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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Leclerc, Grégoire;

    We introduce Fuzzy Cognitive Modelling (FCM) and provide step by step guidance and tips for using iModeler (both qualitative and quantitative approaches), the use of FCM in EcoAdapt Story and Simulation (S&S) approach based on Structured Decision Making, and briefly describe the FCM models being developed in the three study sites. This version correspond to iModeler version 4 (January 2004).

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    Book . 2015
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    Authors: Fallot, Abigaïl; Le Coq, Jean-François; Salinas, Julio Cesar; Aguilar, Teresa; +3 Authors

    Climate threats exacerbate issues of natural resource management in rural landscapes, namely water, forest and agricultural land. In order to consistently address these issues, we highlight the usefulness of a joint vision of the landscape where the actors share their knowledge on the mechanisms at work when considering the central problem that affect the landscape as well as the proposed solutions. On the basis of several case studies, we present and analyze participatory conceptual modelling as a process and a series of methods that allow building a shared understanding of the landscape as a socio-ecological system. The case study that better illustrates the diversity of suitable methods and necessary adjustments in the modelling process, is the Zapoco watershed in the Chiquitano Model Forest (Bolivia), characterized both by its natural richness and its economic poverty. In the framework of the research-action EcoAdapt project for community-based adaptation at the landscape level, we reviewed the modelling approaches which better served our purpose and ended in the articulation of tools belonging to different approaches. As a main result, we obtained graphical representations that the actors can easily understand and use to describe their context (Open Standards for the Practices of Conservation), their practices (Problem-Actors-Resources-Dynamics-Interactions) and their history (Resilience thinking). In a practical way, the models built address the complexity of the landscape and bring into focus needs for research (knowledge gaps, main uncertainties) and for action (coordination failures, unsustainable dynamics). From the perspective of companion modelling, we finally discuss the outreach of participatory conceptual modelling in the promotion of climate smart agriculture. International audience

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    Authors: Fernández, Alfonso; Muñoz, Ariel; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; +8 Authors

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ∼ 37–42∘ S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial (∼ 37∘ 40′ S–38∘ 50′ S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record (∼ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sabourin, Eric; Schillinger, Ralf; Cronenbold, Romy; Sandoval, Claudio; +5 Authors

    This document is about the methodology of social validation of the Climate Change Adaptation Plans and its implementation in the three Model Forests (MFs) of the EcoAdapt project. The first part of the paper presents the background and the work method. The second part deals with the specific advances and results of each of the three model forests participating in the EcoAdapt project in regards to the strategy of social validation of their climate change adaptation plans and the pilot “energizing” projects. The third part offers a transversal analysis with some conclusions and recommendations for social validation of adaptation options in the context of an action research project.

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    Book . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Agritroparrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Agritrop
      Book . 2014
      Data sources: Agritrop
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Leclerc, Grégoire (ed.);

    International debates on climate change have been arguing the need to foster adaptation planning in Latin America where impacts are expected to be more significant given the vulnerable socio‐economic context and reliance on natural resources. However little progress has been made both at national and at community level due to the complexity of adaptation planning in these countries, and due to the difficulty in managing socio-environmental dynamics characterized by deep uncertainties, potential tensions in cross‐scale interactions among scientists, policy makers and local communities among others. This four-year project helped local communities, Civil Society Organizations (CSO) and scientists in Latin America and Europe in engaging in inter‐disciplinary action‐research to increase their collective capacity to adapt to climate change. EcoAdapt focused on water security as a mobilizing issue that is i) critical due to climate and societal changes; ii) is linked to social tensions; iii) is key for the livelihood of local communities. EcoAdapt consortium was made of 5 CSO partners and 4 RTD partners who joined forces to address water security in “Model Forest” landscapes in Argentina (Jujuy), Bolivia (Quiquitano), and Chile (Alto Malleco). Knowledge sharing formed the backbone of the project and was done in such a way that partners develop a critical view of their own sources of knowledge, which fostered the creation of new, socially‐validated knowledge. It has also provided scientists and policy‐makers with an in‐depth insight into local knowledge and issues, which framed the identification of knowledge gaps and the research to be done. We confirmed that adaptation to climate change goes way beyond coping and is not something that can be done in isolation by any player at any organization level. EcoAdapt developed studies, tools, training material, strategic adaptation plans for water security, and implemented several adaptation pilot projects for the benefit of marginal groups in Argentina, Bolivia and Chile. These include labour and resource efficient sleeve irrigation, frost-preventing tree curtains, water harvesting, protection of ritual sites, efficient woodstoves, installation and maintenance of water pumps, and the creation of the Zapoco watershed protected area in Bolivia. The project built lasting capacity in the Model Forests to address water security in a local development perspective and the context of climate change, and capacity in scientists in developing research at the science-society interface. The EcoAdapt process, backed by a broad dissemination strategy with a presence in high-level events such as UNFCCC COP 18/19/20/21, has contributed to improve capacity for institutional coordination, awareness and prevention of water‐related conflicts, and initiated various initiatives that are being scaled-out in the landscape in the region and in Europe.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Agritroparrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Prins, Kees; Cáu-Cattan, Alejandra; Azcarrúnz, Nataly; Leclerc, Grégoire;

    EcoAdapt (www.ecoadapt.eu) is an ambitious, complex and demanding action-research project about water security in a context of climate change. The issues the project deals with are also complex and demanding. A central challenge is how to get the investigators, the project partner Model Forest local teams and the relevant local actors in the territorieson the same page. That is why joint knowledge development and shared learning from different sources and ways of knowing is of such strategic importance in EcoAdapt. Moreover, a viable and sustainable community based response to environmental and climaticchallenges requires a critical mass of motivated, informed and concerted local actors. To make good headway in this direction, an arduous but dynamic process has been set into motion resulting in a growing commitment and capacity building among the local actors in the three EcoAdapt territories. The project’s mini and synthesis workshops were building- and stepping-stones in a continuous path of joint learning and capacity development. In the former events the information captured in the base line study was discussed with the locals actors ,while in the second ones, the interest aroused was capitalized upon to form the change agents groups (an essential aspect of the EcoAdapt strategy) and to respond to the demand of more precise and accessible information, by means of a series of field learning activities. This had some promising outcomes such as contributing to a common interest and growing understanding of water as a central watershed ecosystem; widening of the horizon and view towards watershed and landscape management; strengthening of community drinking water systems with regards to its hardware and software (physical infrastructure, local management and governance); growing cooperation among urban and rural groups or between civil society and policy makers around water issues; creating a link between the legal framework and policy making and the processes on the ground. A spiral of learning took place. As people satisfy their curiosity and initial interest they want to know more and understand better, and they become even more investigative as the activity gets geared towards action and towards helping them achieve their needs and aspirations. Learning does not stop and is clearly evolving in the project with regards to aims, content and methods. This proves to be entirely in line with one of the working hypothesis of the project and also with constructivist theories such as meaningful learning. It has been fundamental and very instrumental to induce the formation of multi actor platforms of change agents in the three territories, through which the field learning activities are organized. These new instances are pivotal in the EcoAdapt learning and organization process by the local project partners: due to a broad representation of local groups and institutions, these platforms get grounded and obtain a growing legitimacy in the territory; they fill a real demand by tackling felt needs for local development around water issues and capitalizing human, institutional and financial opportunities and resources; information is spread and debated; trust and chemistry is built and a common language and vision developed; by lowering barriers between groups and institutions transaction costs are lowered and opportunities are taken advantage of to decrease operational costs and achieve higher effectiveness in ongoing or initial action around water issues and management. Hence it is also very cost effective in economic terms. Climate change adaptation is a variant of risk management to secure water, food and other means of living. Management of climate risks is a millenarian old need and practice, but recent climate change tendencies give it a whole new dimension. Traditional knowledge and practice is a good springboard to climate change adaptation, but new science based information and views must be inserted in what people already know, do and want to change (or conserve) to widen their horizon and action alternatives, and create in this way, a solid 5 base for a viable and shared climate change adaptation plan. In that perspective it is essential that the complex issue of climate change is made transparent, understandable and meaningful. This still remains a great challenge in tactical and didactical terms. The systematized experience so far teaches us that it may be necessary to deviate a bit from the project proposal (“description of work”, or DoW) in order to advance towards the project vision. So, in Climate Change Adaptation for Local Development (the project slogan) the relation between both aims is inter-active.Local development can be a starting point for advancing to climate change adaptation and ecological and social resilience. Close observation shows that the prime mover of action by the local actors has not been so much climate change adaptation but securing clean water in sufficient quality and quantity or satisfying other felt local needs and aspirations. And this is not just a matter of climate- but also of legal stress, and a lack of equity and legitimacy. Hence, the internal learning and systematization has fed also the adaptive project management. Looking backwards and reflecting on it, one gets more clarity on how to go forwards to reach the vision. But therefore it is also important to look out of the EcoAdapt box and combine internal reflection with relevant literature and other cases, in order to get more out of the empirical data and process.Hence, much emphasis was put in this working paper on a relevant literature review, whose results merged in a conceptual flow chart, with the philosophy and strategy of EcoAdapt. In chapter VI Analysis and Synthesis the link is made between this flowchart with the process and outcomes of the field learning activities described in much detail in chapter V. Many promising results were found as well as pending challenges which both are inputs for action and strategy in the next two years: momentum must be maintained, advances consolidated and a qualitative jump forward made. One of the lessons learned is the importance of combining tangibles and intangibles in water management to motivate participation of the local actors and enable their learning, organization and governance towards the desired change. It also shows the added value of EcoAdapt and how it gets the most out of its limited financial means. Learning outcomes must be converted into input for strategic development, scaling out and up, policy debate and policy incidence. There is clear evidence that this process has already begun. Distances between actors diminish; policy makers get more involved; people become more knowledgeable on legal and policy matters and want to influence them or make better use of them; joint practice and understanding of water issues go hand in hand; scales of intervention are combined. Scaling up is of strategic importance because community based environment management has a limited effect and does not make much sense if policy makers do not respond correspondingly. So, in order for intervention to be effective it must occur at different scales and be articulated. Both literature and the project practice confirm this need and possibility. It is also clearly foreseen in the project strategy expressed in the theory of change of the DoW. A next central priority will be to incorporate, intelligently and tactically, the planned scenarios and measures of climate change adaptation within the activities and processes already in march in the three sites and organized around perceived local needs and opportunities, while at the same time doing the inverse - insert the ongoing activities in a broader framework. A related central challenge in this perspective will be to stimulate in the coming years, a fruitful debate and clarity on water governance and conflict management in a context of growing water scarcity due to the effects of climate change and other stressors. A debate on ‘’hotter issues’’ is quite feasible as more trust, chemistry and cooperation is built around non conflictive issues during start up activities, like what is going on at the moment. 6 As the literature shows, in the history of humankind, water scarcity does not necessarily lead to conflict and often has been a base for cooperation, social organization and synergy, depending on the rules of the game and the governance institutions in place and functioning. This will become an increasingly important issue in light of viable and robust adaptation plans to be made in the three sites in the course of 2014-2015.

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    Book . 2014
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    Other literature type . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Leclerc, Grégoire;

    We introduce Fuzzy Cognitive Modelling (FCM) and provide step by step guidance and tips for using iModeler (both qualitative and quantitative approaches), the use of FCM in EcoAdapt Story and Simulation (S&S) approach based on Structured Decision Making, and briefly describe the FCM models being developed in the three study sites. This version correspond to iModeler version 4 (January 2004).

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    Agritrop
    Book . 2015
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    Authors: Fallot, Abigaïl; Le Coq, Jean-François; Salinas, Julio Cesar; Aguilar, Teresa; +3 Authors

    Climate threats exacerbate issues of natural resource management in rural landscapes, namely water, forest and agricultural land. In order to consistently address these issues, we highlight the usefulness of a joint vision of the landscape where the actors share their knowledge on the mechanisms at work when considering the central problem that affect the landscape as well as the proposed solutions. On the basis of several case studies, we present and analyze participatory conceptual modelling as a process and a series of methods that allow building a shared understanding of the landscape as a socio-ecological system. The case study that better illustrates the diversity of suitable methods and necessary adjustments in the modelling process, is the Zapoco watershed in the Chiquitano Model Forest (Bolivia), characterized both by its natural richness and its economic poverty. In the framework of the research-action EcoAdapt project for community-based adaptation at the landscape level, we reviewed the modelling approaches which better served our purpose and ended in the articulation of tools belonging to different approaches. As a main result, we obtained graphical representations that the actors can easily understand and use to describe their context (Open Standards for the Practices of Conservation), their practices (Problem-Actors-Resources-Dynamics-Interactions) and their history (Resilience thinking). In a practical way, the models built address the complexity of the landscape and bring into focus needs for research (knowledge gaps, main uncertainties) and for action (coordination failures, unsustainable dynamics). From the perspective of companion modelling, we finally discuss the outreach of participatory conceptual modelling in the promotion of climate smart agriculture. International audience

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    Authors: Fernández, Alfonso; Muñoz, Ariel; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; +8 Authors

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ∼ 37–42∘ S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial (∼ 37∘ 40′ S–38∘ 50′ S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record (∼ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Sabourin, Eric; Schillinger, Ralf; Cronenbold, Romy; Sandoval, Claudio; +5 Authors

    This document is about the methodology of social validation of the Climate Change Adaptation Plans and its implementation in the three Model Forests (MFs) of the EcoAdapt project. The first part of the paper presents the background and the work method. The second part deals with the specific advances and results of each of the three model forests participating in the EcoAdapt project in regards to the strategy of social validation of their climate change adaptation plans and the pilot “energizing” projects. The third part offers a transversal analysis with some conclusions and recommendations for social validation of adaptation options in the context of an action research project.

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    Book . 2014
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      Book . 2014
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    Authors: Leclerc, Grégoire (ed.);

    International debates on climate change have been arguing the need to foster adaptation planning in Latin America where impacts are expected to be more significant given the vulnerable socio‐economic context and reliance on natural resources. However little progress has been made both at national and at community level due to the complexity of adaptation planning in these countries, and due to the difficulty in managing socio-environmental dynamics characterized by deep uncertainties, potential tensions in cross‐scale interactions among scientists, policy makers and local communities among others. This four-year project helped local communities, Civil Society Organizations (CSO) and scientists in Latin America and Europe in engaging in inter‐disciplinary action‐research to increase their collective capacity to adapt to climate change. EcoAdapt focused on water security as a mobilizing issue that is i) critical due to climate and societal changes; ii) is linked to social tensions; iii) is key for the livelihood of local communities. EcoAdapt consortium was made of 5 CSO partners and 4 RTD partners who joined forces to address water security in “Model Forest” landscapes in Argentina (Jujuy), Bolivia (Quiquitano), and Chile (Alto Malleco). Knowledge sharing formed the backbone of the project and was done in such a way that partners develop a critical view of their own sources of knowledge, which fostered the creation of new, socially‐validated knowledge. It has also provided scientists and policy‐makers with an in‐depth insight into local knowledge and issues, which framed the identification of knowledge gaps and the research to be done. We confirmed that adaptation to climate change goes way beyond coping and is not something that can be done in isolation by any player at any organization level. EcoAdapt developed studies, tools, training material, strategic adaptation plans for water security, and implemented several adaptation pilot projects for the benefit of marginal groups in Argentina, Bolivia and Chile. These include labour and resource efficient sleeve irrigation, frost-preventing tree curtains, water harvesting, protection of ritual sites, efficient woodstoves, installation and maintenance of water pumps, and the creation of the Zapoco watershed protected area in Bolivia. The project built lasting capacity in the Model Forests to address water security in a local development perspective and the context of climate change, and capacity in scientists in developing research at the science-society interface. The EcoAdapt process, backed by a broad dissemination strategy with a presence in high-level events such as UNFCCC COP 18/19/20/21, has contributed to improve capacity for institutional coordination, awareness and prevention of water‐related conflicts, and initiated various initiatives that are being scaled-out in the landscape in the region and in Europe.

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    Authors: Prins, Kees; Cáu-Cattan, Alejandra; Azcarrúnz, Nataly; Leclerc, Grégoire;

    EcoAdapt (www.ecoadapt.eu) is an ambitious, complex and demanding action-research project about water security in a context of climate change. The issues the project deals with are also complex and demanding. A central challenge is how to get the investigators, the project partner Model Forest local teams and the relevant local actors in the territorieson the same page. That is why joint knowledge development and shared learning from different sources and ways of knowing is of such strategic importance in EcoAdapt. Moreover, a viable and sustainable community based response to environmental and climaticchallenges requires a critical mass of motivated, informed and concerted local actors. To make good headway in this direction, an arduous but dynamic process has been set into motion resulting in a growing commitment and capacity building among the local actors in the three EcoAdapt territories. The project’s mini and synthesis workshops were building- and stepping-stones in a continuous path of joint learning and capacity development. In the former events the information captured in the base line study was discussed with the locals actors ,while in the second ones, the interest aroused was capitalized upon to form the change agents groups (an essential aspect of the EcoAdapt strategy) and to respond to the demand of more precise and accessible information, by means of a series of field learning activities. This had some promising outcomes such as contributing to a common interest and growing understanding of water as a central watershed ecosystem; widening of the horizon and view towards watershed and landscape management; strengthening of community drinking water systems with regards to its hardware and software (physical infrastructure, local management and governance); growing cooperation among urban and rural groups or between civil society and policy makers around water issues; creating a link between the legal framework and policy making and the processes on the ground. A spiral of learning took place. As people satisfy their curiosity and initial interest they want to know more and understand better, and they become even more investigative as the activity gets geared towards action and towards helping them achieve their needs and aspirations. Learning does not stop and is clearly evolving in the project with regards to aims, content and methods. This proves to be entirely in line with one of the working hypothesis of the project and also with constructivist theories such as meaningful learning. It has been fundamental and very instrumental to induce the formation of multi actor platforms of change agents in the three territories, through which the field learning activities are organized. These new instances are pivotal in the EcoAdapt learning and organization process by the local project partners: due to a broad representation of local groups and institutions, these platforms get grounded and obtain a growing legitimacy in the territory; they fill a real demand by tackling felt needs for local development around water issues and capitalizing human, institutional and financial opportunities and resources; information is spread and debated; trust and chemistry is built and a common language and vision developed; by lowering barriers between groups and institutions transaction costs are lowered and opportunities are taken advantage of to decrease operational costs and achieve higher effectiveness in ongoing or initial action around water issues and management. Hence it is also very cost effective in economic terms. Climate change adaptation is a variant of risk management to secure water, food and other means of living. Management of climate risks is a millenarian old need and practice, but recent climate change tendencies give it a whole new dimension. Traditional knowledge and practice is a good springboard to climate change adaptation, but new science based information and views must be inserted in what people already know, do and want to change (or conserve) to widen their horizon and action alternatives, and create in this way, a solid 5 base for a viable and shared climate change adaptation plan. In that perspective it is essential that the complex issue of climate change is made transparent, understandable and meaningful. This still remains a great challenge in tactical and didactical terms. The systematized experience so far teaches us that it may be necessary to deviate a bit from the project proposal (“description of work”, or DoW) in order to advance towards the project vision. So, in Climate Change Adaptation for Local Development (the project slogan) the relation between both aims is inter-active.Local development can be a starting point for advancing to climate change adaptation and ecological and social resilience. Close observation shows that the prime mover of action by the local actors has not been so much climate change adaptation but securing clean water in sufficient quality and quantity or satisfying other felt local needs and aspirations. And this is not just a matter of climate- but also of legal stress, and a lack of equity and legitimacy. Hence, the internal learning and systematization has fed also the adaptive project management. Looking backwards and reflecting on it, one gets more clarity on how to go forwards to reach the vision. But therefore it is also important to look out of the EcoAdapt box and combine internal reflection with relevant literature and other cases, in order to get more out of the empirical data and process.Hence, much emphasis was put in this working paper on a relevant literature review, whose results merged in a conceptual flow chart, with the philosophy and strategy of EcoAdapt. In chapter VI Analysis and Synthesis the link is made between this flowchart with the process and outcomes of the field learning activities described in much detail in chapter V. Many promising results were found as well as pending challenges which both are inputs for action and strategy in the next two years: momentum must be maintained, advances consolidated and a qualitative jump forward made. One of the lessons learned is the importance of combining tangibles and intangibles in water management to motivate participation of the local actors and enable their learning, organization and governance towards the desired change. It also shows the added value of EcoAdapt and how it gets the most out of its limited financial means. Learning outcomes must be converted into input for strategic development, scaling out and up, policy debate and policy incidence. There is clear evidence that this process has already begun. Distances between actors diminish; policy makers get more involved; people become more knowledgeable on legal and policy matters and want to influence them or make better use of them; joint practice and understanding of water issues go hand in hand; scales of intervention are combined. Scaling up is of strategic importance because community based environment management has a limited effect and does not make much sense if policy makers do not respond correspondingly. So, in order for intervention to be effective it must occur at different scales and be articulated. Both literature and the project practice confirm this need and possibility. It is also clearly foreseen in the project strategy expressed in the theory of change of the DoW. A next central priority will be to incorporate, intelligently and tactically, the planned scenarios and measures of climate change adaptation within the activities and processes already in march in the three sites and organized around perceived local needs and opportunities, while at the same time doing the inverse - insert the ongoing activities in a broader framework. A related central challenge in this perspective will be to stimulate in the coming years, a fruitful debate and clarity on water governance and conflict management in a context of growing water scarcity due to the effects of climate change and other stressors. A debate on ‘’hotter issues’’ is quite feasible as more trust, chemistry and cooperation is built around non conflictive issues during start up activities, like what is going on at the moment. 6 As the literature shows, in the history of humankind, water scarcity does not necessarily lead to conflict and often has been a base for cooperation, social organization and synergy, depending on the rules of the game and the governance institutions in place and functioning. This will become an increasingly important issue in light of viable and robust adaptation plans to be made in the three sites in the course of 2014-2015.

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    Book . 2014
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