Abstract Wood has been used by mankind since prehistory; therefore the presence of wood in cultural heritage is huge. The dendrochronological dating is considered one of the principal techniques for the study of wood of historical and architectural interest. When the traces left by the history make a correct reading of the context impossible, the results given by dendrochronology are often the only certain data useful as a reference. Wood species identification and tree-ring analysis allow far more than just dating: often it is possible to identify the provenance of the woods, closely studying some technical aspects, detecting major or minor interventions of restoration, substitution, and reuse, and, in some fields of study, verifying the attribution of the artifact to a certain artist or school. The power of dendrochronology is based on the rigorous scientific approach and the complete independence from other stylistic or historical considerations.