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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2002
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jianhan Zhu; Jun Hong; John Hughes;
    Publisher: Springer

    The large number of Web pages on many Web sites has raised\ud navigational problems. Markov chains have recently been used to model user navigational behavior on the World Wide Web (WWW). In this paper, we propose a method for constructing a Markov model of a Web site based on past\ud visitor behavior. We use the Markov model to make link predictions that assist new users to navigate the Web site. An algorithm for transition probability\ud matrix compression has been used to cluster Web pages with similar transition behaviors and compress the transition matrix to an optimal size for efficient probability calculation in link prediction. A maximal forward path method is used to further improve the efficiency of link prediction. Link prediction has been implemented in an online system called ONE (Online Navigation Explorer) to assist users' navigation in the adaptive Web site.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lara S. G. Piccolo; Somya Joshi; Evangelos Karapanos; Tracie Farrell;
    Country: Cyprus

    Part 12: Workshops; International audience; The manipulation of information and the dissemination of “fake news” are practices that trace back to the early records of human history. Significant changes in the technological environment enabling ubiquity, immediacy and considerable anonymity, have facilitated the spreading of misinformation in unforeseen ways, raising concerns around people’s (mis)perception of social issues worldwide. As a wicked problem, limiting the harm caused by misinformation goes beyond technical solutions, requiring also regulatory and behavioural changes. This workshop proposes to unpack the challenge at hand by bringing together diverse perspectives to the problem. Based on participatory design principles, it will challenge participants to critically reflect the limits of existing socio-technical approaches and co-create scenarios in which digital platforms support misinformation resilience.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Book . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    M-Dyaa Albakour; Udo Kruschwitz; Nikolaos Nanas; Yunhyong Kim; Dawei Song; Maria Fasli; Anne De Roeck;
    Publisher: Springer-Verlag
    Project: UKRI | Automatic Adaptation of K... (EP/F035357/1), UKRI | Automatic Adaptation of K... (EP/F035357/1)

    User evaluations of search engines are expensive and not easy to replicate. The problem is even more pronounced when assessing adaptive search systems, for example system-generated query modification suggestions that can be derived from past user interactions with a search engine. Automatically predicting the performance of different modification suggestion models before getting the users involved is therefore highly desirable. AutoEval is an evaluation methodology that assesses the quality of query modifications generated by a model using the query logs of past user interactions with the system. We present experimental results of applying this methodology to different adaptive algorithms which suggest that the predicted quality of different algorithms is in line with user assessments. This makes AutoEval a suitable evaluation framework for adaptive interactive search engines.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Malgorzata A. Grzegorczyk; Pantea Lotfian; William J. Nuttall;
    Publisher: Springer

    In this chapter we explore the future for innovation in two related, but distinct, sectors. We consider the linkages between medical technology(MedTech) and agricultural technology (Agri-Tech) innovation in the UK. We ask and discuss questions: Who are the key actors in the innovation systems of Medtech and Agri-Tech in the UK? What are the core technologies driving the current waves of innovation in these two sectors? Can one industry learn from the other? Where is the scope for cooperation and synergies? We notice that both sectors are technologically linked through foundational technologies underpinning the majority of the observed innovation e.g. big data, AI, IoT and robotics. The outputs of these technologies rely crucially on digital data for insight and decision support. However, Agri-Tech benefits from less complex stakeholder issues regarding data security and privacy. Both sectors are important to the UK going forwards, and both will be exposed to Brexit and the consequences of the COVID pandemic. Our discussion on the future of innovation should be of particular interest to start-up leaders, entrepreneurs, investors, managers and policy-makers in MedTech, Agri-Tech and cognate sectors.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Oraee, B; Tavassoli, M; Oraee, K;
    Publisher: Dept. of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering and Mineral Resources, West Virginia University
    Country: United Kingdom

    Since the advent of New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), shotcrete as a primary means of support in tunnels has been widely applied. It’s most important features are durability, speed of application and cost effectiveness. This paper introduces some tables that provide guidelines for the thickness of shotcrete required in some common situations of mine roadways. In order to devise such tables, two different arch sections, together with three different overburden types, were considered. Geotechnical parameters such as apparent cohesion and angle of internal friction of surrounding rocks were chosen, based on the five-category classification of Bieniawski. Two K0 factors (the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress) and an average rock density were utilized. Using numerical methods, 60 models were then devised in this way. By applying interaction diagrams of axial force and the bending moment for different thicknesses of shotcrete, appropriate shotcrete thickness for these models were calculated. The results of this research, as well as the methodology applied, can be used in mining roadway support design and all types of civil engineering tunnels.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Article . Conference object . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sofia Angeletou; Matthew Rowe; Harith Alani;
    Project: EC | ROBUST (257859), EC | WEGOV (248512), EC | ROBUST (257859), EC | WEGOV (248512)

    Understanding and forecasting the health of an online community is of great value to its owners and managers who have vested interests in its longevity and success. Nevertheless, the association between community evolution and the behavioural patterns and trends of its members is not clearly understood, which hinders our ability of making accurate predictions of whether a community is flourishing or diminishing. In this paper we use statistical analysis, combined with a semantic model and rules for representing and computing behaviour in online communities. We apply this model on a number of forum communities from Boards.ie to categorise behaviour of community members over time, and report on how different behaviour compositions correlate with positive and negative community growth in these forums.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Charles B. Haley; Robin Laney; Jonathan D. Moffett; Bashar Nuseibeh;

    This position paper describes work on trust assumptions in the con-text of security requirements. We show how trust assumptions can affect the scope of the analysis, derivation of security requirements, and in some cases how functionality is realized. An example shows how trust assumptions are used by a requirements engineer to help define and limit the scope of analysis and to document the decisions made during the process.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kevin Swingler;
    Publisher: Springer

    The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is a neural network architecture that is widely used for regression, classification and time series forecasting. One often cited disadvantage of the MLP, however, is the difficulty associated with human understanding of a particular MLP’s function. This so called black box limitation is due to the fact that the weights of the network reveal little about structure of the function they implement. This paper proposes a method for understanding the structure of the function learned by MLPs that model functions of the class \(f:\{-1,1\}^n \rightarrow \mathbb {R}^m\). This includes regression and classification models. A Walsh decomposition of the function implemented by a trained MLP is performed and the coefficients analysed. The advantage of a Walsh decomposition is that it explicitly separates the contribution to the function made by each subset of input neurons. It also allows networks to be compared in terms of their structure and complexity. The method is demonstrated on some small toy functions and on the larger problem of the MNIST handwritten digit classification data set.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sylvest, Matthew E.; Dixon, John C.; Conway, Susan J.; Patel, Manish R.; McElwaine, Jim N.; Hagermann, Axel; Barnes, Adam;
    Publisher: The Geological Society of London
    Project: EC | EPN2020-RI (654208), EC | UPWARDS (633127)

    Martian gullies were initially hypothesized to be carved by liquid water, due to their resemblance to gullies on Earth. Recent observations have highlighted significant sediment transport events occurring in Martian gullies at times and places where CO2 ice should be actively sublimating. Here we explore the role of CO2 sublimation in mobilizing sediment through laboratory simulation. In our previous experimental work, we reported the first observations of sediment slope movement triggered by the sublimation of CO2 frost. We used a Mars regolith simulant near the angle of repose. The current study extends our previous work by including two additional substrates, fine and coarse sand, and by testing slope angles down to 10°. We find that the Mars regolith simulant is active down to 17°, the fine sand is active only near the angle of repose and the coarse sand shows negligible movement. Using an analytical model, we show that under Martian gravity motion should be possible at even lower slope angles. We conclude that these mass-wasting processes could be involved in shaping Martian gullies at the present day and intriguingly the newly reported CO2-creep process could provide an alternative explanation for putative solifluction lobes on Mars.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kevin McKenna; Brodie Paterson;
    Publisher: Springer

    First paragraph: Work-related violence is a serious problem within healthcare that diminishes the quality of working life for staff, compromises organizational effectiveness, and ultimately impacts negatively on the provision of services to users. Recognition of the increased risk in mental health services imposes professional, statutory, and moral imperatives upon employers to provide staff with safe, clinically effective training in the management of work-related violence.

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