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  • 2017-2021
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  • Slovenský Národopis

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  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Valentina Gulin Zrnić;
    Publisher: Sciendo
    Project: HRZZ | CIty-making: space, cultu... (IP-2013-11-2350)

    The author presents the research project “City-making: space, culture and identity” which is focused on contemporary urban transformations of Zagreb. The article is a research report on particular project activities and on several theoretical and methodological challenges that unfold from the research. The paper starts with a glimpse of urban research in (Croatian) ethnology and cultural anthropology in which the current project is embedded. Research segments into city-making by art and city-making by public events are briefly described in two parts of the article. The focus is however, on indications of certain topics and approaches that stem from particular research (time, motion, affect) which could be considered as potent for further theorizing the city and urban space. Correspondingly, research methods of walking ethnography and sensory ethnography are also discussed as valuable tools in this work in progress research.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Zdena Krišková;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The study is based on the APVV project that focused on the socio-cultural capital of successful Slovak municipalities, bearers of the “Village of the Year” title, which can serve as a source of inspiration for other municipalities in improving the quality of life in the countryside. The aim of this study is to highlight the possibilities for the development of local communities in the context of geographical and economic determining factors and to observe the use of the socio-cultural capital as a source of sustainable growth also in the context of cultural and local identity. The study analyses two concrete examples aimed to increase the attractiveness of the sites through the presentation of their socio-cultural potential. The first case covers the municipality of Hrušov and its participation in the Hont Eco-Museum project, implemented within the wider micro-region. In the second case, we explore the municipality of Spišský Hrhov and its analogical example – the museum of music MuzikMuzeum. The study was based mainly on the results of the pilot research and subsequent ethno logical field research in both municipalities, conducted predominantly by means of direct interviews with the locals, newcomers as well as leaders of the municipalities in 2018. The synthesis of the conclusions is based on a comparison of some determining factors of the development of both sites (the proximity and accessibility of urban centres, economic or confessional aspects in relation to the local community).

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Umi W. F.HSU;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    The increasing digital mediation in the field of ethnographic inquiry is undeniable. Through the engagement of individual users, governments, corporations, and even grassroots organizations, the ubiquity of computational technology has a farreaching impact on social life. Scholarship on digital ethnography has fallen along a continuum between theory and methodology. By shifting the focus of the digital from a subject to a method of research, this article contends for a methodologically centered framework of digital ethnography that can transcend the digital/physical binary that is more fraught in discourse than it is in the human experience of contemporary culture. Within this framework, ethnographers can leverage the digital affordances of scalability and intermodality to uncover new perspectives on field observations and document social and cultural processes with empirical specificity and precision. Ethnographers can use data and new informational discoveries to extend of their field-based knowledge, achieving what I refer to as “augmented empi- ricism.” In this article, I examine how working with a variety of digital tools, including webscraping, mapping, and sound visualization, could widen the scope of ethnographic work and deepen our practice. Part two focuses on the process of in- terpreting field data and the value of geospatial visualizations. The last part explores digital methods that magnify the perception of physical senses like sound, sight, and space.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Milan Ducháček;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    This paper is about the monograph on the Slovak village Cerovo, published in 1906 by Karel Chotek, the first professor of ethnography at the Comenius University in Bratislava and the pioneer of qualitative field research in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and later in Czechoslovakia. Following Lubor Niederle’s demographical data published in the map of the Slovak community living in Hungary, Cerovo, a village in the Hont region, shows Chotek’s first attempt to cover the set of questions related to the monograph’s focus on people in their cultural setting via field research and direct experience. Though still partly immersed in stereotypes related to Czech utilitarian conceptualisation of Slovak collective identity, Chotek’s monograph shows the first step on the way to an ambitious serial (though mostly unfulfilled) project of regional monographs, known as Národopis lidu českoslovanského (The Ethnography of Czechoslavic People, 1918–1940). In the early 1950s, working already as a professor of Slavic and general ethnography at the Charles University in Prague since 1931, Chotek returned to Cerovo with an idea of a new, comparative and reconceptualised focus on the same settlement as a half century before. Even though he did not succeed in completing this new monograph, his experience inspired a number of students at the Charles University, who later pursued Chotek’s field research inspiration as important figures of Czech and Slovak ethnography during the rest of the 20 th century (the so-called “Chotek school”). Besides rethinking the events related to the Czecho-Slovak relationship in the formative decade of professional scientific ethnography in Czech lands before World War I and, last but not least, analysing the so far unknown context of Chotek’s second expedition to Cerovo in 1953, the picture of Chotek developing his field research method from a descriptive analysis to a more structured circle of special questions/issues in the 1950s is an attempt to capture some of the methodological changes Czechoslovak ethnography went through during the first half of the 20 th century.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Adam Wiesner;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The paper presents data from interviews conducted in 2006–2007 with four representatives of the Prague street art and graffiti scene who worked in the Czech capital city at the beginning of the 2000s. Part of the article deals with creative activities in the Prague subway where most of the interviewed authors created their works. The author thus offers the perspective of the authors of the Prague street art and graffiti scenes and presents their view of the (il)legal works of art from around ten years ago in the context of the current discourse in social sciences. Over the last twenty years, this discourse has evolved to such an extent that it now enables to see the phenomenon of urban public works of art as a phenomenon full of paradoxes. Graffiti and street art therefore cannot be interpreted only from the point of view of legality or the art of resistance. Their definition must remain sufficiently open, since certain ambivalence, contradiction and ghostliness are characteristic of it equally as of life in a modern global city that is inherently tied to it.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Natalia V. Drannikova;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The article reports a case study of oral recollections of the descendants of special settlers, i.e. peasants dekulaked and deported to the Arkhangelsk region in the early 1930s. The region was previously a part of the Northern Krai. A historiographical review related to the research topic has been carried out. The concepts of dekulakization in the USSR and destinies of dekulaked are discussed in the local context. The stories of the descendants of the special settlers analysed in the article result from semi-structured interviews. These stories form a hypertext. We select stable motifs of oral stories recorded from the descendants of the special settlers. Conclusions are drawn about the characteristics of the cultural memory of the descendants of the special settlers. The article deals with the features of family identity and the role of awareness of the fate of their relatives in this identity. The children and grandchildren of the special settlers have different attitudes towards dekulakization of the families of their ancestors. This is driven by the diversity of behaviours, choices and particular circumstances of their life. The interpretation is grounded in the idea of variability of the process of special resettlements and its dependence on the regional context, and on the method of family history.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Marta Harasimowicz;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The article deals with internet memes related to the person of the socialist leader of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito. For purposes of our research, we define internet meme as conventionalized text-iconic composition, built on a basis of a specific scheme. In intentions of contemporary narratology we also consider it as a text of its kind and its creating, reproduction, transformation and reading process – as a special discursive activity. Based on analysing the primary material occurring and spreading on internet, we provide a typology of the representations of Tito from a narratological and semiotic point of view, and regarding its function in current discourse on socialist Yugoslavia. We focus mainly on cultural meanings generated by this meme culture, its relation to the narratives formed in the context of official and unofficial representations of the leader during the socialist era and to a wider context of contemporary popular culture. Pursuant to the analysis, we try to follow the features of postmodern cultural images of the socialist Yugoslavia and its leader, and relation of these narratives to nostalgic and social-critical attitudes in the contemporary world.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Rotaru, Julieta;
    Publisher: Sciendo
    Country: Sweden

    In the seminal study of Marushiakova and Popov (2013) on the “Gypsy” groups in Eastern Europe it is hinted that the issue of the ethnic groups, and precisely that of their appellations (ethnonyms and/or professionyms), their unclear, nay, hazy demarcation, are specific to a greater degree to the Southeastern Europe and adjacent areas, and less to the Romani groups in Western Europe who have, largely speaking, Romani endonyms (Manuš, Sinti, Kaale, etc), which delimitate them more accurately. In Romanian quarters, the different ethno-socio-professional Romani categories are described for the first time in the first Romanian Constitution (1832), chapter “Improvement of the status of the Gypsies”, article 94. Among the 6 categories described, mention is made of the alleged Netots ‘stupid’, who were the real nomads of that time, were not practicing any specific skill, and were held responsible for all transgressions. The current article is an historical and linguistic investigation of this alleged ethno-professional category, demonstrating that the “Netot” issue is a connivance conceived by the Russian administration and the local politicians in order to solve the “problem” of the errant groups, in the context of the plague outbreak in 1831–1832, by creating a political reason to dispatch them to the defeated Ottoman Empire. The article provides sources and open questions instead of giving answers.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Kristýna Bušková; Klára Pinerová; Michal Louč;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The Czechoslovak prison system is closely bound up with the political situation, and period before the year 1989 was no exception. Its transformation reflects changes in society and politics. The role of the prison system, attitudes to prisoners, as well as modernising trends are all a reflection of the dominant master narratives of that time. This study examines how university-educated employees who were in expert positions within the prison system (psychologists, doctors, a librarian, educators, top management) between 1965 and 1992 adapted to the prison system in place or tried to transform it at the time, and how they reflect on their engagement with it at present. By exploring these questions, we are ultimately asking how their experience as prison staff in communist prisons influenced their professional (narrative) identity and course of life, and how dominant social and political narratives under the communist rule impacted their individual lives. The study adopts a qualitative, idiographic and social constructivist narrative engagement approach to capture the interplay between the prison system and individuals within it. It finds that former employees constructed three different identity configurations reflecting their engagement with the prison system. The consequences of these configurations for prison employees, prison system and society in general are discussed.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Zuzana Beňušková;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to present the form of celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Czechoslovak Republic. The physical culture association Sokol played an important role in the foundation of the republic and became part of the Slovak civil associations scene in 1918. The XVIth All-Sokol Ralley (Všesokolský zlet) in 2018 was one of the official events dedicated to the celebration of Czechoslovakia’s anniversary. For this occasion, the Slovak-Czech piece of motion music „Spolu” (“Together”) was composed. Based on participatory observation of the rehearsals in the role of a trainee, as well as interviews with the author of the music and observations at the All-Sokol Ralley, I have explored the symbolism of the celebration and reflected on the participation of Slovak women in this event.

search
Include:
83 Research products, page 1 of 9
  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Valentina Gulin Zrnić;
    Publisher: Sciendo
    Project: HRZZ | CIty-making: space, cultu... (IP-2013-11-2350)

    The author presents the research project “City-making: space, culture and identity” which is focused on contemporary urban transformations of Zagreb. The article is a research report on particular project activities and on several theoretical and methodological challenges that unfold from the research. The paper starts with a glimpse of urban research in (Croatian) ethnology and cultural anthropology in which the current project is embedded. Research segments into city-making by art and city-making by public events are briefly described in two parts of the article. The focus is however, on indications of certain topics and approaches that stem from particular research (time, motion, affect) which could be considered as potent for further theorizing the city and urban space. Correspondingly, research methods of walking ethnography and sensory ethnography are also discussed as valuable tools in this work in progress research.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Zdena Krišková;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The study is based on the APVV project that focused on the socio-cultural capital of successful Slovak municipalities, bearers of the “Village of the Year” title, which can serve as a source of inspiration for other municipalities in improving the quality of life in the countryside. The aim of this study is to highlight the possibilities for the development of local communities in the context of geographical and economic determining factors and to observe the use of the socio-cultural capital as a source of sustainable growth also in the context of cultural and local identity. The study analyses two concrete examples aimed to increase the attractiveness of the sites through the presentation of their socio-cultural potential. The first case covers the municipality of Hrušov and its participation in the Hont Eco-Museum project, implemented within the wider micro-region. In the second case, we explore the municipality of Spišský Hrhov and its analogical example – the museum of music MuzikMuzeum. The study was based mainly on the results of the pilot research and subsequent ethno logical field research in both municipalities, conducted predominantly by means of direct interviews with the locals, newcomers as well as leaders of the municipalities in 2018. The synthesis of the conclusions is based on a comparison of some determining factors of the development of both sites (the proximity and accessibility of urban centres, economic or confessional aspects in relation to the local community).

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Umi W. F.HSU;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    The increasing digital mediation in the field of ethnographic inquiry is undeniable. Through the engagement of individual users, governments, corporations, and even grassroots organizations, the ubiquity of computational technology has a farreaching impact on social life. Scholarship on digital ethnography has fallen along a continuum between theory and methodology. By shifting the focus of the digital from a subject to a method of research, this article contends for a methodologically centered framework of digital ethnography that can transcend the digital/physical binary that is more fraught in discourse than it is in the human experience of contemporary culture. Within this framework, ethnographers can leverage the digital affordances of scalability and intermodality to uncover new perspectives on field observations and document social and cultural processes with empirical specificity and precision. Ethnographers can use data and new informational discoveries to extend of their field-based knowledge, achieving what I refer to as “augmented empi- ricism.” In this article, I examine how working with a variety of digital tools, including webscraping, mapping, and sound visualization, could widen the scope of ethnographic work and deepen our practice. Part two focuses on the process of in- terpreting field data and the value of geospatial visualizations. The last part explores digital methods that magnify the perception of physical senses like sound, sight, and space.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Milan Ducháček;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    This paper is about the monograph on the Slovak village Cerovo, published in 1906 by Karel Chotek, the first professor of ethnography at the Comenius University in Bratislava and the pioneer of qualitative field research in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and later in Czechoslovakia. Following Lubor Niederle’s demographical data published in the map of the Slovak community living in Hungary, Cerovo, a village in the Hont region, shows Chotek’s first attempt to cover the set of questions related to the monograph’s focus on people in their cultural setting via field research and direct experience. Though still partly immersed in stereotypes related to Czech utilitarian conceptualisation of Slovak collective identity, Chotek’s monograph shows the first step on the way to an ambitious serial (though mostly unfulfilled) project of regional monographs, known as Národopis lidu českoslovanského (The Ethnography of Czechoslavic People, 1918–1940). In the early 1950s, working already as a professor of Slavic and general ethnography at the Charles University in Prague since 1931, Chotek returned to Cerovo with an idea of a new, comparative and reconceptualised focus on the same settlement as a half century before. Even though he did not succeed in completing this new monograph, his experience inspired a number of students at the Charles University, who later pursued Chotek’s field research inspiration as important figures of Czech and Slovak ethnography during the rest of the 20 th century (the so-called “Chotek school”). Besides rethinking the events related to the Czecho-Slovak relationship in the formative decade of professional scientific ethnography in Czech lands before World War I and, last but not least, analysing the so far unknown context of Chotek’s second expedition to Cerovo in 1953, the picture of Chotek developing his field research method from a descriptive analysis to a more structured circle of special questions/issues in the 1950s is an attempt to capture some of the methodological changes Czechoslovak ethnography went through during the first half of the 20 th century.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Adam Wiesner;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The paper presents data from interviews conducted in 2006–2007 with four representatives of the Prague street art and graffiti scene who worked in the Czech capital city at the beginning of the 2000s. Part of the article deals with creative activities in the Prague subway where most of the interviewed authors created their works. The author thus offers the perspective of the authors of the Prague street art and graffiti scenes and presents their view of the (il)legal works of art from around ten years ago in the context of the current discourse in social sciences. Over the last twenty years, this discourse has evolved to such an extent that it now enables to see the phenomenon of urban public works of art as a phenomenon full of paradoxes. Graffiti and street art therefore cannot be interpreted only from the point of view of legality or the art of resistance. Their definition must remain sufficiently open, since certain ambivalence, contradiction and ghostliness are characteristic of it equally as of life in a modern global city that is inherently tied to it.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Natalia V. Drannikova;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The article reports a case study of oral recollections of the descendants of special settlers, i.e. peasants dekulaked and deported to the Arkhangelsk region in the early 1930s. The region was previously a part of the Northern Krai. A historiographical review related to the research topic has been carried out. The concepts of dekulakization in the USSR and destinies of dekulaked are discussed in the local context. The stories of the descendants of the special settlers analysed in the article result from semi-structured interviews. These stories form a hypertext. We select stable motifs of oral stories recorded from the descendants of the special settlers. Conclusions are drawn about the characteristics of the cultural memory of the descendants of the special settlers. The article deals with the features of family identity and the role of awareness of the fate of their relatives in this identity. The children and grandchildren of the special settlers have different attitudes towards dekulakization of the families of their ancestors. This is driven by the diversity of behaviours, choices and particular circumstances of their life. The interpretation is grounded in the idea of variability of the process of special resettlements and its dependence on the regional context, and on the method of family history.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Marta Harasimowicz;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The article deals with internet memes related to the person of the socialist leader of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito. For purposes of our research, we define internet meme as conventionalized text-iconic composition, built on a basis of a specific scheme. In intentions of contemporary narratology we also consider it as a text of its kind and its creating, reproduction, transformation and reading process – as a special discursive activity. Based on analysing the primary material occurring and spreading on internet, we provide a typology of the representations of Tito from a narratological and semiotic point of view, and regarding its function in current discourse on socialist Yugoslavia. We focus mainly on cultural meanings generated by this meme culture, its relation to the narratives formed in the context of official and unofficial representations of the leader during the socialist era and to a wider context of contemporary popular culture. Pursuant to the analysis, we try to follow the features of postmodern cultural images of the socialist Yugoslavia and its leader, and relation of these narratives to nostalgic and social-critical attitudes in the contemporary world.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Rotaru, Julieta;
    Publisher: Sciendo
    Country: Sweden

    In the seminal study of Marushiakova and Popov (2013) on the “Gypsy” groups in Eastern Europe it is hinted that the issue of the ethnic groups, and precisely that of their appellations (ethnonyms and/or professionyms), their unclear, nay, hazy demarcation, are specific to a greater degree to the Southeastern Europe and adjacent areas, and less to the Romani groups in Western Europe who have, largely speaking, Romani endonyms (Manuš, Sinti, Kaale, etc), which delimitate them more accurately. In Romanian quarters, the different ethno-socio-professional Romani categories are described for the first time in the first Romanian Constitution (1832), chapter “Improvement of the status of the Gypsies”, article 94. Among the 6 categories described, mention is made of the alleged Netots ‘stupid’, who were the real nomads of that time, were not practicing any specific skill, and were held responsible for all transgressions. The current article is an historical and linguistic investigation of this alleged ethno-professional category, demonstrating that the “Netot” issue is a connivance conceived by the Russian administration and the local politicians in order to solve the “problem” of the errant groups, in the context of the plague outbreak in 1831–1832, by creating a political reason to dispatch them to the defeated Ottoman Empire. The article provides sources and open questions instead of giving answers.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Kristýna Bušková; Klára Pinerová; Michal Louč;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The Czechoslovak prison system is closely bound up with the political situation, and period before the year 1989 was no exception. Its transformation reflects changes in society and politics. The role of the prison system, attitudes to prisoners, as well as modernising trends are all a reflection of the dominant master narratives of that time. This study examines how university-educated employees who were in expert positions within the prison system (psychologists, doctors, a librarian, educators, top management) between 1965 and 1992 adapted to the prison system in place or tried to transform it at the time, and how they reflect on their engagement with it at present. By exploring these questions, we are ultimately asking how their experience as prison staff in communist prisons influenced their professional (narrative) identity and course of life, and how dominant social and political narratives under the communist rule impacted their individual lives. The study adopts a qualitative, idiographic and social constructivist narrative engagement approach to capture the interplay between the prison system and individuals within it. It finds that former employees constructed three different identity configurations reflecting their engagement with the prison system. The consequences of these configurations for prison employees, prison system and society in general are discussed.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Zuzana Beňušková;
    Publisher: Sciendo

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to present the form of celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Czechoslovak Republic. The physical culture association Sokol played an important role in the foundation of the republic and became part of the Slovak civil associations scene in 1918. The XVIth All-Sokol Ralley (Všesokolský zlet) in 2018 was one of the official events dedicated to the celebration of Czechoslovakia’s anniversary. For this occasion, the Slovak-Czech piece of motion music „Spolu” (“Together”) was composed. Based on participatory observation of the rehearsals in the role of a trainee, as well as interviews with the author of the music and observations at the All-Sokol Ralley, I have explored the symbolism of the celebration and reflected on the participation of Slovak women in this event.

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