: United Kingdom

    The modern world is populated with a great many physical and virtual IAMS (Identity Access Management Systems), where people need to maintain various login credentials. There is a key issue associated with this approach, which is the ability to remember this information; however, this can be circumvented to some degree through utilising an innovative approach of a single sign-in mechanism. Throughout the course of recent times, a number of different systems have been developed in order to deliver both virtual and physical IAMS. Moreover, in addition to a greater level of awareness to ensure interoperable virtual and physical IAMS are implemented, there is a pressing urgency for clear guidelines to be devised relating to the integration of: security, comprising identity; user experience, involving usability; and acceptability, encompassing accessibility. Very few models adhere to such guidelines; therefore, this paper seeks to deal with the pressing need to devise, implement and evaluate a model for acceptable user experience, enabling the successful integration of physical and virtual public services in an e-government context. In regard to the users’ assessment, which tests the suggested Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), it was observed that there is an indirect impact on behavioural intention to utilise a new prototype system (Ubiquitous Identity Access Management System ”UbIAMS” ) through various factors, namely effort expectancy, performance expectancy and social influence, as well as through items relating to acceptability and user experience

search
Include:
67,501 Research products, page 1 of 6,751
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Errol Lord; Kurt Sylvan;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Reasons fundamentalists maintain that we can analyze all derivative normative properties in terms of normative reasons. These theorists famously encounter the Wrong Kind of Reasons (WKR) problem, since not all reasons for reactions seem relevant for reasons-based analyses. Some have argued that this problem is a general one for many theorists, and claim that this lightens the burden for reasons fundamentalists. We argue in this paper that the reverse is true: the generality of the problem makes life harder for reasons fundamentalists. We do this in two stages. First, we show that reflection on the generality of the distinction between wrong-kind reasons and right-kind reasons shows that not all right-kind reasons are normative reasons. So, not only do reasons-based analyses require a distinction between right-kind reasons and wrong-kind reasons, they also need a distinction between normative right-kind reasons from nonnormative right-kind reasons. We call this the Right Kind of Reasons Problem. In the second stage of the paper, we argue that reasons fundamentalism places tight constraints on its proper solution: in particular, it forbids one from appealing to anything normative to distinguish normative RKRs from nonnormative RKRs. It hence seems that reasons fundamentalists can only appeal to natural facts to solve the problem, but it is unclear which ones can do the job. So, reflection on the generality of the distinction only multiplies the fundamentalist’s problems. We end by exploring several solutions to these problems, and recommend a form of constitutivism as the best.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jianhua Wu; Shihua Zhu; Guiqing Lily Yao; Mohammed A Mohammed; Tom Marshall;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Country: United Kingdom

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines indicate eligibility for lipid lowering drugs, but it is not known to what extent GPs' follow guidelines in routine clinical practice or whether additional clinical factors systematically influence their prescribing decisions. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was undertaken using electronic primary care records from 421 UK general practices. At baseline (May 2008) patients were aged 30 to 74 years, free from cardiovascular disease and not taking lipid lowering drugs. The outcome was prescription of a lipid lowering drug within the next two years. The proportions of eligible and ineligible patients prescribed lipid lowering drugs were reported and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and prescribing. RESULTS: Of 365,718 patients with complete data, 13.8% (50,558) were prescribed lipid lowering drugs: 28.5% (21,101/74,137) of those eligible and 10.1% (29,457/291,581) of those ineligible. Only 41.7% (21,101/50,558) of those prescribed lipid lowering drugs were eligible. In multivariable analysis prescribing was most strongly associated with increasing age (OR for age ≥ 65 years 4.21; 95% CI 4.05-4.39); diabetes (OR 4.49; 95% CI 4.35-4.64); total cholesterol level ≥ 7 mmol/L (OR 2.20; 95% CI 2.12-2.29); and ≥ 4 blood pressure measurements in the past year (OR 4.24; 95% CI 4.06-4.42). The predictors were similar in eligible and ineligible patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention are prescribed to ineligible patients. There is underuse of lipid lowering drugs in eligible patients.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Norhazlina Hamid; Robert John Walters; Gary Wills;
    Publisher: IACSIT Press
    Country: United Kingdom

    The aim of this research is to design a new architecture for large-scale clusters to improve the communication within the interconnection network to gain higher performance. The new architecture will be based on clusters built using workstations containing multi cored processors in a multi-cluster architecture in the presence of uniform traffic. Multi-core technology is proposed to achieve higher performance without driving up power consumption and heat, which is the main concern in a single-core processor. The architecture will avoid congestion and deadlocks in the network to guarantee faster message transmission. The architecture performance will be validated through simulation, experimental and measurements under various working conditions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Foster, R.M.; Macleod Clark, J.L.; Curson, J.;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background The make-up of the health and social care workforce is influenced by the career decisions and pathways taken by professionals within that workforce. This poster reports the pilot phase of a longitudinal study exploring the early career pathways of health and social care professionals. The pilot study group comprised a sample of recent graduates from 10 different programmes taught at the University of Southampton and the University of Portsmouth. Methods Contact details were provided by a group of health and social care students during their final year of study: either 2006 or 2007. In autumn 2008, a random sample of 200 of these students, who had now graduated, was selected. The selected graduates were then sent a questionnaire survey. A reminder letter and second questionnaire were sent to those from whom no reply had been received after two weeks. The survey results were analysed using Excel and SPSS.Results Questionnaires were returned from graduates in 10 professions. All the respondents were currently in paid employment and most were working in the profession for which they had graduated. Over half had had at least one other job since graduating. The majority of respondents planned to continue working in their current profession, around a third expected to stay in their current job for less than a year. Implications Results from this study will highlight the career pathways taken by health and social care graduates and will enhance understanding of their career patterns, thus informing workforce planning for service providers.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Graham D. Quartly;
    Country: United Kingdom

    TOPEX and Jason were the first two dual-frequency altimeters in space, with both operating at Ku- and C-band. Each thus gives two measurements of the normalized backscatter, sigma0, (from which wind speed is calculated) and two estimates of wave height. Departures from a well-defined relationship between the Ku- and C-band sigma0 values give an indication of rain.This paper investigates differences between the two instruments using data from Jason's verification phase. Jason's Ku-band estimates of wave height are ~1.8% less than TOPEX's, whereas its sigma0 values are higher. When these effects have been removed the root mean square (r.m.s.) mismatch between TOPEX and Jason's Ku-band observations is close to that for TOPEX's observations at its two frequencies, and the changes in sigma0 with varying wave height conditions are the same for the two altimeters. Rain flagging and quantitative estimates of rain rate are both based on the atmospheric attenuation derived from the sigma0 measurements at the two frequencies. The attenuation estimates of TOPEX and Jason agree very well, and a threshold of -0.5 dB is effective at removing the majority of spurious data records from the Jason GDRs. In the high sigma0 regime, anomalous data can be cause by processes other than rain. Consequently, for these low wind conditions, neither can reliable rain detection be based on altimetry alone, nor can a generic rain flag be expected to remove all suspect data.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Brooks, Jacob R.; Dusane, Devendra; Moore, Kelly; Gupta, Tripti Thapa; Delury, Craig; Aiken, Sean; Laycock, Phillip A.; Sullivan, Anne; Granger, Jeffrey F.; Dipane, Matthew V.; +2 more
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: United Kingdom

    Introduction: Bacterial biofilms are an important virulence factor in chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and other orthopedic infection since they are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host immunity. Antibiotics are mixed into carriers such as bone cement and calcium sulfate bone void fillers to achieve sustained high concentrations of antibiotics required to more effectively manage biofilm infections through local release. The effect of antibiotic diffusion from antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (ALCS-B) in combination with PMMA bone cement spacers on the spread and killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen41 (PA-Xen41) biofilm was investigated using a “large agar plate” model scaled for clinical relevance. Methods: Bioluminescent PA-Xen41 biofilms grown on discs of various orthopedic materials were placed within a large agar plate containing a PMMA full-size mock “spacer” unloaded or loaded with vancomycin and tobramycin, with or without ALCS-B. The amount of biofilm spread and log reduction on discs at varying distances from the spacer was assessed by bioluminescent imaging and viable cell counts. Results: For the unloaded spacer control, PA-Xen41 spread from the biofilm to cover the entire plate. The loaded spacer generated a 3 cm zone of inhibition and significantly reduced biofilm bacteria on the discs immediately adjacent to the spacer but low or zero reductions on those further away. The combination of ALCS-B and a loaded PMMA spacer greatly reduced bacterial spread and resulted in significantly greater biofilm reductions on discs at all distances from the spacer. Discussion: The addition of ALCS-B to an antibiotic-loaded spacer mimic increased the area of antibiotic coverage and efficacy against biofilm, suggesting that a combination of these depots may provide greater physical antibiotic coverage and more effective dead space management, particularly in zones where the spread of antibiotic is limited by diffusion (zones with little or no fluid motion).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hall, Richard;
    Publisher: University of Southampton
    Country: United Kingdom

    The ecology of the fungus, Vertlciilium lecanii, and its potential as a microbiological insect cide against the aphids, MyzuS persicae, Macrosiphoniella sanborni and Brachycaudus helichrysz, on glasshouse chrysanthemums have been examined.To achieve reproducibility, a single-spore isolate of V. lecanii, C-3, was used and designated as standard. It produced conidiospores on solid media and, more abundantly and readily, blastospores in liquid media. In nutritional studies, submerged production of conidiospores was not achieved. In aqueous suspension, conidiospores survived longer than blastospores. Conidiospores exposed below 80% relative humidity soon died, the speed of death depending on the spore microenvironment.A bioassay technique was developed and is believed to be the first statistically reliable method of quantifying fungal spore pathogenicity towards insects. With M. sanborni.the semi-weighted mean lethal concentration 50% of 28 assays was 1.83 x 10"' spore /ml suspension (fiducial limits, 1.45 and 2.31). All but one of 15 V„ lecanii strains, some pathogens of other insects and some probable hynerparasxtes of rust fungi, were similar in pathogenicity to C-3, Five other strains, all from rust or mildew fungi, were apathogenxc. B ..astospores of C—3 were approximately twice as pathogenic as conidiosporeso With single- and multi-spore isolates, repeated passage through apaids or subcu, ture on agars scarcely altered pathogenicity, but subculture greatly chanced colonial morphology.In glasshouses, blastospores and conidiospores produced similar levels of aphid control. Spore sprays established excellent control of My. persicae within 2-3 weeks, maintaining control for up to 8 weeks. Also, B. helichrysi was controlled in vegetative plant tips but not on tightly closed flower buds. Control of M. sanborni was usually unsatisfactory. In laboratory bioassays, all 3 aphid species were equally susceptible to V. lecariii suggesting that behavioural and ecological factors explain differences in glasshouses. V. lecanii could be used advantageously in integrated control systems on chrysanthemums.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leung, P.K.;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) can be used to store energy on the large and medium scale(kW – MW), particularly in applications such as load levelling of electrical powersupplies, power quality control application and facilitating renewable energy deployment.In this thesis, the development of a divided and undivided zinc-cerium redox flow batteryfrom its fundamental chemistry in aqueous methanesulfonic acid has been described. Thiscomprehensive investigation has focused on the selection of electrode materials,evaluation of zinc corrosion of the negative electrode, characterization of the redox flowbattery and the cycling performance. Voltammetric studies of both the zinc and the ceriumhalf-cell reactions have been carried out under various operating conditions and forelectrolyte compositions. These studies suggested that the positive electrode reactioncould limit the use of higher current densities. After testing a range of two- andthree-dimensional positive electrode materials, only three-dimensional platinised titaniummesh and carbon felts were capable of discharge at 50 mA cm-2 with high charge ( > 70 %)and voltage ( > 60 %) efficiencies in an divided system based on the optimum electrolytecompositions obtained in the half-cell studies. In order to avoid the diffusion of protonsacross the membrane and to simplify the construction, an undivided, membranelesssystem was proposed. With specific design arrangement and carbon felt positive electrode,this system can operate at room temperature with a high energy efficiency (~ 75 %)instead of 60 oC as reported in the patented system in the literature. In order to facilitatezinc electrodeposition and prevent zinc corrosion, several electrolytic additives andcorrosion inhibitors have been suggested. Further challenges and research directions arealso discussed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Potter, S; Conroy, E; Williamson, P; Thrush, S; Whisker, L; Skillman, J; Barnes, N; Cutress, R; Teasdale, E; Mills, N; +8 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background Implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) is the most commonly performed reconstructive procedure in the UK. The introduction of techniques to augment the subpectoral pocket has revolutionised the procedure, but there is a lack of high-quality outcome data to describe the safety or effectiveness of these techniques. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the best way of comparing treatments, but surgical RCTs are challenging. The iBRA (implant breast reconstruction evaluation) study aims to determine the feasibility, design and conduct of a pragmatic RCT to examine the effectiveness of approaches to IBBR. Methods/design The iBRA study is a trainee-led research collaborative project with four phases: Phase 1 – a national practice questionnaire (NPQ) to survey current practice Phase 2 – a multi-centre prospective cohort study of patients undergoing IBBR to evaluate the clinical and patient-reported outcomes Phase 3– an IBBR-RCT acceptability survey and qualitative work to explore patients’ and surgeons’ views of proposed trial designs and candidate outcomes. Phase 4 – phases 1 to 3 will inform the design and conduct of the future RCT All centres offering IBBR will be encouraged to participate by the breast and plastic surgical professional associations (Association of Breast Surgery and British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons). Data collected will inform the feasibility of undertaking an RCT by defining current practice and exploring issues surrounding recruitment, selection of comparator arms, choice of primary outcome, sample size, selection criteria, trial conduct, methods of data collection and feasibility of using the trainee collaborative model to recruit patients and collect data. Discussion The preliminary work undertaken within the iBRA study will determine the feasibility, design and conduct of a definitive RCT in IBBR. It will work with the trainee collaborative to build capacity by creating an infrastructure of research-active breast and plastic surgeons which will facilitate future high-quality research that will ultimately improve outcomes for all women seeking reconstructive surgery.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alotaibi, Sara Jeza; Wald, Mike;
    Country: United Kingdom

    The modern world is populated with a great many physical and virtual IAMS (Identity Access Management Systems), where people need to maintain various login credentials. There is a key issue associated with this approach, which is the ability to remember this information; however, this can be circumvented to some degree through utilising an innovative approach of a single sign-in mechanism. Throughout the course of recent times, a number of different systems have been developed in order to deliver both virtual and physical IAMS. Moreover, in addition to a greater level of awareness to ensure interoperable virtual and physical IAMS are implemented, there is a pressing urgency for clear guidelines to be devised relating to the integration of: security, comprising identity; user experience, involving usability; and acceptability, encompassing accessibility. Very few models adhere to such guidelines; therefore, this paper seeks to deal with the pressing need to devise, implement and evaluate a model for acceptable user experience, enabling the successful integration of physical and virtual public services in an e-government context. In regard to the users’ assessment, which tests the suggested Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), it was observed that there is an indirect impact on behavioural intention to utilise a new prototype system (Ubiquitous Identity Access Management System ”UbIAMS” ) through various factors, namely effort expectancy, performance expectancy and social influence, as well as through items relating to acceptability and user experience

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