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  • Frontiers in Neurology

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Adianes Herrera-Diaz; Adianes Herrera-Diaz; Rober Boshra; Paniz Tavakoli; +18 Authors

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is considered the electrophysiological change-detection response of the brain, and therefore a valuable clinical tool for monitoring functional changes associated with return to consciousness after severe brain injury. Using an auditory multi-deviant oddball paradigm, we tracked auditory MMN responses in seventeen healthy controls over a 12-h period, and in three comatose patients assessed over 24 h at two time points. We investigated whether the MMN responses show fluctuations in detectability over time in full conscious awareness, or whether such fluctuations are rather a feature of coma. Three methods of analysis were utilized to determine whether the MMN and subsequent event-related potential (ERP) components could be identified: traditional visual analysis, permutation t-test, and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that the MMN responses elicited to the duration deviant-stimuli are elicited and reliably detected over the course of several hours in healthy controls, at both group and single-subject levels. Preliminary findings in three comatose patients provide further evidence that the MMN is often present in coma, varying within a single patient from easily detectable to undetectable at different times. This highlights the fact that regular and repeated assessments are extremely important when using MMN as a neurophysiological predictor of coma emergence.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Adam C. Gravitis; Uilki Tufa; Katherine Zukotynski; Katherine Zukotynski; +10 Authors

    IntroductionPrevious case-control studies of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) patients failed to identify ECG features (peri-ictal heart rate, heart rate variability, corrected QT interval, postictal heart rate recovery, and cardiac rhythm) predictive of SUDEP risk. This implied a need to derive novel metrics to assess SUDEP risk from ECG.MethodsWe applied Single Spectrum Analysis and Independent Component Analysis (SSA-ICA) to remove artifact from ECG recordings. Then cross-frequency phase-phase coupling (PPC) was applied to a 20-s mid-seizure window and a contour of −3 dB coupling strength was determined. The contour centroid polar coordinates, amplitude (alpha) and angle (theta), were calculated. Association of alpha and theta with SUDEP was assessed and a logistic classifier for alpha was constructed.ResultsAlpha was higher in SUDEP patients, compared to non-SUDEP patients (p < 0.001). Theta showed no significant difference between patient populations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of a logistic classifier for alpha resulted in an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 94% and correctly classified two test SUDEP patients.DiscussionThis study develops a novel metric alpha, which highlights non-linear interactions between two rhythms in the ECG, and is predictive of SUDEP risk.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cody Rex; Marie-Josée Nadeau; Renée Douville; Renée Douville; +1 Authors

    Background: Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy (SBMA) is caused by the extension of the polyglutamine tract within the androgen receptor (AR) gene, and results in a multisystem presentation, including the degeneration of lower motor neurons. The androgen receptor (AR) is known to modulate the expression of endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK), a pathogenic viral genomic symbiont. Since ERVK is associated with motor neuron disease, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), we sought to determine if patients with SBMA exhibit evidence of ERVK reactivation. Results: Data from a pilot study demonstrate that peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from controls and patients with SBMA were examined ex vivo for the expression of ERVK viral transcripts and proteins. No differences in ERVK RNA expression was observed between the clinical groups. In contrast, enhancement of processed ERVK Gag and integrase proteins were observed in SBMA-derived PBMC as compared to healthy control specimens. Increased ERVK protein maturation co-occurred with elevation in the expression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor IRF1 in SBMA. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that ERVK viral protein maturation in SBMA is an unrecognized biomarker and facet of the disease. We discuss how our current understanding of ERVK-driven pathology may tie into key aspects of multi-system dysfunction in SBMA, with a focus on inflammation, proteinopathy, as well as DNA damage and repair.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Neurology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ruth Ann Marrie; Ruth Ann Marrie; Ronak Patel; Chase R. Figley; +15 Authors

    ObjectiveVascular comorbidities are associated with reduced cognitive performance and with changes in brain structure in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Understanding causal pathways is necessary to support the design of interventions to mitigate the impacts of comorbidities, and to monitor their effectiveness. We assessed the inter-relationships among vascular comorbidity, cognition and brain structure in people with MS.MethodsAdults with neurologist-confirmed MS reported comorbidities, and underwent assessment of their blood pressure, HbA1c, and cognitive functioning (i.e., Symbol Digit Modalities Test, California Verbal Learning Test, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, and verbal fluency). Test scores were converted to age-, sex-, and education-adjusted z-scores. Whole brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was completed, from which measures of thalamic and hippocampal volumes, and mean diffusivity of gray matter and normal-appearing white matter were converted to age and sex-adjusted z-scores. Canonical correlation analysis was used to identify linear combinations of cognitive measures (cognitive variate) and MRI measures (MRI variate) that accounted for the most correlation between the cognitive and MRI measures. Regression analyses were used to test whether MRI measures mediated the relationships between the number of vascular comorbidities and cognition measures.ResultsOf 105 participants, most were women (84.8%) with a mean (SD) age of 51.8 (12.8) years and age of symptom onset of 29.4 (10.5) years. Vascular comorbidity was common, with 35.2% of participants reporting one, 15.2% reporting two, and 8.6% reporting three or more. Canonical correlation analysis of the cognitive and MRI variables identified one pair of variates (Pillai's trace = 0.45, p = 0.0035). The biggest contributors to the cognitive variate were the SDMT and CVLT-II, and to the MRI variate were gray matter MD and thalamic volume. The correlation between cognitive and MRI variates was 0.50; these variates were used in regression analyses. On regression analysis, vascular comorbidity was associated with the MRI variate, and with the cognitive variate. After adjusting for the MRI variate, vascular comorbidity was not associated with the cognitive variate.ConclusionVascular comorbidity is associated with lower cognitive function in people with MS and this association is partially mediated via changes in brain macrostructure and microstructure.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eric Eyolfson; Haris Malik; Richelle Mychasiuk; Richelle Mychasiuk;

    Children and adolescents have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI), with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for most of these injuries. This demographic also often suffers from post-injury symptomologies that may persist for months. Telomere length (TL) has previously been used as a marker for outcomes following repetitive mild TBI (RmTBI) and it may be possible that telomere elongation can reduce post-traumatic behavioral impairments. Telomerase activator-65 (TA-65) is a telomerase small-molecule activator purified from the root of Chinese herbs that has been anecdotally reported to have anti-aging and life-extending potential. We hypothesized that RmTBI would shorten TL but administration of TA-65 would reverse RmTBI-induced telomere shortening and behavioral deficits. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered TA-65 or a placebo substance for 30 consecutive days [postnatal day (P) 25–55]. Following the injury protocol (mTBIs on P33, 36, and 40), rats went through a behavioral test battery designed to examine symptomologies commonly associated with mTBI (balance and motor coordination, exploratory behavior, short-term working memory, and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors). TL in ear and brain tissue (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus) and relative expression of TERT and Tep1 via qPCR were assessed 15 days following the last injury. We observed a heterogenous response between males and females, with TA65 administration resulting in increased mRNA expression of TERT and Tep1 in female rats that experienced RmTBI, which was accompanied by some functional recovery on motor behavior and footslips in the beam walk task and depressive-like behavior in the forced swim task.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Charles Leger; Charles Leger; Monique Herbert; Joseph F. X. DeSouza; +4 Authors

    Background: Early stage (preclinical) detection of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains challenged yet is crucial to both differentiate it from other disorders and facilitate timely administration of neuroprotective treatment as it becomes available.Objective: In a cross-validation paradigm, this work focused on two binary predictive probability analyses: classification of early PD vs. controls and classification of early PD vs. SWEDD (scans without evidence of dopamine deficit). It was hypothesized that five distinct model types using combined non-motor and biomarker features would distinguish early PD from controls with > 80% cross-validated (CV) accuracy, but that the diverse nature of the SWEDD category would reduce early PD vs. SWEDD CV classification accuracy and alter model-based feature selection.Methods: Cross-sectional, baseline data was acquired from the Parkinson's Progressive Markers Initiative (PPMI). Logistic regression, general additive (GAM), decision tree, random forest and XGBoost models were fitted using non-motor clinical and biomarker features. Randomized train and test data partitions were created. Model classification CV performance was compared using the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and the Kappa statistic.Results: All five models achieved >0.80 AUC CV accuracy to distinguish early PD from controls. The GAM (CV AUC 0.928, sensitivity 0.898, specificity 0.897) and XGBoost (CV AUC 0.923, sensitivity 0.875, specificity 0.897) models were the top classifiers. Performance across all models was consistently lower in the early PD/SWEDD analyses, where the highest performing models were XGBoost (CV AUC 0.863, sensitivity 0.905, specificity 0.748) and random forest (CV AUC 0.822, sensitivity 0.809, specificity 0.721). XGBoost detection of non-PD SWEDD matched 1–2 years curated diagnoses in 81.25% (13/16) cases. In both early PD/control and early PD/SWEDD analyses, and across all models, hyposmia was the single most important feature to classification; rapid eye movement behavior disorder (questionnaire) was the next most commonly high ranked feature. Alpha-synuclein was a feature of import to early PD/control but not early PD/SWEDD classification and the Epworth Sleepiness scale was antithetically important to the latter but not former.Interpretation: Non-motor clinical and biomarker variables enable high CV discrimination of early PD vs. controls but are less effective discriminating early PD from SWEDD.

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    Authors: Tarique Siragy; Mary-Elise MacDonald; Julie Nantel;

    Introduction: Fall rates in people with Parkinson's Disease range between 35 and 68% with the majority of falls occurring while walking. Initial evidence suggests that when walking without arm swing, people with Parkinson's Disease adapt their stepping foot placement as a means to preserve dynamic stability. However, it remains unexamined what arm swing's effect has on dynamic stability when walking on destabilizing surfaces. Methods: Twenty people with Parkinson's Disease (63.78 ± 8.97 years) walked with restricted and unrestricted arm swing on unperturbed, rocky, rolling-hills, and mediolateral translational surfaces. Data were collected on a split-belt treadmill CAREN Extended-System (Motek Medical, Amsterdam, NL). Bilateral averages and coefficient of variations for step time, length, and width; and mediolateral margin of stability were calculated. Results: Results were examined in three separate analyses that included arm conditions during each of the destabilizing surfaces compared to unperturbed walking (arm-rolling hills, arm-rocky, and arm-mediolateral). Compared to unrestricted arm swing, restricted arm swing reduced average step length (arm-rolling hills) and time (arm-rocky), and increased COV step time (arm-rolling hills). The arm-rolling hills analysis revealed that the most affected leg had a shorter step length than the least affected. The destabilizing surface effects revealed that during the arm-rolling hills and arm-rocky analyses, step time decreased, step width increased, and the COV for step time, length and width increased. No main effects occurred for the arm-mediolateral analysis. Conclusion: Results indicate that foot placement in response to restricted arm swing, in people with Parkinson's Disease, depends on the encountered destabilizing surface. The arm-rolling hills analysis revealed that participants appropriately reduced step length as compensation to their restricted arm swing. However, the arm-rocky analysis revealed that individuals prioritized forward progression over dynamic stability as they decreased average step time. Additionally, the increased spatiotemporal variability in response to the rocky and rolling hills conditions indicate partial foot placement adaptation to maintain an already existing level of global dynamic stability as no changes in the Margin of Stability occurred. Adaptation is further corroborated by the decreased step time and increased step width. These responses reflect attempts to pass the destabilizing terrains faster while increasing their base of support.

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    Authors: Heather R. McGregor; Kathleen E. Hupfeld; Ofer Pasternak; Scott J. Wood; +5 Authors

    Spaceflight induces lasting enlargement of the brain's ventricles as well as intracranial fluid shifts. These intracranial fluid shifts have been attributed to prolonged microgravity exposure, however, the potential effects of hypergravity exposure during launch and landing have yet to be elucidated. Here we describe a case report of a Crewmember who experienced an Aborted Launch (“CAL”). CAL's launch and landing experience was dissociated from prolonged microgravity exposure. Using MRI, we show that hypergravity exposure during the aborted launch did not induce lasting ventricular enlargement or intracranial fluid shifts resembling those previously reported with spaceflight. This case study therefore rules out hypergravity during launch and landing as a contributing factor to previously reported long-lasting intracranial fluid changes following spaceflight.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Anwar S. Shatil; Anwar S. Shatil; Kant M. Matsuda; Kant M. Matsuda; +5 Authors

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that is capable of localizing pathologies and assessing other anatomical features (e.g., tissue volume, microstructure, and white matter connectivity) in postmortem, ex vivo human brains. However, when brains are removed from the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (i.e., their normal in vivo magnetic environment), air bubbles and air–tissue interfaces typically cause magnetic susceptibility artifacts that severely degrade the quality of ex vivo MRI data. In this report, we describe a relatively simple and cost-effective experimental setup for acquiring artifact-free ex vivo brain images using a clinical MRI system with standard hardware. In particular, we outline the necessary steps, from collecting an ex vivo human brain to the MRI scanner setup, and have also described changing the formalin (as might be necessary in longitudinal postmortem studies). Finally, we share some representative ex vivo MRI images that have been acquired using the proposed setup in order to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach. We hope that this protocol will provide both clinicians and researchers with a straight-forward and cost-effective solution for acquiring ex vivo MRI data from whole postmortem human brains.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lucas D. Crosby; Jennifer S. Wong; Joyce L. Chen; Joyce L. Chen; +5 Authors

    Temporal gait asymmetry (TGA) is a persistent post-stroke gait deficit. Compared to conventional gait training techniques, rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS; i.e., walking to a metronome) has demonstrated positive effects on post-stroke TGA. Responsiveness of TGA to RAS may be related to several factors including motor impairment, time post-stroke, and individual rhythm abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between rhythm abilities and responsiveness of TGA when walking to RAS. Assessed using behavioral tests of beat perception and production, participants with post-stroke TGA (measured as single limb support time ratio) were categorized according to rhythm ability (as strong or weak beat perceivers/producers). We assessed change in TGA between walking without cues (baseline) and walking while synchronizing footsteps with metronome cues. Most individuals with stroke were able to maintain or improve TGA with a single session of RAS. Within-group analyses revealed a difference between strong and weak rhythm ability groups. Strong beat perceivers and producers showed significant reduction (improvement) in TGA with the metronome. Those with weak ability did not and exhibited high variability in the TGA response to metronome. Moreover, individuals who worsened in TGA when walking to metronome had poorer beat production scores than those who did not change in TGA. However, no interaction between TGA improvement when walking to metronome and rhythm perception or production ability was found. While responsiveness of TGA to RAS did not significantly differ based on strength of rhythm abilities, these preliminary findings highlight rhythm ability as a potential consideration when treating post-stroke individuals with rhythm-based treatments.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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28 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Adianes Herrera-Diaz; Adianes Herrera-Diaz; Rober Boshra; Paniz Tavakoli; +18 Authors

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is considered the electrophysiological change-detection response of the brain, and therefore a valuable clinical tool for monitoring functional changes associated with return to consciousness after severe brain injury. Using an auditory multi-deviant oddball paradigm, we tracked auditory MMN responses in seventeen healthy controls over a 12-h period, and in three comatose patients assessed over 24 h at two time points. We investigated whether the MMN responses show fluctuations in detectability over time in full conscious awareness, or whether such fluctuations are rather a feature of coma. Three methods of analysis were utilized to determine whether the MMN and subsequent event-related potential (ERP) components could be identified: traditional visual analysis, permutation t-test, and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that the MMN responses elicited to the duration deviant-stimuli are elicited and reliably detected over the course of several hours in healthy controls, at both group and single-subject levels. Preliminary findings in three comatose patients provide further evidence that the MMN is often present in coma, varying within a single patient from easily detectable to undetectable at different times. This highlights the fact that regular and repeated assessments are extremely important when using MMN as a neurophysiological predictor of coma emergence.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2023
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Adam C. Gravitis; Uilki Tufa; Katherine Zukotynski; Katherine Zukotynski; +10 Authors

    IntroductionPrevious case-control studies of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) patients failed to identify ECG features (peri-ictal heart rate, heart rate variability, corrected QT interval, postictal heart rate recovery, and cardiac rhythm) predictive of SUDEP risk. This implied a need to derive novel metrics to assess SUDEP risk from ECG.MethodsWe applied Single Spectrum Analysis and Independent Component Analysis (SSA-ICA) to remove artifact from ECG recordings. Then cross-frequency phase-phase coupling (PPC) was applied to a 20-s mid-seizure window and a contour of −3 dB coupling strength was determined. The contour centroid polar coordinates, amplitude (alpha) and angle (theta), were calculated. Association of alpha and theta with SUDEP was assessed and a logistic classifier for alpha was constructed.ResultsAlpha was higher in SUDEP patients, compared to non-SUDEP patients (p < 0.001). Theta showed no significant difference between patient populations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of a logistic classifier for alpha resulted in an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 94% and correctly classified two test SUDEP patients.DiscussionThis study develops a novel metric alpha, which highlights non-linear interactions between two rhythms in the ECG, and is predictive of SUDEP risk.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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