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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lara S. G. Piccolo; Somya Joshi; Evangelos Karapanos; Tracie Farrell;
    Country: Cyprus

    Part 12: Workshops; International audience; The manipulation of information and the dissemination of “fake news” are practices that trace back to the early records of human history. Significant changes in the technological environment enabling ubiquity, immediacy and considerable anonymity, have facilitated the spreading of misinformation in unforeseen ways, raising concerns around people’s (mis)perception of social issues worldwide. As a wicked problem, limiting the harm caused by misinformation goes beyond technical solutions, requiring also regulatory and behavioural changes. This workshop proposes to unpack the challenge at hand by bringing together diverse perspectives to the problem. Based on participatory design principles, it will challenge participants to critically reflect the limits of existing socio-technical approaches and co-create scenarios in which digital platforms support misinformation resilience.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Asanga Nimalasena; Vladimir Getov;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Key feature of a context-aware application is the ability to adapt based on the change of context. Two approaches that are widely used in this regard are the context-action pair mapping where developers match an action to execute for a particular context change and the adaptive learning where a context-aware application refines its action over time based on the preceding action’s outcome. Both these approaches have limitation which makes them unsuitable in situations where a context-aware application has to deal with unknown context changes. In this paper we propose a framework where adaptation is carried out via concurrent multi-action evaluation of a dynamically created action space. This dynamic creation of the action space eliminates the need for relying on the developers to create context-action pairs and the concurrent multi-action evaluation reduces the adaptation time as opposed to the iterative approach used by adaptive learning techniques. Using our reference implementation of the framework we show how it could be used to dynamically determine the threshold price in an e-commerce system which uses the name-your-own-price (NYOP) strategy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Malgorzata A. Grzegorczyk; Pantea Lotfian; William J. Nuttall;
    Publisher: Springer

    In this chapter we explore the future for innovation in two related, but distinct, sectors. We consider the linkages between medical technology(MedTech) and agricultural technology (Agri-Tech) innovation in the UK. We ask and discuss questions: Who are the key actors in the innovation systems of Medtech and Agri-Tech in the UK? What are the core technologies driving the current waves of innovation in these two sectors? Can one industry learn from the other? Where is the scope for cooperation and synergies? We notice that both sectors are technologically linked through foundational technologies underpinning the majority of the observed innovation e.g. big data, AI, IoT and robotics. The outputs of these technologies rely crucially on digital data for insight and decision support. However, Agri-Tech benefits from less complex stakeholder issues regarding data security and privacy. Both sectors are important to the UK going forwards, and both will be exposed to Brexit and the consequences of the COVID pandemic. Our discussion on the future of innovation should be of particular interest to start-up leaders, entrepreneurs, investors, managers and policy-makers in MedTech, Agri-Tech and cognate sectors.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Simone Baglioni; Francesca Calò; Paola Garrone; Mario Marco Molteni;
    Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

    This chapter presents the research rationale underpinning the book. It addresses the intertwining challenges of food security and surplus food management, discussing recent data and literature. It also presents how social innovation is conceptualized in the book as the theoretical framework to analyse partnerships between business and non-profit organisations in managing food surplus. The methodology of the research is also detailed, along with the book structure.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Leo Havemann;
    Publisher: Springer Singapore
    Country: United Kingdom

    Introduces the notion of OER and situates it within a wider open education movement, which has more recently seen a turn to the consideration of 'open educational practices'.

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Salatino, Angelo; Osborne, Francesco; Thanapalasingam, Thiviyan; Motta, Enrico;
    Publisher: Springer Verlag
    Country: Italy

    Classifying research papers according to their research topics is an important task to improve their retrievability, assist the creation of smart analytics, and support a variety of approaches for analysing and making sense of the research environment. In this paper, we present the CSO Classifier, a new unsupervised approach for automatically classifying research papers according to the Computer Science Ontology (CSO), a comprehensive ontology of re-search areas in the field of Computer Science. The CSO Classifier takes as input the metadata associated with a research paper (title, abstract, keywords) and returns a selection of research concepts drawn from the ontology. The approach was evaluated on a gold standard of manually annotated articles yielding a significant improvement over alternative methods. Comment: Conference paper at TPDL 2019

  • Publication . Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . Article . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Malindu E. Fernando; Ridmee M Seneviratne; Yong Mong Tan; Peter A Lazzarini; Kunwarjit S. Sangla; Margaret Cunningham; Petra Buttner; Jonathan Golledge;
    Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell for The Cochrane Collaboration

    Background The estimated likelihood of lower limb amputation is 10 to 30 times higher amongst people with diabetes compared to those without diabetes. Of all non-traumatic amputations in people with diabetes, 85% are preceded by a foot ulcer. Foot ulceration associated with diabetes (diabetic foot ulcers) is caused by the interplay of several factors, most notably diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and changes in foot structure. These factors have been linked to chronic hyperglycaemia (high levels of glucose in the blood) and the altered metabolic state of diabetes. Control of hyperglycaemia may be important in the healing of ulcers. Objectives To assess the effects of intensive glycaemic control compared to conventional control on the outcome of foot ulcers in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Search methods In December 2015 we searched: The Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; Elsevier SCOPUS; ISI Web of Knowledge Web of Science; BioMed Central and LILACS. We also searched clinical trial databases, pharmaceutical trial databases and current international and national clinical guidelines on diabetes foot management for relevant published, non-published, ongoing and terminated clinical trials. There were no restrictions based on language or date of publication or study setting. Selection criteria Published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were considered for inclusion where they investigated the effects of intensive glycaemic control on the outcome of active foot ulcers in people with diabetes. Non randomised and quasi-randomised trials were excluded. In order to be included the trial had to have: 1) attempted to maintain or control blood glucose levels and measured changes in markers of glycaemic control (HbA1c or fasting, random, mean, home capillary or urine glucose), and 2) documented the effect of these interventions on active foot ulcer outcomes. Glycaemic interventions included subcutaneous insulin administration, continuous insulin infusion, oral anti-diabetes agents, lifestyle interventions or a combination of these interventions. The definition of the interventional (intensive) group was that it should have a lower glycaemic target than the comparison (conventional) group. Data collection and analysis All review authors independently evaluated the papers identified by the search strategy against the inclusion criteria. Two review authors then independently reviewed all potential full-text articles and trials registry results for inclusion. Main results We only identified one trial that met the inclusion criteria but this trial did not have any results so we could not perform the planned subgroup and sensitivity analyses in the absence of data. Two ongoing trials were identified which may provide data for analyses in a later version of this review. The completion date of these trials is currently unknown. Authors’ conclusions The current review failed to find any completed randomised clinical trials with results. Therefore we are unable to conclude whether intensive glycaemic control when compared to conventional glycaemic control has a positive or detrimental effect on the treatment of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. Previous evidence has however highlighted a reduction in risk of limb amputation (from various causes) in people with type 2 diabetes with intensive glycaemic control. Whether this applies to people with foot ulcers in particular is unknown. The exact role that intensive glycaemic control has in treating foot ulcers in multidisciplinary care (alongside other interventions targeted at treating foot ulcers) requires further investigation.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Steven Arthur; Haijiang Li; Robert John Lark;
    Publisher: Springer Verlag

    Part 2: Production Information Systems; International audience; The current dominant computing mode in the AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) domain is standalone based, causing fragmentation and fundamental interoperability problems. This makes the collaboration required to deal with the interconnected and complex tasks associated with a sustainable and resilient built environment extremely difficult.This article aims to discuss how the latest computing technologies can be leveraged for the AEC domain and Building Information Modelling (BIM) in particular. These technologies include Cloud Computing, the Internet of Things and Big Data Analytics.The data rich BIM domain will be analysed to identify relevant characteristics, opportunities and the likely challenges. A clear case will be established detailing why BIM needs these technologies and how they can be brought together to bring about a paradigm shift in the industry.Having identified the potential application of new technologies, a future platform will be proposed. It will carry out large scale, real-time processing of data from all stakeholders. The platform will facilitate the collaborative interpretation, manipulation and analysis of data for the whole lifecycle of building projects. It will be flexible, intelligent and able to autonomously execute analysis and choose the relevant tools. This will form a base for a step-change for computing tools in the AEC domain.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gerry Czerniawski; Warren Kidd; Jean Murray;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Within the context of the European Commission’s recent policy gaze on teacher education (European Commission, Improving teacher quality: The EU agenda – lifelong learning: policies and programme. Brussels, April 2010, EAC.B.2. D (2010) PSH, 2010; European Commission, Supporting teacher educators for better learning outcomes. European Commission, Brussels, 2013; European Commission, Strengthening teaching in Europe: new evidence from teachers compiled by Eurydice and CRELL, June 2015. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/education/library/policy/teaching-profession-practices_en.pdf, 2015), this chapter contributes to an improved understanding of the hybrid, poly-contextualised identities of school-based teacher educators. At a time of systemic change in the education systems of many countries, teachers in schools are increasingly being asked to be responsible for the education and training of future teachers. Within the English backdrop of a rapidly changing landscape for teacher education, we present initial findings from a small-scale study exploring, through interview data, how the knowledge bases and identities of two groups of insiders, university and school-based teacher educators, were perceived by those hybrid teacher educators (Zeichner 2010) working in schools. Our findings reveal differences in school-based teacher educators’ views on their work and the work of university-based teacher educators, school-based teacher educators’ views on the role educational research has in the work they do and the ways in which different professional pathways (e.g. occupational/university; primary/secondary) influence views on what it means to be a teacher educator.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kevin Swingler;
    Publisher: Springer

    The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is a neural network architecture that is widely used for regression, classification and time series forecasting. One often cited disadvantage of the MLP, however, is the difficulty associated with human understanding of a particular MLP’s function. This so called black box limitation is due to the fact that the weights of the network reveal little about structure of the function they implement. This paper proposes a method for understanding the structure of the function learned by MLPs that model functions of the class \(f:\{-1,1\}^n \rightarrow \mathbb {R}^m\). This includes regression and classification models. A Walsh decomposition of the function implemented by a trained MLP is performed and the coefficients analysed. The advantage of a Walsh decomposition is that it explicitly separates the contribution to the function made by each subset of input neurons. It also allows networks to be compared in terms of their structure and complexity. The method is demonstrated on some small toy functions and on the larger problem of the MNIST handwritten digit classification data set.

search
Include:
415 Research products, page 1 of 42
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lara S. G. Piccolo; Somya Joshi; Evangelos Karapanos; Tracie Farrell;
    Country: Cyprus

    Part 12: Workshops; International audience; The manipulation of information and the dissemination of “fake news” are practices that trace back to the early records of human history. Significant changes in the technological environment enabling ubiquity, immediacy and considerable anonymity, have facilitated the spreading of misinformation in unforeseen ways, raising concerns around people’s (mis)perception of social issues worldwide. As a wicked problem, limiting the harm caused by misinformation goes beyond technical solutions, requiring also regulatory and behavioural changes. This workshop proposes to unpack the challenge at hand by bringing together diverse perspectives to the problem. Based on participatory design principles, it will challenge participants to critically reflect the limits of existing socio-technical approaches and co-create scenarios in which digital platforms support misinformation resilience.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Asanga Nimalasena; Vladimir Getov;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Key feature of a context-aware application is the ability to adapt based on the change of context. Two approaches that are widely used in this regard are the context-action pair mapping where developers match an action to execute for a particular context change and the adaptive learning where a context-aware application refines its action over time based on the preceding action’s outcome. Both these approaches have limitation which makes them unsuitable in situations where a context-aware application has to deal with unknown context changes. In this paper we propose a framework where adaptation is carried out via concurrent multi-action evaluation of a dynamically created action space. This dynamic creation of the action space eliminates the need for relying on the developers to create context-action pairs and the concurrent multi-action evaluation reduces the adaptation time as opposed to the iterative approach used by adaptive learning techniques. Using our reference implementation of the framework we show how it could be used to dynamically determine the threshold price in an e-commerce system which uses the name-your-own-price (NYOP) strategy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Malgorzata A. Grzegorczyk; Pantea Lotfian; William J. Nuttall;
    Publisher: Springer

    In this chapter we explore the future for innovation in two related, but distinct, sectors. We consider the linkages between medical technology(MedTech) and agricultural technology (Agri-Tech) innovation in the UK. We ask and discuss questions: Who are the key actors in the innovation systems of Medtech and Agri-Tech in the UK? What are the core technologies driving the current waves of innovation in these two sectors? Can one industry learn from the other? Where is the scope for cooperation and synergies? We notice that both sectors are technologically linked through foundational technologies underpinning the majority of the observed innovation e.g. big data, AI, IoT and robotics. The outputs of these technologies rely crucially on digital data for insight and decision support. However, Agri-Tech benefits from less complex stakeholder issues regarding data security and privacy. Both sectors are important to the UK going forwards, and both will be exposed to Brexit and the consequences of the COVID pandemic. Our discussion on the future of innovation should be of particular interest to start-up leaders, entrepreneurs, investors, managers and policy-makers in MedTech, Agri-Tech and cognate sectors.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Simone Baglioni; Francesca Calò; Paola Garrone; Mario Marco Molteni;
    Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

    This chapter presents the research rationale underpinning the book. It addresses the intertwining challenges of food security and surplus food management, discussing recent data and literature. It also presents how social innovation is conceptualized in the book as the theoretical framework to analyse partnerships between business and non-profit organisations in managing food surplus. The methodology of the research is also detailed, along with the book structure.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Leo Havemann;
    Publisher: Springer Singapore
    Country: United Kingdom

    Introduces the notion of OER and situates it within a wider open education movement, which has more recently seen a turn to the consideration of 'open educational practices'.

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Salatino, Angelo; Osborne, Francesco; Thanapalasingam, Thiviyan; Motta, Enrico;
    Publisher: Springer Verlag
    Country: Italy

    Classifying research papers according to their research topics is an important task to improve their retrievability, assist the creation of smart analytics, and support a variety of approaches for analysing and making sense of the research environment. In this paper, we present the CSO Classifier, a new unsupervised approach for automatically classifying research papers according to the Computer Science Ontology (CSO), a comprehensive ontology of re-search areas in the field of Computer Science. The CSO Classifier takes as input the metadata associated with a research paper (title, abstract, keywords) and returns a selection of research concepts drawn from the ontology. The approach was evaluated on a gold standard of manually annotated articles yielding a significant improvement over alternative methods. Comment: Conference paper at TPDL 2019

  • Publication . Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . Article . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Malindu E. Fernando; Ridmee M Seneviratne; Yong Mong Tan; Peter A Lazzarini; Kunwarjit S. Sangla; Margaret Cunningham; Petra Buttner; Jonathan Golledge;
    Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell for The Cochrane Collaboration

    Background The estimated likelihood of lower limb amputation is 10 to 30 times higher amongst people with diabetes compared to those without diabetes. Of all non-traumatic amputations in people with diabetes, 85% are preceded by a foot ulcer. Foot ulceration associated with diabetes (diabetic foot ulcers) is caused by the interplay of several factors, most notably diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and changes in foot structure. These factors have been linked to chronic hyperglycaemia (high levels of glucose in the blood) and the altered metabolic state of diabetes. Control of hyperglycaemia may be important in the healing of ulcers. Objectives To assess the effects of intensive glycaemic control compared to conventional control on the outcome of foot ulcers in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Search methods In December 2015 we searched: The Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; Elsevier SCOPUS; ISI Web of Knowledge Web of Science; BioMed Central and LILACS. We also searched clinical trial databases, pharmaceutical trial databases and current international and national clinical guidelines on diabetes foot management for relevant published, non-published, ongoing and terminated clinical trials. There were no restrictions based on language or date of publication or study setting. Selection criteria Published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were considered for inclusion where they investigated the effects of intensive glycaemic control on the outcome of active foot ulcers in people with diabetes. Non randomised and quasi-randomised trials were excluded. In order to be included the trial had to have: 1) attempted to maintain or control blood glucose levels and measured changes in markers of glycaemic control (HbA1c or fasting, random, mean, home capillary or urine glucose), and 2) documented the effect of these interventions on active foot ulcer outcomes. Glycaemic interventions included subcutaneous insulin administration, continuous insulin infusion, oral anti-diabetes agents, lifestyle interventions or a combination of these interventions. The definition of the interventional (intensive) group was that it should have a lower glycaemic target than the comparison (conventional) group. Data collection and analysis All review authors independently evaluated the papers identified by the search strategy against the inclusion criteria. Two review authors then independently reviewed all potential full-text articles and trials registry results for inclusion. Main results We only identified one trial that met the inclusion criteria but this trial did not have any results so we could not perform the planned subgroup and sensitivity analyses in the absence of data. Two ongoing trials were identified which may provide data for analyses in a later version of this review. The completion date of these trials is currently unknown. Authors’ conclusions The current review failed to find any completed randomised clinical trials with results. Therefore we are unable to conclude whether intensive glycaemic control when compared to conventional glycaemic control has a positive or detrimental effect on the treatment of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. Previous evidence has however highlighted a reduction in risk of limb amputation (from various causes) in people with type 2 diabetes with intensive glycaemic control. Whether this applies to people with foot ulcers in particular is unknown. The exact role that intensive glycaemic control has in treating foot ulcers in multidisciplinary care (alongside other interventions targeted at treating foot ulcers) requires further investigation.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Steven Arthur; Haijiang Li; Robert John Lark;
    Publisher: Springer Verlag

    Part 2: Production Information Systems; International audience; The current dominant computing mode in the AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) domain is standalone based, causing fragmentation and fundamental interoperability problems. This makes the collaboration required to deal with the interconnected and complex tasks associated with a sustainable and resilient built environment extremely difficult.This article aims to discuss how the latest computing technologies can be leveraged for the AEC domain and Building Information Modelling (BIM) in particular. These technologies include Cloud Computing, the Internet of Things and Big Data Analytics.The data rich BIM domain will be analysed to identify relevant characteristics, opportunities and the likely challenges. A clear case will be established detailing why BIM needs these technologies and how they can be brought together to bring about a paradigm shift in the industry.Having identified the potential application of new technologies, a future platform will be proposed. It will carry out large scale, real-time processing of data from all stakeholders. The platform will facilitate the collaborative interpretation, manipulation and analysis of data for the whole lifecycle of building projects. It will be flexible, intelligent and able to autonomously execute analysis and choose the relevant tools. This will form a base for a step-change for computing tools in the AEC domain.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gerry Czerniawski; Warren Kidd; Jean Murray;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing

    Within the context of the European Commission’s recent policy gaze on teacher education (European Commission, Improving teacher quality: The EU agenda – lifelong learning: policies and programme. Brussels, April 2010, EAC.B.2. D (2010) PSH, 2010; European Commission, Supporting teacher educators for better learning outcomes. European Commission, Brussels, 2013; European Commission, Strengthening teaching in Europe: new evidence from teachers compiled by Eurydice and CRELL, June 2015. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/education/library/policy/teaching-profession-practices_en.pdf, 2015), this chapter contributes to an improved understanding of the hybrid, poly-contextualised identities of school-based teacher educators. At a time of systemic change in the education systems of many countries, teachers in schools are increasingly being asked to be responsible for the education and training of future teachers. Within the English backdrop of a rapidly changing landscape for teacher education, we present initial findings from a small-scale study exploring, through interview data, how the knowledge bases and identities of two groups of insiders, university and school-based teacher educators, were perceived by those hybrid teacher educators (Zeichner 2010) working in schools. Our findings reveal differences in school-based teacher educators’ views on their work and the work of university-based teacher educators, school-based teacher educators’ views on the role educational research has in the work they do and the ways in which different professional pathways (e.g. occupational/university; primary/secondary) influence views on what it means to be a teacher educator.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kevin Swingler;
    Publisher: Springer

    The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is a neural network architecture that is widely used for regression, classification and time series forecasting. One often cited disadvantage of the MLP, however, is the difficulty associated with human understanding of a particular MLP’s function. This so called black box limitation is due to the fact that the weights of the network reveal little about structure of the function they implement. This paper proposes a method for understanding the structure of the function learned by MLPs that model functions of the class \(f:\{-1,1\}^n \rightarrow \mathbb {R}^m\). This includes regression and classification models. A Walsh decomposition of the function implemented by a trained MLP is performed and the coefficients analysed. The advantage of a Walsh decomposition is that it explicitly separates the contribution to the function made by each subset of input neurons. It also allows networks to be compared in terms of their structure and complexity. The method is demonstrated on some small toy functions and on the larger problem of the MNIST handwritten digit classification data set.

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