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  • Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication

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  • English
    Authors: 
    Lyall, Andrea; Nelson, Harry; Rosenblum, Daisy; Turin, Mark;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; This paper describes the process and outcomes of a project focused on community centred reclamation of plant-based knowledge in the Kwak̓wala language from previously published materials as well as new documentation with Kwak̓wala speaking Elders. The paper describes our research process resulting in the documentation of 300 plant word names and phrases, starting with 135 plants with names and words in Kwak̓wala that had been documented between the late 19th and early 20th century by Franz Boas and George Hunt, subsequently added to and enriched by community members and academics. An audio-visual dictionary of these plant names and associated phrases is now available through the FirstVoices web portal (http://bit.ly/LDC_FirstVoices). The corresponding author initiated the work and then further developed the research in collaboration with Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw fluent speakers, linguists, biologists, and the U’mista Cultural Society. The project has stimulated interest among community members who provided valuable feedback on the different ways in which this research can be further accessed and then delivered. The paper concludes with some structured reflections on how to proceed in community-led research projects such as this. The authors see further opportunity for continued cross-disciplinary and community-based research.

  • Publication . Report . 2013
    French
    Authors: 
    Georges, Fanny;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC , ANR | ENEID (ANR-13-SOIN-0002)

    ENEIDDigital eternities. A gender perspective on post mortem digital identities and new memorial uses of the web.As a privileged site for individual identity building, the web and its uses have reorganized social relationships. The lasting of digital data, after the death of its users, raise nowadays several questions. What become of the identity data of web users after their death? Do they care about them when they are still alive? How do relatives deal with these data? How do major actors of the web, such as Facebook and Google, manage them? As any other digital and funeral practices, those post mortem digital practices are gendered. This project wants to shed a light on the gender dimension of these practices. How does the gender of the dead person and of those who pay tribute to him/her structure the memorial uses and the construction of post mortem identities? Such questions seem crucial when taking into account the multiplication of digital programs dedicated to memorial practices and the dramatic importance of social networks in relation to the aging of web users.For a few years, international research has explored the social issues raised by profiles of dead users, as well as the changes in the morning practices on the web, but has paid little attention to gender issues. In France, only a few research projects have been conducted on the thematic. Even more, if works articulate digital practices and death or question the gender dimension of mourning, none develop a specific gender perspective on digital practices related to death. The study of death enlightens social structure and raises individual and collective issues such as the historical conceptions of the body and self-representation. This research project aims at analysing the memorial uses of the web and the construction of digital post mortem identities, by using a gender perspective and by unravelling their social, economic, legal and symbolic implications. To deal with such interdisciplinary questions, this project relies on a theoretical framework made of gender studies, sociology, philosophy and computer sciences. It pays a particular attention to the development of innovative methods in visualisation.The implementation of this project consists in 6 different tasks. We expect a qualitative and quantitative analysis of memorial uses on the web in France (Task 1), an analysis of the transmedia circulation of tributes to celebrities (Task 2), and a semiotic analysis of the identity traces left on web memorials and of the post mortem identities they build (Task 3). These three tasks will be conducted all together during the two first years of the project. The results will be exploited during the third year in a multidisciplinary synthesis. The objective of this fourth task (Task 4) is to address the re-composition of gender and digital identities in the memorial uses of the web in France, in comparison with other geographic areas (China, USA). During the whole project (3 years), valorisation (Task 5) and coordination (Task 6) are conducted independently. The consortium assembles 2 partners. Partner 1 is the research centre CIM, at Paris 3 University, specialised in Media Studies and digital practices (Team Media, Culture and Digital Practices). The CIM is closely related to members from Labsic Center (Paris 13), specialised in uses and innovation. The two centres have developed collaboration through their commune inscription in the PRES Sorbonne Paris-Cité. Partner 2 is COSTECH, at the Technological University of Compiègne. This interdisciplinary research centre focuses on the role of technologies in society. The consortium has a common research project on social, political, economical, symbolic and philosophical issues related to technologies of information and communication.; ENEIDÉternités numériques. Les identités numériques post mortem et les usages mémoriaux innovants du web au prisme du genre.L’usage du web comme cadre de présentation de l’identité des individus a réorganisé leur socialisation. La persistance des données numériques, après le décès des usagers, soulève aujourd’hui un certain nombre de questions. Que deviennent les données identitaires des usagers après leur décès ? S’en préoccupent-ils de leur vivant ? Comment sont-elles gérées par les proches ? Comment les acteurs du web, tels que Google ou Facebook, y font-ils face ? Compte tenu de la dimension genrée des pratiques numériques et des pratiques liées à la mort, nous souhaitons interroger la manière dont le genre structure ces phénomènes. Comment le genre du défunt et de ceux qui lui rendent hommage intervient dans les usages mémoriaux et dans la construction des identités post mortem ? La multiplication des applications numériques dédiées à la mémoire ainsi que l’usage massif des réseaux socionumériques – corrélés au vieillissement de la population utilisatrice du web –, laissent à penser que ces questions prendront une importance croissante ces prochaines années.Les problématiques sociétales soulevées par les profils des utilisateurs décédés, de même que les mutations des pratiques de deuil sur internet et les usages mémoriaux du web, retiennent de plus en plus l’attention de la recherche internationale ces dernières années ; la question du genre étant néanmoins peu explorée. En France, peu de travaux portent sur ce sujet. Plus encore, si les travaux croisent la question des pratiques numériques et de la mort ou abordent la dimension genrée du deuil, aucun n’articule les problématiques des pratiques numériques liées à la fois à question de la mort et du genre.L’étude de la mort éclaire les structures sociales et concerne les questions d’identité individuelle et collective tout comme l’histoire des corps et des représentations de soi. Cette recherche propose donc d’analyser les usages mémoriaux du web et la construction des identités numériques post mortem au prisme du genre et d’en dégager les enjeux sociaux, économiques, juridiques et symboliques. Ces questions soulevant des problématiques interdisciplinaires, nous prenons là appui sur la sémiotique, les études du genre, la sociologie, la philosophie et l’informatique. Une attention particulière est accordée au développement de méthodes innovantes de visualisation.La mise en œuvre du projet est répartie en six tâches. Nous proposons de conduire une enquête quantitative et qualitative sur les usages mémoriaux du web en France (Tâche T1), une analyse de la circulation médiatique des hommages aux célébrités (T2), et une analyse sémiotique des traces identitaires dans les sites mémoriaux et des identités post mortem qui s’y construisent (T3). Ces trois tâches, conduites conjointement les deux premières années, seront capitalisées la troisième année en une tâche de synthèse pluridisciplinaire des apports du projet aux questions de la recomposition des identités de genre et des identités numériques dans le cadre des usages mémoriaux du web, en comparaison avec d’autres zones géographiques (Chine, États-Unis) (T4). Tout au long du projet (3 ans), la valorisation (T5) et la coordination (T6) font l’objet de tâches indépendantes.Le consortium rassemble 2 partenaires. Le partenaire 1 est le CIM de l’Université Paris 3, spécialiste de l’analyse des médias et des pratiques numériques (Équipe Médias, Culture et Pratiques Numériques, MCPN), auquel s’associent des membres du LabSic (Paris 13), spécialistes des usages des innovations, ces deux laboratoires étant unis par des liens de collaboration renforcés par l’inscription commune dans le PRES Sorbonne Paris-Cité. Le partenaire 2 est COSTECH, de l’Université de Technologie de Compiègne, laboratoire interdisciplinaire qui réfléchit à la place de la technique dans la société. Le consortium a pour thème de recherche commun les enjeux sociaux, politiques, économiques, symboliques et philosophiques des technologies de l’information et de la communication.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kerry Kawakami; John F. Dovidio; Simone van Kamp;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; The present research examined the impact of counterstereotypic training on the application of stereotypes and the moderating effects of correction on these processes. As expected, when receiving no training, participants chose male over female candidates for a supervisory position and rated both male and female candidates as more gender stereotypic. After receiving extensive counterstereotypic association training, however, participants no longer preferred male over female job candidates and no longer attributed stereotypic traits to a greater extent. These latter results, however, were only found after participants had an opportunity to correct for perceived influences on an initial task. These findings provide evidence for the potential moderating effects of correction processes on the success of strategies aimed at decreasing intergroup biases.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anna Rindorf; Catherine M. Dichmont; James T. Thorson; Anthony Charles; Lotte Worsøe Clausen; Poul Degnbol; Dorleta Garcia; Niels T. Hintzen; Alexander Kempf; Phillip S. Levin; +13 more
    Countries: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom, France, Ireland, France, Denmark, Ireland, Netherlands, France ...
    Project: NSERC , EC | MYFISH (289257), SSHRC , NSERC , EC | MYFISH (289257), SSHRC

    Targets and limits for long-term management are used in fisheries advice to operationalize the way management reflects societal priorities on ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects. This study reflects on the available published literature as well as new research presented at the international ICES/Myfish symposium on targets and limits for long term fisheries management. We examine the inclusion of ecological, economic, social and institutional objectives in fisheries management, with the aim of progressing towards including all four objectives when setting management targets or limits, or both, for multispecies fisheries. The topics covered include ecological, economic, social and governance objectives in fisheries management, consistent approaches to management, uncertainty and variability, and fisheries governance. We end by identifying ten ways to more effectively include multiple objectives in setting targets and limits in ecosystem based fisheries management. Peer-reviewed. This is a open access article accepted for publication in ICES Journal of Marine Science following peer review. Rindorf, A., Dichmont, C. M., Thorson, J., Charles, A., Clausen, L. W., Degnbol, P., …Reid, D. G. ... Voss, R. (2017). Inclusion of ecological, economic, social, and institutional considerations when setting targets and limits for multispecies fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal Du Conseil. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsw226 is available online at: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/74/2/453/2962394 doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsw226

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Philippe De Donder; Marie-Louise Leroux;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    We study the demand for Long Term Care (LTC hereafter) insurance in a setting where agents have state-dependent preferences over both a daily life consumption good and LTC expenditures. We assume that dependency creates a demand for LTC expenditures while decreasing the marginal utility of daily life consumption, for any given consumption level. Agents optimize over their consumption of both goods as well as over the amount of LTC insurance (LTCI). We first show that some agents optimally choose not to insure themselves, while no agent wishes to buy complete insurance, in accordance with the so-called LTCI puzzle. At equilibrium, the transfer received from the insurer covers only a fraction of the LTC expenditures. The demand for LTCI need not increase with income when preferences are non state-dependent or insurance is actuarially unfair. Also, preferences have to be state-dependent with no insurance bought to rationalize the empirical observation of a higher marginal utility at equilibrium when autonomous. Finally, focusing on iso-elastic preferences, we recover the empirical observation that health/LTC expenditures are not very sensitive to income, and we show that LTCI as a fraction of income should decrease with income and then become nil above a threshold.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 1995
    English
    Authors: 
    Pica, Pierre; Snyder, Willian;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    Our paper presents a novel theory of weak crossover effects, based entirely on quantifier scope preferences and their consequences for variable binding. The structural notion of 'crossover' play no role. We develop a theory of scope preferences which ascribes a central role to the AGR-P System.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gordon Pennycook; Jonathon McPhetres; Bence Bago; David G. Rand;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, United Kingdom
    Project: SSHRC , CIHR

    What are the psychological consequences of the increasingly politicized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States relative to similar Western countries? In a two-wave study completed early (March) and later (December) in the pandemic, we found that polarization was greater in the United States ( N = 1,339) than in Canada ( N = 644) and the United Kingdom. ( N = 1,283). Political conservatism in the United States was strongly associated with engaging in weaker mitigation behaviors, lower COVID-19 risk perceptions, greater misperceptions, and stronger vaccination hesitancy. Although there was some evidence that cognitive sophistication was associated with increased polarization in the United States in December (but not March), cognitive sophistication was nonetheless consistently negatively correlated with misperceptions and vaccination hesitancy across time, countries, and party lines. Furthermore, COVID-19 skepticism in the United States was strongly correlated with distrust in liberal-leaning mainstream news outlets and trust in conservative-leaning news outlets, suggesting that polarization may be driven by differences in information environments.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Rémi, Céline; Prevost, Lionel; Anquetil, Eric;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: NSERC , SSHRC

    International audience; Drawing and handwriting are communicational skills that are fundamental in geopolitical, ideological and technological evolutions of all time. drawingand handwriting are still useful in defining innovative applications in numerous fields. In this regard, researchers have to solve new problems like those related to the manner in which drawing and handwriting become an efficient way to command various connected objects; or to validate graphomotor skills as evident and objective sources of data useful in the study of human beings, their capabilities and their limits from birth to decline.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Pepin, Matthias;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; Cet article traite de la souplesse méthodologique qui caractérise toute entreprise d’enquête de terrain alors que le chercheur est amené à s’ajuster à la vie du groupe qu’il étudie. Dans la première partie, je relève quelques enjeux liés à mon adaptation au terrain d’enquête ethnographique, à savoir une micro-entreprise scolaire au niveau primaire. Dans la seconde partie, je déploie la logique analytique qui m’a permis de proposer deux descriptions du développement d’une culture entrepreneuriale en milieu scolaire, à partir d’incidents ethnographiques. La première description renvoie à ce que Piette (1996) appelle «le mode majeur de la réalité», dans le sens de ce qui est typique et conforme à ce qui est attendu des élèves tandis que la seconde description se lit en rapport avec ce que Piette (1992) nomme «le mode mineur de la réalité», qui laisse transparaître des logiques qui tendent à s’y opposer.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Lise Duquette;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    This article suggests a methodological framework which can be used to study learning and evaluation in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) within the context of learner autonomy. Since there is at present no widely agreed upon paradigm in the field, the author suggests a methodology based on problem solving in the cognitive sciences and suggests that this methodology is generalizable to analyses of data in the context of self-directed learning in CALL. The framework for analysis consists of three general strategies related to pre-existing knowledge—regulation, application and evaluation. These strategies can be used to differentiate efficient from inefficient learners in a self-directed learning situation because they evoke learners´ previous knowledge. These general strategies are cross-categorized with six levels of problem solving: reading, analysis, exploration, planning, realization and verification. Referring to two empirical studies conducted by the author, it is shown that the suggested problem-solving framework facilitates the evaluation of learner efficiency in a self-directed learning situation in a CALL environment. Moreover, it is argued that this problem-solving framework should be used in other studies in different computer-assisted learning environments. Such research would contribute to the robustness and generalizability of the framework and thus support the wide-spread adoption of the cognitive paradigm in the area of CALL.; Cet article propose un cadre méthodologique pour traiter de l'apprentissage et de l'évaluation en Enseignement des Langues Assisté par Ordinateur (ELAO) dans le contexte de l'autonomie. En effet, en l'absence d'un paradigme qui fasse consensus, l'auteure propose une méthodologie d'analyse provenant de la résolution de problème en sciences cognitives et qui devrait être généralisable pour le traitement des données dans le contexte de l'autonomie en ELAO. Notre cadre d'analyse comprend trois stratégies générales correspondant aux connaissances préalables - régulation, mise en oeuvre, évaluation - qui permettent de distinguer les apprenant efficaces des non efficaces en situation d'autonomie puisqu'elles font appel aux connaissances antérieures. Ces stratégies générales sont croisées à six étapes de résolution de problème : lecture, analyse, exploration, planification, réalisation et vérification. L'auteure montre, à travers deux études empiriques qu'elle a menées, que le cadre de résolution de problème fonctionne bien et permet d'évaluer l'efficacité des apprenants en situation d'autonomie dans l'environnement de l'ELAO. Elle suggère que ce cadre de résolution de problème soit utilisé dans d'autres études sur l'apprentissage dans différents environnements informatiques afin de lui donner de la robustesse et une plus grande généralisation et ainsi, de permettre au domaine d'opter pour le paradigme cognitif qui deviendrait alors consensuel. Mots-clés : autonomie ; apprentissage de la langue ; multimédia

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