Contemporary critics and modern historians have both faulted the Albigensian Crusade, directed against heretics in the south of France, for weakening attempts to recover Jerusalem for Christendom in the early thirteenth century. This essay explores the competition between the Albigensian and Fifth Crusades. Placing these crusades alongside each other, this essay will examine the conversation between them. It is often charged that the armed and eventually royal effort against the Albigensian heretics drained French crusaders and resources from Pope Innocent III’s second great push from 1213 to recapture Jerusalem that eventually led to a negotiated settlement under Emperor Frederick II in 1229—the year of the capitulation of Count Raymond VII of Toulouse in the Treaty of Paris. Certainly the Albigensian Crusade played its part among the European conflicts which distracted potential crusaders from setting out for the Holy Land, but this picture is incomplete. In fact, the correlation between crusade preachers and crusaders who participated in the Albigensian Crusade and the Fifth Crusade suggests that the former may have indirectly strengthened participation in the latter. By contextualising contemporary criticism of the Albigensian Crusades in favour of the drive to the East and examining the participants in and timing of expeditions to the French Midi, Egypt, and Syria, this essay argues that the Albigensian Crusade reinforced as much as distracted from the Fifth Crusade.
International audience; The present work aims to develop a text summarisation system for financial texts with a focus on the fluidity of the target language. Linguistic analysis shows that the process of writing summaries should take into account not only terminological and collocational extraction, but also a range of linguistic material referred to here as the "support lexicon", that plays an important role in the cognitive organisation of the field. On this basis, this paper highlights the relevance of pre-training the CamemBERT model on a French financial dataset to extend its domainspecific vocabulary and fine-tuning it on extractive summarisation. We then evaluate the impact of textual data augmentation, improving the performance of our extractive text summarisation model by up to 6%-11%.
Although abbreviations are fairly common in handwritten sources, particularly in medieval and modern Western manuscripts, previous research dealing with computational approaches to their expansion is scarce. Yet abbreviations present particular challenges to computational approaches such as handwritten text recognition and natural language processing tasks. Often, pre-processing ultimately aims to lead from a digitised image of the source to a normalised text, which includes expansion of the abbreviations. We explore different setups to obtain such a normalised text, either directly, by training HTR engines on normalised (i.e., expanded, disabbreviated) text, or by decomposing the process into discrete steps, each making use of specialist models for recognition, word segmentation and normalisation. The case studies considered here are drawn from the medieval Latin tradition. Accompanying data available at: https://zenodo.org/record/5071964
International audience; In the World Wide Web, a very large number of resources is made available through digital libraries. The existence of many individual digital libraries, maintained by different organizations, brings challenges to the discoverability, sharing and reuse of the resources. A widely-used approach is metadata aggregation, where centralized efforts like Europeana facilitate the discoverability and use of the resources by collecting their associated metadata. The cultural heritage domain embraced the aggregation approach while, at the same time, the technological landscape kept evolving. Nowadays, cultural heritage institutions are increasingly applying technologies designed for the wider interoperability on the Web. This paper presents a study of the current application by cultural heritage data providers of technological solutions in use for making structured metadata available for re-use in the Internet. We investigated the use of both linked data and technologies related with indexing of resources by Internet search engines. We have conducted a harvesting experiment of the landing pages from websites of digital libraries that participate in Europeana, and collected statistics about the usage these particular technologies. These technologies allow for representing structured data within HTML, or for structured data to be referred to by links within HTML or through HTTP headers capabilities. We conclude with a discussion of future work for establishing a solution for cultural heritage aggregation based on the current situation and the available technologies.
International audience; The last phase of the nineteenth-century China was in a state of dramatic political instability, caused both by foreign aggression and internal troubles. The fall of the Qing dynasty seemed more and more likely, and the presence of the foreign (people, goods, ideas) on the imperial soil aroused confl icting reactions: shame and pride, the desire to emulate and the desire to rekindle "traditional" culture(s), as well as the evidence of the necessity of rapid modernization, at least in the technical fi eld. Stretched between these overlapping poles, cinema as a technical development and as a new form of entertainment appeared very quickly as a formidable way to get to know the West, as well as a medium to be appropriated by local standards. Early movies made by the Lumière Company were travelling to China, and it was easy to understand the clamor made by the depiction of contemporary Europe. La sortie des usines Lumière à Lyon (August and Louis Lumière, 1895), for example, is a manifestation of a scientifi c accomplishment of the West (a movie) and at the same time is showing where this new object was made (the camera factory): spectators could see men and women coming out of a modern (soon to be Fordist) industry, some of them riding bicycles. In The Last Emperor (1987) Bertolucci poetizes the seduction of the newly imported (foreign) innovation of locomotion. Audiences could be in awe of the epitome of the industrialization of Europe via an astonishing product of this progress, the movie projector. This scientifi c curiosity is displayed as an attraction: movies are shown in theatres, tea houses, expositions, and slowly contribute to the shaping of the fast-growing eastern metropolis via the building of ad hoc modern cinema theatres. The local public showed a desire to appropriate the representational device, linking it to the shadow puppetry that they used to appreciate. The debate is still ongoing to clarify how much the cultural appreciation of puppet theatre has been a source of inspiration for the adoption of the term yingxi fi rst, and dianying later. The former merges the "shadow (ying)" with the "spectacle (xi)," and the latter is a word that conjures ideas of electricity (therefore modernity) and the theatrical/traditional visual apparatus. As Emi-lie Yueh-yu Yeh states, the fi rst fi lm magazine used the title The Motion Picture Review ; 1 yet, in an article published in the very same review, she cautions readers in remembering that "Central to these dominant historiographical discourses lies the yingxi concept and its literal English translation 'shadow play.' " Scholars of Chinese fi lm history, in both China and the West, have adopted the ideas of yingxi and its translated twin "shadow play" to frame the reception of cinema in late 15 MASTERPIECES OF EARLY CINEMA Corrado Neri 15031-1823d-1Pass-r03.indd 205
Part 5: Analog Computing; International audience; This article is devoted to the rediscovery of a document by Israel Abraham Staffel (1814–1885), a prolific Polish inventor. It is a handwritten book in Russian and Polish that provides detailed information about one of the most famous of Staffel’s inventions, a 13-digit arithmometer, honored at the Great London Exhibition in 1851. The brief biography of Staffel, born into a Jewish family of meagre means who became famous in his time as an inventor, and a description of his developments are presented. Particular attention is paid to his mechanical calculating machines. In the Appendix, an English translation of the handwritten book by Staffel appears for the first time. Typical mechanical calculating machines by the end of the nineteenth century were based on Leibniz’s stepped drums. Staffel’s arithmometer was based on pinwheels. The content of the discovered book allows us to raise the question of the influence of Staffel’s invention on the arithmometer’s design. The paper, which also clarifies and complements certain facts about his life, activity and inventions, demonstrates the need for further archival research to confirm the currently accepted history of innovation.
International audience; Our investigation aims at classifying images of the intangible cultural heritage (ICH) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. We collect an images dataset of 17 ICH categories and manually annotate them. The comparative study of the ICH image classification is done by the support vector machines (SVM) and many popular vision approaches including the handcrafted features such as the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and the bag-of-words (BoW) model, the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), the GIST and the automated deep learning of invariant features like VGG19, ResNet50, Inception v3, Xception. The numerical test results on 17 ICH dataset show that SVM models learned from Inception v3 and Xception features give good accuracy of 61.54% and 62.89% respectively. We propose to stack SVM models using different visual features to improve the classification result performed by any single one. Triplets (SVM-Xception, SVM-Inception-v3, SVM-VGG19), (SVM-Xception, SVM-Inception-v3, SVM-SIFT-BoW) achieve 65.32% of the classification correctness.