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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . Preprint . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olivier Glassey; Jean-Henry Morin; Patrick Genoud; Giorgio Pauletto;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: Switzerland

    Part 3: Understanding eParticipation; International audience; This paper examines how design thinking and serious games approaches can be used to support participation through the analysis of three case studies. Indeed we will analyze these approaches in three different contexts: (i) a state-owned multi-utilities company; (ii) a political party; (iii) an information system strategic committee. Our analysis framework relies on the concepts of "perceived usefulness" and "perceived ease of use" and we will use it to discuss the lessons learned. Our main finding is that these approaches really contributing in making complex and abstract matters more "tangible" and thus understandable.

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nicolas Baya-Laffite;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Switzerland, France

    Over 40 years of diffusion worldwide, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has acquired an authoritative governance script that says that part of the decision-making process about the licensing or the funding of territorial development projects can be delegated to the instrument. Inscribed in applicable planning and development (hard and soft) law, regulations, and general technical reference documents, EIA affords its use for legitimizing and challenging decisions where a balance between competing environmental and developmental interests is to be struck. Initially associated with information provision for ecologically rational planning, EIAs became enshrined as a means, and ultimately a condition, for the substantiation of sustainable development and participatory governance, whatever these may mean (Cashmore et al. 2007).

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Guido Bologna;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    Part 5: MAKE Explainable AI; International audience; Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) lack an explanation capability in the form of propositional rules. In this work we define a simple CNN architecture having a unique convolutional layer, then a Max-Pool layer followed by a full connected layer. Rule extraction is performed after the Max-Pool layer with the use of the Discretized Interpretable Multi Layer Perceptron (DIMLP). The antecedents of the extracted rules represent responses of convolutional filters, which are difficult to understand. However, we show in a sentiment analysis problem that from these “meaningless” values it is possible to obtain rules that represent relevant words in the antecedents. The experiments illustrate several examples of rules that represent n-grams.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pierre Penet; Juan Flores Zendejas;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; During the nineteenth century, free trade and financial integration contributed to what is often referred to as the first globalization wave (1820-1914) (Flandreau, 2013; Flandreau & Zumer, 2004; Mauro et al., 2006). As creditors began to expand the reach of their operations by investing in the bonds of foreign nations, sometime from overseas, lending became more perilous. For instance, British investors often knew little about the Latin American countries whose bonds they were purchasing.¹ Nineteenth-century cross-border lending exemplifies the problem of information asymmetries familiar to economists (Stiglitz, 2000). In this case, uncertainties were compounded by the fact that lenders in the sovereign sector could not mitigate default risk by collateralizing their loans: as a rule, ownership of public assets cannot be transferred to foreigners. To reduce the anxiety of long-distance investing, investors began to seek information pertaining to the trust and credit profile of foreign borrowers. Since investors did not always possess sufficient organizational capabilities and resources to examine the facts, risk analysis was delegated to intermediaries, in particular merchant banks. As informational third parties, merchant banks performed the important function of certifying the credit of debtors, thus providing a practicable solution to the problem of uncertainty in sovereign lending (Flandreau & Flores, 2009). Such banks owned a 'brand' that could grant borrowing states market access on more favourable terms. Gradually, the notion of creditworthiness became cardinal in international lending and borrowing. Technologies of risk assessment played a cardinal role in the building of nineteenth-century debt markets (Carruthers, 2013). The tools of risk analysis which have become so ubiquitous recently can be traced back to the nineteenth ¹ The controversy about Poyais provides a good testimony of how difficult it was for creditors to invest abroad without reliable information to rely on. Poyais, as it turned out, was a fictitious country (Clavel, 2020).

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Randy Goebel; Ajay Chander; Katharina Holzinger; Freddy Lecue; Zeynep Akata; Simone Stumpf; Peter Kieseberg; Andreas Holzinger;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, United Kingdom, France

    Part 5: MAKE Explainable AI; International audience; Explainable AI is not a new field. Since at least the early exploitation of C.S. Pierce's abductive reasoning in expert systems of the 1980s, there were reasoning architectures to support an explanation function for complex AI systems, including applications in medical diagnosis , complex multi-component design, and reasoning about the real world. So explainability is at least as old as early AI, and a natural consequence of the design of AI systems. While early expert systems consisted of handcrafted knowledge bases that enabled reasoning over narrowly well-defined domains (e.g., INTERNIST, MYCIN), such systems had no learning capabilities and had only primitive uncertainty handling. But the evolution of formal reasoning architectures to incorporate principled probabilistic reasoning helped address the capture and use of uncertain knowledge. There has been recent and relatively rapid success of AI/machine learning solutions arises from neural network architectures. A new generation of neural methods now scale to exploit the practical applicability of statistical and algebraic learning approaches in arbitrarily high dimensional spaces. But despite their huge successes, largely in problems which can be cast as classification problems, their effectiveness is still limited by their un-debuggability, and their inability to "explain" their decisions in a human understandable and reconstructable way. So while AlphaGo or DeepStack can crush the best humans at Go or Poker, neither program has any internal model of its task; its representations defy interpretation by humans, there is no mechanism to explain their actions and behaviour, and furthermore, there is no obvious instructional value... the high performance systems can not help humans improve. Even when we understand the underlying mathematical scaffolding of current machine learning architectures, it is often impossible to get insight into the internal working of the models; we need explicit modeling and reasoning tools to explain how and why a result was achieved. We also know that a significant challenge for future AI is contextual adaptation, i.e., systems that incrementally help to construct explanatory models for solving real-world problems. Here it would be beneficial not to exclude human expertise, but to augment human intelligence with artificial intelligence.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pouya Aleatrati Khosroshahi; Jannis Beese; Florian Matthes; Robert Winter;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Part 2: Regular Papers; International audience; Application Portfolio (AP) complexity is an increasingly important and strongly discussed issue by both researchers and practitioners. Application portfolios in large organizations have become more and more difficult to understand, resulting in costly efforts to maintain and operate them. Although this is an urgent topic in large organizations, researchers and industry experts do not yet have a common understanding of this phenomenon and lack appropriate methods to measure and manage the respective complexity. We conduct an exploratory case study with the central enterprise architecture management (EAM) governance team and ten application owners of a large European automotive company to identify and link root causes and consequences of AP complexity. Furthermore, we evaluate possible solutions to decrease or manage this complexity from an application owners perspective. The results are interpreted from a socio-technical systems perspective.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lucie Gianola; Ēriks Ajausks; Victoria Arranz; Chomicha Bendahman; Laurent Bié; Claudia Borg; Aleix Cerdà; Khalid Choukri; Montse Cuadros; Ona de Gibert; +19 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, Spain

    The European MAPA (Multilingual Anonymisation for Public Administrations) project aims at developing an open-source solution for automatic de-identification of medical and legal documents. We introduce here the context, partners and aims of the project, and report on preliminary results. Peer Reviewed "Article signat per 30 autors/es: Lucie Gianola, Ēriks Ajausks, Victoria Arranz, Chomicha Bendahman, Laurent Bié, Claudia Borg, Aleix Cerdà, Khalid Choukri, Montse Cuadros, Ona De Gibert, Hans Degroote, Elena Edelman, Thierry Etchegoyhen, Ángela Franco Torres, Mercedes García Hernandez, Aitor García Pablos, Albert Gatt, Cyril Grouin, Manuel Herranz, Alejandro Adolfo Kohan, Thomas Lavergne, Maite Melero, Patrick Paroubek, Mickaël Rigault, Mike Rosner, Roberts Rozis, Lonneke Van Der Plas, Rinalds Vīksna, Pierre Zweigenbaum"

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rémery, Vanessa; Merle, Vincent;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: Switzerland

    The French experience of validating the knowledge, skills and competences acquired through informal and non-formal learning is unique in the world. In this chapter, we argue for the singularity of this experience in France. We first review the beginnings of accreditation of prior learning (APL) movement, from the early experiments until its current modes of functioning. We show in particular how the implementation of APL introduced a significant break in the French educational model that attaches great importance to diplomas obtained within the school system. APL radically transformed the landscape of classic means of certification. It established a strong distinction between diplomas and other pathways to gain certification, by recognising the formative dimension of work experience. The issue which then arises is not so much the recognition of knowledge, skills and competences that have been acquired at work, but the means by which the recognition can be operationalised. We focus, therefore, on the methodological resources provided to support candidates and to assist the complex process by which they are expected to put into words their work experience. To do so, we discuss recent research conducted in France in the field of psychology and educational sciences that investigate the counsellors' activities. This research, we argue, opens up interesting perspectives in terms of training and professionalisation in the field of APL.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olivier Glassey; Camille-Angelo Aglione;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    Part 4: Case Studies; International audience; This paper discusses the results of a survey on a concrete case of eParticipation, i.e. a campaign to get teenagers to participate in the Youth Council of the City of Lausanne. We analyse both the traditional tools (billboard ads, newspapers, official communication through schools) and the online tools (Web page, Facebook, YouTube). During our survey we used mixed methods: an online questionnaire (1360 respondents), documentary analysis of the Youth Council candidates’ application files, and interviews. We then analysed the impacts of the campaign in terms of participation under different angles, amongst other diffusion channels and use of humour.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Velasco-Pufleau, Luis;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Militant anashid (Islamic chants or recitations) are used, chanted and listened to by almost every jihadi armed group in the world. This chapter explores how the issue of the sacred nature of jihadi anashid has been developed in recent Salafi-related Islamic scholarship and examines testimonies on the role of these chants in Islamic State warfare. It argues that the collective beliefs on the sacred nature of jihadi anashid are based on a particular conceptualisation of sound and its agency, which assumes that both music and anashid are able to influence the body and soul of listeners. While the banning of music by the Islamic State strengthens and perpetuates conflict, jihadi anashid listening and chanting are involved in the process of enemy identification, coordinating militant practices and the justification of violence.

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