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  • 2012-2021
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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernadette Elliott-Bowman; Rongshan Qin;
    Publisher: TOMCK Publishing House HTO

    The influence of electropulsing on metallic materials is reviewed, with a focus on phase transformations and grain refinement. While a large and growing body of literature exists on the topic of electropulsing, the mechanisms governing the process are not currently fully understood. Furthermore, the effects of electropulsing on microstructure and mechanical properties are not yet clearly defined. This review seeks to summarise the existing literature in order to highlight and understand research trends across a variety of metals and alloys, and to clarify the state of the art. Research has shown that the electropulsing process is capable of inducing low temperature recrystallisation in metallic materials at an accelerated rate compared to more traditional heat treatment methods. These microstructural changes often alter the mechanical properties of the materials such as ductility, tensile strength and hardness. Crack healing as a result of electropulsing treatment has also been observed in damaged or work hardened materials and pre-deformation of the sample has been shown to enhance the effects of electropulsing.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Feroci, M.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Hernanz, M.; Van Der Klis, M.; Liu, L. P.; Orleanski, P.; Pohl, M.; Santangelo, A.; Schanne, S.; +191 more
    Countries: Netherlands, Italy, United Kingdom, France, Denmark, Italy, Italy, Turkey, Netherlands, Italy ...

    The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) is a mission concept which was proposed to ESA as M3 and M4 candidate in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument and the uniquely large field of view of its wide field monitor, LOFT will be able to study the behaviour of matter in extreme conditions such as the strong gravitational field in the innermost regions close to black holes and neutron stars and the supra-nuclear densities in the interiors of neutron stars. The science payload is based on a Large Area Detector (LAD, >8m2 effective area, 2-30 keV, 240 eV spectral resolution, 1 degree collimated field of view) and a Wide Field Monitor (WFM, 2-50 keV, 4 steradian field of view, 1 arcmin source location accuracy, 300 eV spectral resolution). The WFM is equipped with an on-board system for bright events (e.g., GRB) localization. The trigger time and position of these events are broadcast to the ground within 30 s from discovery. In this paper we present the current technical and programmatic status of the mission. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Damian J. J. Farnell; Jennifer Galloway; Alexei I. Zhurov; Stephen Richmond; Pertti Pirttiniemi; Raija Lähdesmäki;
    Publisher: Springer

    Multilevel principal components analysis (mPCA) has previously been shown to provide a simple and straightforward method of forming point distribution models that can be used in (active) shape models. Here we extend the mPCA approach to model image texture as well as shape. As a test case, we consider a set of (2D frontal) facial images from a group of 80 Finnish subjects (34 male; 46 female) with two different facial expressions (smiling and neutral) per subject. Shape (in terms of landmark points) and image texture are considered separately in this initial analysis. Three-level models are constructed that contain levels for biological sex, “within-subject” variation (i.e., facial expression), and “between-subject” variation (i.e., all other sources of variation). By considering eigenvalues, we find that the order of importance as sources of variation for facial shape is: facial expression (47.5%), between-subject variations (45.1%), and then biological sex (7.4%). By contrast, the order for image texture is: between-subject variations (55.5%), facial expression (37.1%), and then biological sex (7.4%). The major modes for the facial expression level of the mPCA models clearly reflect changes in increased mouth size and increased prominence of cheeks during smiling for both shape and texture. Even subtle effects such as changes to eyes and nose shape during smile are seen clearly. The major mode for the biological sex level of the mPCA models similarly relates clearly to changes between male and female. Model fits yield “scores” for each principal component that show strong clustering for both shape and texture by biological sex and facial expression at appropriate levels of the model. We conclude that mPCA correctly decomposes sources of variation due to biological sex and facial expression (etc.) and that it provides a reliable method of forming models of both shape and image texture.

  • Publication . Article . Part of book or chapter of book . 2014
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mark Gaved; Patrick Luley; Sofoklis Efremidis; Iakovos Georgiou; Agnes Kukulska-Hulme; Ann Jones; Eileen Scanlon;
    Project: EC | MASELTOV (288587), EC | MASELTOV (288587)

    Smartphones, as highly portable networked computing devices with embedded sensors including GPS receivers, are ideal platforms to support context-aware language learning. They can enable learning when the user is en-gaged in everyday activities while out and about, complementing formal language classes. A significant challenge, however, has been the practical implementation of services that can accurately identify and make use of context, particularly location, to offer meaningful language learning recommendations to users. In this paper we review a range of approaches to identifying context to support mobile language learning. We consider how dynamically changing aspects of context may influence the quality of recommendations presented to a user. We introduce the MASELTOV project’s use of context awareness combined with a rules-based recommendation engine to present suitable learning content to recent immigrants in urban areas; a group that may benefit from contextual support and can use the city as a learning environment.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Other literature type . Conference object . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Damian J. J. Farnell; Jennifer Galloway; Alexei I. Zhurov; Stephen Richmond; Pertti Perttiniemi; Višnja Katić;
    Country: Croatia

    Traditionally, active shape models (ASMs) do not make a distinction between groups in the subject population and they rely on methods such as (single-level) principal components analysis (PCA). Multilevel principal components analysis (mPCA) allows one to model between- group effects and within-group effects explicitly. Three dimensional (3D) laser scans were taken from 250 subjects (38 Croatian female, 35 Croatian male, 40 English female, 40 English male, 23 Welsh female, 27 Welsh male, 23 Finnish female, and 24 Finnish male) and 21 landmark points were created subsequently for each scan. After Procrustes transformation, eigenvalues from mPCA and from single-level PCA based on these points were examined. mPCA indicated that the first two eigenvalues of largest magnitude related to within-groups components, but that the next eigenvalue of largest magnitude related to between-groups components. Eigenvalues from single-level PCA always had a larger magnitude than either within-group or between-group eigenvectors at equivalent eigenvalue number. An examination of the first mode of variation indicated possible mixing of between-group and within-group effects in single-level PCA. Component scores for mPCA indicated clustering with country and gender for the between-groups components (as expected), but not for the within-group terms (also as expected). Clustering of component scores for single-level PCA was harder to resolve. In conclusion, mPCA is viable method of forming shape models that offers distinct advantages over single-level PCA when groups occur naturally in the subject population.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Preprint . Conference object . Article . 2012 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2012
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    M. Feroci; JW den Herder; JW Bozzo; E. Barret; D. Brandt; S. Hernanz; M. van der Klis; M. Pohl; M. Santangelo; A. Stella; +190 more
    Publisher: arXiv
    Countries: France, Italy, France, France, Italy, Netherlands, France, France, France, Netherlands ...

    The LOFT mission concept is one of four candidates selected by ESA for the M3 launch opportunity as Medium Size missions of the Cosmic Vision programme. The launch window is currently planned for between 2022 and 2024. LOFT is designed to exploit the diagnostics of rapid X-ray flux and spectral variability that directly probe the motion of matter down to distances very close to black holes and neutron stars, as well as the physical state of ultra-dense matter. These primary science goals will be addressed by a payload composed of a Large Area Detector (LAD) and a Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD is a collimated (<1 degree field of view) experiment operating in the energy range 2-50 keV, with a 10 m^2 peak effective area and an energy resolution of 260 eV at 6 keV. The WFM will operate in the same energy range as the LAD, enabling simultaneous monitoring of a few-steradian wide field of view, with an angular resolution of <5 arcmin. The LAD and WFM experiments will allow us to investigate variability from submillisecond QPO's to year-long transient outbursts. In this paper we report the current status of the project. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8443, Paper No. 8443-85, 2012

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Page, Susan; Rieley, Jack; Hoscilo, Agata; Spessa, Allan; Weber, Ulrich;
    Publisher: Kessel

    The Southeast Asian region is experiencing some of the world’s highest rates of deforestation and forest degradation, the principle drivers of which are agricultural expansion and wood extraction in combination with an increased incidence of fire. Recent changes in fire regimes in Southeast Asia are indicative of increased human-causd forest disturbance, but El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events also play a role in exacerbating fire occurrence and severity. Fires are now occurring on a much more extensive scale - in part because forest margins are at greater risk of fire as a result of disturbance through logging activities, but also as a result of rapid, large-scale forest clearance for the establish-ment of plantations. Millions of hectares have been deforested and drained to make way for oil palm and pulpwood trees, and many plantation companies, particularly in Indonesia, have employed fire as a cheap land clearance tool; uncontrolled fires have entered adjacent forests or plantation estates, and burnt both the forest biomass and, in peatland areas, underlying peat. Forest fires cause changes to forest structure, biodiversity, soil and hydrology. Repeated fires over successive or every few years lead to a progressive decline in the number of primary forest species. Fire leads to reduction in both aboveground and below ground organic carbon stocks and also changes carbon cycling patterns. In non-peatland areas, losses of carbon from fire affected forest vegetation exceed greatly soil carbon losses, but on carbon-rich substrates, e.g. peat, combustion losses can be considerable. Peatland fires make a major contribution to atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases, fine particular matter and aerosols and thus contribute to climate change as well as presenting a problem for human health. The scale of emissions is unlikely to reduce in coming decades, since climate modelling studies have predicted that parts of this region will experience lower rainfall in future and greater seasonality. Protecting the rainforests of this region from further fire disasters should be at the top of the global environmental agenda, with highest priority given to peatland areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barker, Elton; Isaksen, Leif; Rabinowitz, Nick; Bouzarovski, Stefan; Pelling, Chris;
    Publisher: Institute of Classical Studies, University of London

    Involving the collaboration of researchers from Classics, Geography and Archaeological Computing, and supported by funding from the AHRC, HESTIA (the Herodotus Encoded Space-Text-Imaging Archive) aims to enrich contemporary discussions of space by developing an innovative methodology for the study of an ancient narrative, Herodotus’s Histories. Using the latest digital technology in combination with close textual study, we investigate the geographical concepts through which Herodotus describes the conflict between Greeks and Persians. Our findings nuance the customary topographical vision of an east versus west polarity by drawing attention to the topological network culture that criss-crosses the two, and develop the means of bringing that world to a mass audience via the internet. In this paper we discuss three main aspects to the project: the data capture of place-names in Herodotus; their visualization and dissemination using the web-mapping technologies of GIS, Google Earth and Timemap; and the interrogation of the relationships that Herodotus draws between different geographical concepts using the digital resources at our disposal. Our concern will be to set out in some detail the digital basis to our methodology and the technologies that we have been exploiting, as well as the problems that we have encountered, in the hope of contributing not only to a more complex picture of space in Herodotus but also to a basis for future digital projects across the Humanities that spatially visualize large text-based corpora. With this in mind we end with a brief discussion of some of the ways in which this study is being developed, with assistance from research grants from the Google Digital Humanities Awards Program and JISC.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Andrew Linn; Guro Refsum Sanden; Rebecca Piekkari;
    Publisher: Mouton de Gruyter
    Country: Denmark

    This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study of language standardization in the wider discussion of standards as a means of control across society. We analyse the language policy and practice of the Danish multinational, Grundfos, and use it as a “sociolinguistic laboratory” to “test” the theory of language standardization initially elaborated by Einar Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from International Business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the International Business model provides a valuable practical lesson for national language planners, both showing that a “comparative standardology” is a valuable undertaking. More voices “at the table” will allow both theory and practice to be further refined and for the role of standards across society to be better understood.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Annika Wolff; Daniel Gooch; Jose Cavero; Umar Rashid; Gerd Kortuem;
    Country: Finland

    The potential of open data as a resource for driving citizen-led urban innovation relies not only on a suitable technical infrastructure but also on the skills and knowledge of the citizens themselves. In this chapter, we describe how a smart city project in Milton Keynes, UK, is supporting multiple stages of citizen innovation, from ideation to citizen-led smart city projects. The Our MK initiative provides support and funding to help citizens develop their ideas about making their communities more sustainable into reality. This approach encounters challenges when engaging with citizens in identifying and implementing data-driven solutions to urban problems. The majority of citizens have little practical experience with the types of data sets that might be available or possess the appropriate skills for their analysis and utilisation for addressing urban issues or finding novel ways to hack their city. We go on to describe the Urban Data School, which aims to offer a long-term solution to this problem by providing teaching resources around urban data sets aimed at raising the standard of data literacy amongst future generations. Lesson resources that form part of the Urban Data School have been piloted in one primary and three secondary schools in Milton Keynes. This work has demonstrated that with the appropriate support, even young children can begin to develop the skills necessary to work with large complex data sets. Through our two approaches, we illustrate some of the barriers to citizen participation in urban innovation and detail our solutions to overcoming those barriers. Post-print / Final draft

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