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  • Frontiers in Neurology

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tatjana Traub-Weidinger; Otto Muzik; Lalith Kumar Shiyam Sundar; Susanne Aull-Watschinger; +14 Authors

    The purpose of this study was to establish a non-invasive clinical PET/MR protocol using [18F]-labeled deoxyglucose (FDG) that provides physicians with regional metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlc) values and to clarify the contribution of absolute quantification to clinical management of patients with non-lesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). The study included a group of 15 patients with non-lesional ETLE who underwent a dynamic FDG PET study using a fully-integrated PET/MRI system (Siemens Biograph). FDG tracer uptake images were converted to MRGlc (μmol/100 g/min) maps using an image derived input function that was extracted based on the combined analysis of PET and MRI data. In addition, the same protocol was applied to a group of healthy controls, yielding a normative database. Abnormality maps for ETLE patients were created with respect to the normative database, defining significant hypo- or hyper-metabolic regions that exceeded ±2 SD of normal regional mean MRGlc values. Abnormality maps derived from MRGlc images of ETLE patients contributed to the localization of hypo-metabolic areas against visual readings in 53% and increased the confidence in the original clinical readings in 33% of all cases. Moreover, quantification allowed identification of hyper-metabolic areas that are associated with frequently spiking cortex, rarely acknowledged in clinical readings. Overall, besides providing some confirmatory information to visual readings, quantitative PET imaging demonstrated only a moderate impact on clinical management of patients with complex pathology that leads to epileptic seizures, failing to provide new decisive information that would have changed classification of patients from being rejected to being considered for surgical intervention.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Petrus J. de Vries; Elena Belousova; Mirjana P. Benedik; Tom Carter; +192 Authors

    Background: Knowledge is increasing about TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND), but little is known about the potentially confounding effects of intellectual ability (IA) on the rates of TAND across age, sex, and genotype. We evaluated TAND in (a) children vs. adults, (b) males vs. females, and (c) TSC1 vs. TSC2 mutations, after stratification for levels of IA, in a large, international cohort.Methods: Individuals of any age with a documented visit for TSC in the 12 months prior to enrolment were included. Frequency and percentages of baseline TAND manifestations were presented by categories of IA (no intellectual disability [ID, intelligence quotient (IQ)>70]; mild ID [IQ 50–70]; moderate-to-profound ID [IQ<50]). Chi-square tests were used to test associations between ID and TAND manifestations. The association between TAND and age (children vs. adults), sex (male vs. female), and genotype (TSC1 vs. TSC2) stratified by IA levels were examined using the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel tests.Results: Eight hundred and ninety four of the 2,211 participants had formal IQ assessments. There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between levels of IA and the majority of TAND manifestations, except impulsivity (P = 0.12), overactivity (P = 0.26), mood swings (P = 0.08), hallucinations (P = 0.20), psychosis (P = 0.06), depressive disorder (P = 0.23), and anxiety disorder (P = 0.65). Once controlled for IA, children had higher rates of overactivity, but most behavioral difficulties were higher in adults. At the psychiatric level, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was seen at higher rates in children while anxiety and depressive disorders were observed at higher rates in adults. Compared to females, males showed significantly higher rates of impulsivity and overactivity, as well as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. No significant age or sex differences were observed for academic difficulties or neuropsychological deficits. After controlling for IA no genotype-TAND associations were observed, except for higher rates of self-injury in individuals with TSC2 mutations.Conclusions: Findings suggest IA as risk marker for most TAND manifestations. We provide the first evidence of male preponderance of ASD and ADHD in individuals with TSC. The study also confirms the association between TSC2 and IA but, once controlling for IA, disproves the previously reported TSC2 association with ASD and with most other TAND manifestations.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mian, Omar S.; Glover, Paul M.; Day, Brian L.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: UCL Discovery
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2015
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: UCL Discovery
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kiefer, Adam W.; Barber Foss, Kim; Reches, Amit; Gadd, Brooke; +5 Authors

    Children and adolescent athletes are at a higher risk for concussion than adults, and also experience longer recovery times and increased associated symptoms. It has also recently been demonstrated that multiple, seemingly mild concussions may result in exacerbated and prolonged neurological deficits. Objective assessments and return-to-play criteria are needed to reduce risk and morbidity associated with concussive events in these populations. Recent research has pushed to study the use of electroencephalography as an objective measure of brain injury. In the present case study, we present a novel approach that examines event-related potentials via a brain network activation (BNA) analysis as a biomarker of concussion and recovery. Specifically, changes in BNA scores, as indexed through this approach, offer a potential indicator of neurological health as the BNA assessment qualitatively and quantitatively indexes the network dynamics associated with brain injury. Objective tools, such as these support accurate and efficient assessment of brain injury and may offer a useful step in categorizing the temporal and spatial changes in brain activity following concussive blows, as well as the functional connectivity of brain networks, associated with concussion.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scott, Kirsten M; Kouli, Antonina; Yeoh, Su L; Clatworthy, Menna R; +1 Authors

    Immune dysfunction has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and its progression. Antibodies play an important role in both innate and adaptive responses, acting as powerful effector molecules that can propagate inflammation by activating innate immune cells. Alpha synuclein binding antibodies have been described in PD patients with conflicting associations. In this article, we consider the potential mechanistic basis of alpha synuclein auto-antibody development and function in PD. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of antibody studies in PD cohorts showing that there is weak evidence for an increase in alpha synuclein auto-antibodies in PD patients particularly in early disease. The confidence with which this conclusion can be drawn is limited by the heterogeneity of the clinical cohorts used, inclusion of unmatched controls, inadequate power and assay related variability. We have therefore made some recommendations for the design of future studies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2018
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      Apollo
      Article . 2018
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Apollo
      Article . 2018
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Engvall M.; Kawasaki A.; Carelli V.; Wibom R.; +6 Authors

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease causing severe bilateral visual loss, typically in young adults. The disorder is commonly caused by one of three primary point mutations in mitochondrial DNA, but a number of other rare mutations causing or associated with the clinical syndrome of LHON have been reported. The mutations in LHON are almost exclusively located in genes encoding subunits of complex I in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Here we report two patients, a mother and her son, with the typical LHON phenotype. Genetic investigations for the three common mutations were negative, instead we found a new and previously unreported mutation in mitochondrial DNA. This homoplasmic mutation, m.13345G>A, is located in the MT-ND5 gene, encoding a core subunit in complex I in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Investigation of the patients mitochondrial respiratory chain in muscle found a mild defect in the combined activity of complex I+III. In the literature six other mutations in the MT-ND5 gene have been associated with LHON and by this report a new putative mutation in the MT-ND5 can be added.

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    Serveur académique lausannois
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
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    Authors: Almandoz-Gil, Leire; Persson, Emma; Lindström, Veronica; Ingelsson, Martin; +2 Authors

    The aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alpha Syn) is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and related neurological disorders. However, the physiological function of the protein and how this function relates to its pathological effects remain poorly understood. One of the proposed roles of aSyn is to promote the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex assembly by binding to VAMP-2. The objective of this study was to visualize the co-localization between aSyn and the SNARE proteins (VAMP-2, SNAP-25, and syntaxin-1) for the first time using in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA). Cortical primary neurons were cultured from either non-transgenic or transgenic mice expressing human aSyn with the A30P mutation under the Thy-1 promoter. With an antibody recognizing both mouse and human aSyn, a PLA signal indicating close proximity between aSyn and the three SNARE proteins was observed both in the soma and throughout the processes. No differences in the extent of PLA signals were seen between non-transgenic and transgenic neurons. With an antibody specific against human aSyn, the PLA signal was mostly located to the soma and was only present in a few cells. Taken together, in situ PLA is a method that can be used to investigate the co-localization of aSyn and the SNARE proteins in primary neuronal cultures

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Graham Cooper; Graham Cooper; Graham Cooper; Carsten Finke; +18 Authors

    Normal appearing white matter (NAWM) damage develops early in multiple sclerosis (MS) and continues in the absence of new lesions. The ratio of T1w and T2w (T1w/T2w ratio), a measure of white matter integrity, has previously shown reduced intensity values in MS NAWM. We evaluate the validity of a standardized T1w/T2w ratio (sT1w/T2w ratio) in MS and whether this method is sensitive in detecting MS-related differences in NAWM. T1w and T2w scans were acquired at 3 Tesla in 47 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 47 matched controls (HC). T1w/T2w and sT1w/T2w ratios were then calculated. We compared between-group variability between T1w/T2w and sT1w/T2w ratio in HC and MS and assessed for group differences. We also evaluated the relationship between the T1w/T2w and sT1w/T2w ratios and clinically relevant variables. Compared to the classic T1w/T2w ratio, the between-subject variability in sT1w/T2w ratio showed a significant reduction in MS patients (p < 0.001) and HC (p < 0.001). However, only sT1w/T2w ratio values were reduced in patients compared to HC (p < 0.001). The sT1w/T2w ratio intensity values were significantly influenced by age, T2 lesion volume and group status (MS vs. HC) (adjusted R2 = 0.30, p < 0.001). We demonstrate the validity of the sT1w/T2w ratio in MS and that it is more sensitive to MS-related differences in NAWM compared to T1w/T2w ratio. The sT1w/T2w ratio shows promise as an easily-implemented measure of NAWM in MS using readily available scans and simple post-processing methods.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2019
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    Authors: Centeno, Maria; Carmichael, David W.;

    There is a growing body of evidence pointing toward large-scale networks underlying the core phenomena in epilepsy, from seizure generation to cognitive dysfunction or response to treatment. The investigation of networks in epilepsy has become a key concept to unlock a deeper understanding of the disease. Functional imaging can provide valuable information to characterize network dysfunction; in particular resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI), which is increasingly being applied to study brain networks in a number of diseases. In patients with epilepsy, network connectivity derived from RS-fMRI has found connectivity abnormalities in a number of networks; these include the epileptogenic, cognitive and sensory processing networks. However, in majority of these studies, the effect of epileptic transients in the connectivity of networks has been neglected. EEG–fMRI has frequently shown networks related to epileptic transients that in many cases are concordant with the abnormalities shown in RS studies. This points toward a relevant role of epileptic transients in the network abnormalities detected in RS-fMRI studies. In this review, we summarize the network abnormalities reported by these two techniques side by side, provide evidence of their overlapping findings, and discuss their significance in the context of the methodology of each technique. A number of clinically relevant factors that have been associated with connectivity changes are in turn associated with changes in the frequency of epileptic transients. These factors include different aspects of epilepsy ranging from treatment effects, cognitive processes, or transition between different alertness states (i.e., awake–sleep transition). For RS-fMRI to become a more effective tool to investigate clinically relevant aspects of epilepsy it is necessary to understand connectivity changes associated with epileptic transients, those associated with other clinically relevant factors and the interaction between them, which represents a gap in the current literature. We propose a framework for the investigation of network connectivity in patients with epilepsy that can integrate epileptic processes that occur across different time scales such as epileptic transients and disease duration and the implications of this approach are discussed.

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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2014
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2014
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sarah Martin; Sarah Martin; Adam Strzelczyk; Adam Strzelczyk; +20 Authors

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common epilepsy syndrome characterized by bilateral myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures typically starting in adolescence and responding well to medication. Misdiagnosis of a more severe progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) as JME has been suggested as a cause of drug-resistance. Medical records of the Epilepsy Center Hessen-Marburg between 2005 and 2014 were automatically selected using keywords and manually reviewed regarding the presence of a JME diagnosis at any timepoint. The identified patients were evaluated regarding seizure outcome and drug resistance according to ILAE criteria. 87/168 identified JME patients were seizure-free at last follow-up including 61 drug-responsive patients (group NDR). Seventy-eight patients were not seizure-free including 26 drug-resistant patients (group DR). Valproate was the most efficacious AED. The JME diagnosis was revised in 7 patients of group DR including 6 in whom the diagnosis had already been questioned or revised during clinical follow-up. One of these was finally diagnosed with PME (genetically confirmed Lafora disease) based on genetic testing. She was initially reviewed at age 29 yrs and considered to be inconsistent with PME. Intellectual disability (p = 0.025), cognitive impairment (p < 0.001), febrile seizures in first-degree relatives (p = 0.023) and prominent dialeptic seizures (p = 0.009) where significantly more frequent in group DR. Individuals with PME are rarely found among drug-resistant alleged JME patients in a tertiary epilepsy center. Even a very detailed review by experienced epileptologists may not identify the presence of PME before the typical features evolve underpinning the need for early genetic testing in drug-resistant JME patients.

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    Article . 2019
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Tatjana Traub-Weidinger; Otto Muzik; Lalith Kumar Shiyam Sundar; Susanne Aull-Watschinger; +14 Authors

    The purpose of this study was to establish a non-invasive clinical PET/MR protocol using [18F]-labeled deoxyglucose (FDG) that provides physicians with regional metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlc) values and to clarify the contribution of absolute quantification to clinical management of patients with non-lesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). The study included a group of 15 patients with non-lesional ETLE who underwent a dynamic FDG PET study using a fully-integrated PET/MRI system (Siemens Biograph). FDG tracer uptake images were converted to MRGlc (μmol/100 g/min) maps using an image derived input function that was extracted based on the combined analysis of PET and MRI data. In addition, the same protocol was applied to a group of healthy controls, yielding a normative database. Abnormality maps for ETLE patients were created with respect to the normative database, defining significant hypo- or hyper-metabolic regions that exceeded ±2 SD of normal regional mean MRGlc values. Abnormality maps derived from MRGlc images of ETLE patients contributed to the localization of hypo-metabolic areas against visual readings in 53% and increased the confidence in the original clinical readings in 33% of all cases. Moreover, quantification allowed identification of hyper-metabolic areas that are associated with frequently spiking cortex, rarely acknowledged in clinical readings. Overall, besides providing some confirmatory information to visual readings, quantitative PET imaging demonstrated only a moderate impact on clinical management of patients with complex pathology that leads to epileptic seizures, failing to provide new decisive information that would have changed classification of patients from being rejected to being considered for surgical intervention.

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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: Petrus J. de Vries; Elena Belousova; Mirjana P. Benedik; Tom Carter; +192 Authors

    Background: Knowledge is increasing about TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND), but little is known about the potentially confounding effects of intellectual ability (IA) on the rates of TAND across age, sex, and genotype. We evaluated TAND in (a) children vs. adults, (b) males vs. females, and (c) TSC1 vs. TSC2 mutations, after stratification for levels of IA, in a large, international cohort.Methods: Individuals of any age with a documented visit for TSC in the 12 months prior to enrolment were included. Frequency and percentages of baseline TAND manifestations were presented by categories of IA (no intellectual disability [ID, intelligence quotient (IQ)>70]; mild ID [IQ 50–70]; moderate-to-profound ID [IQ<50]). Chi-square tests were used to test associations between ID and TAND manifestations. The association between TAND and age (children vs. adults), sex (male vs. female), and genotype (TSC1 vs. TSC2) stratified by IA levels were examined using the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel tests.Results: Eight hundred and ninety four of the 2,211 participants had formal IQ assessments. There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between levels of IA and the majority of TAND manifestations, except impulsivity (P = 0.12), overactivity (P = 0.26), mood swings (P = 0.08), hallucinations (P = 0.20), psychosis (P = 0.06), depressive disorder (P = 0.23), and anxiety disorder (P = 0.65). Once controlled for IA, children had higher rates of overactivity, but most behavioral difficulties were higher in adults. At the psychiatric level, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was seen at higher rates in children while anxiety and depressive disorders were observed at higher rates in adults. Compared to females, males showed significantly higher rates of impulsivity and overactivity, as well as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. No significant age or sex differences were observed for academic difficulties or neuropsychological deficits. After controlling for IA no genotype-TAND associations were observed, except for higher rates of self-injury in individuals with TSC2 mutations.Conclusions: Findings suggest IA as risk marker for most TAND manifestations. We provide the first evidence of male preponderance of ASD and ADHD in individuals with TSC. The study also confirms the association between TSC2 and IA but, once controlling for IA, disproves the previously reported TSC2 association with ASD and with most other TAND manifestations.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: Mian, Omar S.; Glover, Paul M.; Day, Brian L.;
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: UCL Discovery
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DOAJ
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: UCL Discovery
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2015
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Kiefer, Adam W.; Barber Foss, Kim; Reches, Amit; Gadd, Brooke; +5 Authors

    Children and adolescent athletes are at a higher risk for concussion than adults, and also experience longer recovery times and increased associated symptoms. It has also recently been demonstrated that multiple, seemingly mild concussions may result in exacerbated and prolonged neurological deficits. Objective assessments and return-to-play criteria are needed to reduce risk and morbidity associated with concussive events in these populations. Recent research has pushed to study the use of electroencephalography as an objective measure of brain injury. In the present case study, we present a novel approach that examines event-related potentials via a brain network activation (BNA) analysis as a biomarker of concussion and recovery. Specifically, changes in BNA scores, as indexed through this approach, offer a potential indicator of neurological health as the BNA assessment qualitatively and quantitatively indexes the network dynamics associated with brain injury. Objective tools, such as these support accurate and efficient assessment of brain injury and may offer a useful step in categorizing the temporal and spatial changes in brain activity following concussive blows, as well as the functional connectivity of brain networks, associated with concussion.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Scott, Kirsten M; Kouli, Antonina; Yeoh, Su L; Clatworthy, Menna R; +1 Authors

    Immune dysfunction has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and its progression. Antibodies play an important role in both innate and adaptive responses, acting as powerful effector molecules that can propagate inflammation by activating innate immune cells. Alpha synuclein binding antibodies have been described in PD patients with conflicting associations. In this article, we consider the potential mechanistic basis of alpha synuclein auto-antibody development and function in PD. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of antibody studies in PD cohorts showing that there is weak evidence for an increase in alpha synuclein auto-antibodies in PD patients particularly in early disease. The confidence with which this conclusion can be drawn is limited by the heterogeneity of the clinical cohorts used, inclusion of unmatched controls, inadequate power and assay related variability. We have therefore made some recommendations for the design of future studies.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2018
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    Apollo
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
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    Apollo
    Article . 2018
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