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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Steel, Catherine;
    Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
    Country: United Kingdom

    The focus of this chapter is on the ways in which members of the senatorial order in the late Republic (and those who aspired to join that order) exploited a knowledge of the law to further their careers. Cicero is the best-documented example, whose activity demonstrates a complex relationship between those who claimed expert theoretical knowledge of the law and those who spoke in the courts, between ‘jurists’ and ‘orators’. Drawing on the results of a ERC-funded project based at the University of Glasgow which is editing the fragments of Republican oratory (‘The Fragments of Republican Roman Oratory’), this chapter explores the intersections between political careers and the varieties of forensic activity.\ud It begins with an analysis of the phenomenon of the ‘early career’ prosecution, in which a young man, in his late teens or early twenties, brought a prosecution against a senior public figure, usually an ex-consul, on charges relating to misconduct in a public office. This move, which seems to begin with L. Licinius Crassus’ prosecution of C. Papirius Carbo in 119, was widely imitated over the following seventy years. Its attraction was that it offered an opportunity to act on the public stage, and begin to develop a public and career-enhancing reputation, a decade or more before the speaker could seek membership of the Senate. Since prosecution depended on private initiative, and there were no qualifications for those who spoke in the Forum, the young and inexperienced were not barred from such very high-profile activity. However, examination of those who took this route shows that it was available only to a very limited group: nobiles, who had the family backing and connections to insulate themselves against the consequences of a failed prosecution. In addition, many such prosecutions came with a justificatory back-story, often framing them as responses to earlier injuries inflicted by the defendant. And it seems inevitable that such prosecutions were in reality team efforts, in which the inexperienced lead prosecutor was supported by friends and experts.\ud The early career prosecution thus highlights the potential of forensic activity to claim popular attention and pave the way to electoral success; and the dangers associated with it. Successful forensic activity required talent and application: Cicero’s emphasis on this in his technical works on oratory is not simply self-serving. If we examine the subsequent careers of the early prosecutors, it emerges that not all continued with their forensic efforts. Indeed, a catalogue of forensically active senators is a short list throughout the Republic; at any one point, it seems that fewer than a dozen senators were regularly appearing in the courts. The smallness of the cadre indicates that forensic activity should not be seen as a normal part of public life, but as a specialised task which only added consistent value to a career if pursued with diligence and a high degree of technical competence.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bjorn Heile;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: United Kingdom

    Mapping is proposed as a method to overcome universalist and Eurocentric assumptions in music historiography and arrive at more cosmopolitan conceptions. The chapter is accompanied by two maps produced with GIS (Geographic Information System) software, showing membership (by entry date) of the International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM), the diffusion of dodecaphony (by the date of the first verified dodecaphonic composition by country) and the founding of conservatoires across the globe. The maps’ creation further involved the use of crowdsourcing. The opportunities and limitations of mapping are discussed both in relation to the concrete examples and the method in general.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kay, Rebecca; Trevena, Paulina;
    Publisher: Policy Press
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dhouha Kbaier Ben Ismail; Petros Karadimas; Gregory Epiphaniou; Haider Al-Khateeb;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: United Kingdom

    We present an algorithm that allows two users to establish a symmetric cryptographic key by incorporating the most important features of the wireless channel in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. Non-reciprocity compensation is combined with turbo codes (TCs) for error reconciliation purposes. For fair comparisons, the indexing technique is applied in conjunction with the non-reciprocity compensation technique. A series of simulations are run to calculate key performance indicators (KPIs). High entropy values are obtained throughout all rounds of simulation during the key extraction process. Furthermore, simulation results indicate a significant improvement in bit mismatch rate (BMR) and key generation rate (KGR) when TCs are used. Increasing the number of iterations in the TC can significantly improve the Bit Error Rate (BER), thus generating more symmetric keys. The key generation rate was reported high ranging from 17 to 19 for the 256-bit symmetric keys per minute with TCs, while it is ranging from 2 to 5 when compared with a sample indexing technique published in the public domain. Finally, simulations proved also improvements for different key lengths as part of the error reconciliation process when TCs are used with an almost regular permutation (ARP) instead of a random permutation.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paul, Nicholas L.; Schenk, Jochen G.;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Greer, Stephen;
    Publisher: Almedia
    Country: United Kingdom

    A programme note/essay commissioned for the first production of Ella Hickson's play, The Writer, staged at the Almeida Theatre, London, in April 2018.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pettigrove, Glen;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press
    Country: United Kingdom

    Ethicists often approach our task by thinking about the norms that apply to act types. We ask, for example, what it means to punish, to make amends, or to forgive, and what conditions govern the appropriate performance of actions that fall within these types. However, actions often do not fall neatly into only one action type. This chapter discusses two cases that can be interpreted both as acts of protest and as acts of what Linda Radzik calls “informal social punishment.” Since the norms that govern these two types diverge, the fact that a particular action can be interpreted in either of these ways poses a challenge for anyone who might be seeking moral guidance from the type to which the action belongs. The cases highlight a theoretical gap that needs to be filled not only by accounts of social punishment or protest but also by ethicists who would use this approach to think about actions of other overlapping types.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Steven Hodge; Stephen Parker;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: United Kingdom

    The concept of social imaginaries is beginning to appear in education research, especially among critical researchers. In this literature, reference is consistently made to the work of Anderson, Castoriadis, Appadurai and Taylor. Among these thinkers, imaginaries are the shared yet tacit understandings about people, society and the world that are conveyed in a variety of ways including images, stories, sayings and popular ideas. Education researchers sometimes deploy the concept in investigations of interactions between policy and practice with a particular emphasis on what is taken to be the problematic spread and implementation of ‘neoliberal’ ideas in education practices. Comparison of the theory of social imaginaries with its appropriation in education research suggests that a number of researchers use the concept in a relatively limited and unjustifiably prescriptive way. In this chapter, we take the work of Charles Taylor as a reference point to examine this development of a methodology of imaginaries in critical education research. Taylor’s account places imaginaries within the broader methodological notion of ‘the background’ which refers to a complex, layered cultural construction. A survey of Taylor’s account of ‘modernity’ raises questions about the isolated use of the concept of social imaginaries seen in some education research and about the assumption social imaginaries can be the subject of intervention to bring about preferred educational futures. We argue that before the concept of social imaginaries can effectively inform methodologies for understanding and criticising education practices, researchers need to make more systematic use of the concept, in particular taking into account origins, background and tractability.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2013
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dave Beck; Rod Purcell;
    Publisher: Sage
    Country: United Kingdom

    This chapter explores a range of participative methods for working with groups to achieve social change in community settings. It draws on the work of Paulo Freire and examines how workers can facilitate processes of dialogue and critical reflection which enable local people to develop solutions to the issues they are dealing with.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Peace, Timothy; Meer, Nasar;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: United Kingdom

    This chapter provides an outline of how ethnic diversity affects political participation in Britain. It focuses on how ethnicity related barriers hinder political participation, before concluding that the political participation of ethnic and racial minorities is related to their political rights and the scale of their political representation. Ethnicity is a term that describes the real or imagined features of group membership, typically in terms of one or other combination of language, collective memory, culture, ritual, dress and religion, amongst other features. The necessity of forming such ‘ethnic’ trade unions was due to the lack of support from the British trade union movement. Ethnic minorities were also influential inside the Labour Party, exemplified by the ten-year ‘Black Sections’ movement that commenced in 1983 and was the most important campaign for representation and self-organisation within the party. The formal political participation of ethnic minorities by means of voting is, inevitably, premised upon their levels of electoral registration

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