Increases in arterial stiffness and pulse pressure are typical features of the arterial stiffness during aging and are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Cellular and molecular determinants of arterial stiffness have not been completely elucidated. Clinically, the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the gold standard parameter of arterial stiffness. A recent genome-wide scan of the Framingham Heart Study population has shown that arterial stiffness and mean and pulsatile components of blood pressure are heritable and map to separate the genetic loci in humans, suggesting that distinct genes may modulate these two phenotypes. This chapter details the recent knowledge on the influence of genetic determinants and telomere length on the development of age-related phenotypes. Recent genetic studies have revealed specific genes contributing to arterial stiffening. Available data on genome-wide association (GWA) have been initiated on PWV and have identified common genetic variation in specific loci or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) significantly associated with PWV. Telomere length at birth is strongly determined genetically and is the main determinant of leukocytes’ telomere length (LTL) later in life. Short LTL is associated with increased risk of stiffness and atherosclerosis of the carotid artery, atherosclerotic heart disease, and diminished survival in the elderly.
International audience; Orchestras of Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs) enable new musical collaboration possibilities, extending those of acoustic and electric orchestras. However the creation and development of these orchestras remain constrained. In fact, each new musical collaboration system or orchestra piece relies on a fixed number of musicians, a fixed set of instruments (often only one), and a fixed subset of possible modes of collaboration. In this paper, we describe a unified framework that enables the design of Digital Orchestras with potentially different DMIs and an expand-able set of collaboration modes. It relies on research done on analysis and classification of traditional and digital orchestras, on research in Collaborative Virtual Environments, and on interviews of musicians and composers. The BOEUF framework consists of a classification of modes of collaboration and a set of components for modelling digital orchestras. Integrating this framework into DMIs will enable advanced musical collaboration modes to be used in any digital orchestra, including spontaneous jam sessions.
Genome-wide screens are a powerful technique to dissect the complex network of genes regulating diverse cellular phenotypes. The recent adaptation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome engineering has revolutionized functional genomic screening. Here, we present protocols used to introduce Cas9 into human lymphoma cell lines, produce high-titer lentivirus of a genome-wide sgRNA library, transduce and culture cells during the screen, isolate genomic DNA, and prepare a custom library for next-generation sequencing. These protocols were tailored for loss-of-function CRISPR screens in human lymphoma cell lines but are highly amenable for other experimental purposes.
We discuss the use of parametric phase-diverse phase retrieval to characterize and optimize the transmitted wavefront of a high-contrast apodized pupil coronagraph with and without an apodizer. We apply our method to correct the transmitted wavefront of the HiCAT (High contrast imager for Complex Aperture Telescopes) coronagraphic testbed. This correction requires a series of calibration steps, which we describe. The correction improves the system wavefront from 16 nm RMS to 3.0 nm RMS for the case where a uniform circular aperture is in place. We further measure the wavefront with the apodizer in place to be 11.7 nm RMS. Improvement to the apodized pupil phase retrieval process is necessary before a correction based on this measurement can be applied.
Part IV: ICT and Emerging Technologies; International audience; The purpose of this paper is to describe how to implement the utility theory to a supply chain problem. In this problem, two different modes of freight transportation are compared to improve life cycle performance of a mass product: trucks and trains. First, the problem is described, the criteria and attributes are introduced and the dataset for this problem is defined. Then, a description of the utility theory model is conducted, explaining the choice of the multiplicative model instead of the additive one. After that, the utility functions for each attribute are elicited, and a trade-off analysis is conducted in order to define indifference points and to calculate the scaling factors. Then, the aggregation function is formulated for this problem, the alternatives ranked, and the best mode of transportation elicited.
Part 6: Network Modeling; International audience; Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET) are susceptible to jamming attacks which can inhibit data transmissions. There has been considerable work done in the detection of external jamming attacks. However, detection of insider jamming attack in MANET has not received enough attention. The presence of an insider node that has constantly monitored the network and is privy to the network secrets can acquire sufficient information to cause irreparable damage. In this paper we propose a framework for a novel reputation-based coalition game between multiple players in a MANET to prevent internal attacks caused by an erstwhile legitimate node. A grand coalition is formed which will make a strategic security defense decision by depending on the stored transmission rate and reputation for each individual node in the coalition. Our results show that the simulation of the reputation-based coalition game would help improve the network’s defense strategy while also reducing false positives that results from the incorrect classification of unfortunate legitimate nodes as insider jammers.
Wildfire prediction from Earth Observation (EO) data has gained much attention in the past years, through the development of connected sensors and weather satellites. Nowadays, it is possible to extract knowledge from collected EO data and to learn from this knowledge without human intervention to trigger wildfire alerts. However, exploiting knowledge extracted from multiple EO data sources at run-time and predicting wildfire raise multiple challenges. One major challenge is to provide dynamic construction of service composition plans, according to the data obtained from sensors. In this paper, we present a knowledge-driven Machine Learning approach that relies on historical data related to wildfire observations to guide the collection of EO data and to automatically and dynamically compose services for triggering wildfire alerts.
International audience; The study area mainly includes the continental shelves of two European states (France and Spain), three North African countries (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia), and Gibraltar and Monaco. Overall, the total shelf area in the western Mediterranean down to the 150 m isobath is 208,000 km2 within a total basin area of 1,343,620 km2. There is a major difference in the degree of available information from EU member states and North African countries.
Aluminum based hybrid composites were produced from recycled AA7075 chips with the addition of TiC (d ≤ 3–5 micron), MoS2 and Al2O3 fiber. In the two groups of composites produced, the content of MoS2 and Al2O3 were fixed as 2 wt % and 3 wt % respectively, whereas TiC content was at two levels (5–10%). The combined method of powder metallurgy route, sintering followed by forging, was used to manufacture these composites. These composites are targeted for aeronautical and automotive industries for components subjected to static as well as cyclic and dynamic loading. In addition to mechanical properties, machinability of these composites is of importance hence, MoS2 was included in the formulation. Micro hardness, 3 point bending, low velocity impact and nanoindentation (creep and wear) tests were performed on samples manufactured by just sintering and sintering followed by forging. The results showed that, in generals, the samples that were forged after sintering yielded better properties. The microstructure analyses (matrix/interface) have been carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
Part 1: Distributed Protocols; International audience; The shift to cloud technologies is a paradigm change that offers considerable financial and administrative gains. However governmental and business institutions wanting to tap into these gains are concerned with security issues. The cloud presents new vulnerabilities and is dominated by new kinds of applications, which calls for new security solutions.Intuitively, Byzantine fault tolerant (BFT) replication has many benefits to enforce integrity and availability in clouds. Existing BFT systems, however, are not suited for typical “data-flow processing” cloud applications which analyze large amounts of data in a parallelizable manner: indeed, existing BFT solutions focus on replicating single monolithic servers, whilst data-flow applications consist in several different stages, each of which may give rise to multiple components at runtime to exploit cheap hardware parallelism; similarly, BFT replication hinges on comparison of redundant outputs generated, which in the case of data-flow processing can represent huge amounts of data. In fact, current limits of data processing directly depend on the amount of data that can be processed per time unit.In this paper we present ClusterBFT, a system that secures computations being run in the cloud by leveraging BFT replication coupled with fault isolation. In short, ClusterBFT leverages a combination of variable-degree clustering, approximated and offline output comparison, smart deployment, and separation of duty, to achieve a parameterized tradeoff between fault tolerance and overhead in practice. We demonstrate the low overhead achieved with ClusterBFT when securing data-flow computations expressed in Apache Pig, and Hadoop. Our solution allows assured computation with less than 10 percent latency overhead as shown by our evaluation.