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  • Frontiers in Neurology
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  • Neuroinformatics

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sarah Tabrizi; Blair leavitt; Rachael Scahill; Sarah Gregory; +1 Authors

    The selection of an appropriate segmentation tool is a challenge facing any researcher aiming to measure grey matter (GM) volume. Many tools have been compared, yet there is currently no method that can be recommended above all others; in particular, there is a lack of validation in disease cohorts. This work utilises a clinical dataset to conduct an extensive comparison of segmentation tools. Our results confirm that all tools have advantages and disadvantages, and we present a series of considerations that may be of use when selecting a grey matter segmentation method, rather than a ranking of these tools. Seven segmentation tools were compared using 3T MRI data from 20 controls, 40 premanifest Huntington’s disease (HD) and 40 early HD participants. Segmented volumes underwent detailed visual quality control. Reliability and repeatability of total, cortical and lobular grey matter was investigated in repeated baseline scans. The relationship between each tool was also examined. Longitudinal within-group change over 3 years was assessed via generalised least squares regression to determine sensitivity of each tool to disease effects. Visual quality control and raw volumes highlighted large variability between tools, especially in occipital and temporal regions. Most tools showed reliable performance and the volumes were generally correlated. Results for longitudinal within-group change varied between tools, especially within lobular regions. These differences highlight the need for careful selection of segmentation methods in clinical neuroimaging studies. This guide acts as a primer aimed at the novice or non-technical imaging scientist providing recommendations for the selection of cohort-appropriate GM segmentation software.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology; OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology; OpenAPC Global Initiative
      Article . Conference object . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sanjay, Kalra;

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides a means of measuring cerebral metabolites relevant to neurodegeneration in vivo. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neurochemical changes reflecting neuronal loss or dysfunction (decreased N-actylaspartate [NAA]) is most significant in the motor cortex and corticospinal tracts. Other neurochemical changes observed include increased myo-inositol (mIns), a putative marker of gliosis. MRS confirmation of involvement of non-motor regions such as the frontal lobes, thalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulum are consistent with the multi-system facet of motor neuron disease with ALS being part of a MND-FTD spectrum. MRS-derived markers exhibit an encouraging discriminatory ability to identify patients from healthy controls, however more data is needed to determine its ability to assist with the diagnosis in early stages when upper motor neuron signs are limited, and in distinguishing from disease mimics. Longitudinal change of NAA and mIns do not appear to be reliable in monitoring disease progression. Technological advances in hardware and high field scanning are increasing the number of accessible metabolites available for interrogation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2019
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ying-Liang Larry Lai; Kuan Chen; Tzu-Wei Lee; Chao-Wei Tso; +7 Authors

    Background: Cholinergic deficiency has been suggested to associate with the abnormal accumulation of Aβ and tau for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, no studies have investigated the effect of APOE-ε4 and group differences in modulating the cholinergic basal forebrain–amygdala network for subjects with different levels of cognitive impairment. We evaluated the effect of APOE-ε4 on the cholinergic structural association and the neurocognitive performance for subjects with different levels of cognitive impairment.Methods: We used the structural brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset. The study included cognitively normal (CN, n = 167) subjects and subjects with significant memory concern (SMC, n = 96), early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI, n = 146), late cognitive impairment (LMCI, n = 138), and AD (n = 121). Subjects were further categorized according to the APOE-ε4 allele carrier status. The main effects of APOE-ε4 and group difference on the brain volumetric measurements were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations among cholinergic structural changes, APOE-ε4 status, and cognitive performance.Results: We found that APOE-ε4 carriers in the disease group showed higher brain atrophy than non-carriers in the cholinergic pathway, while there is no difference between carriers and non-carriers in the CN group. APOE-ε4 allele carriers in the disease groups also exhibited a stronger cholinergic structural correlation than non-carriers did, while there is no difference between the carriers and non-carriers in the CN subjects. Disease subjects exhibited a stronger structural correlation in the cholinergic pathway than CN subjects did. Moreover, APOE-ε4 allele carriers in the disease group exhibited a stronger correlation between the volumetric changes and cognitive performance than non-carriers did, while there is no difference between carriers and non-carriers in CN subjects. Disease subjects exhibited a stronger correlation between the volumetric changes and cognitive performance than CN subjects did.Conclusion: Our results confirmed the effect of APOE-ε4 on and group differences in the associations with the cholinergic structural changes that may reflect impaired brain function underlying neurocognitive degeneration in AD.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2021
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Weihe Zhang; Lei Cui; Mingrui Dong; Zhaohui Tian; +2 Authors

    Background: The area postrema syndrome (APS) is a unique diagnostic criterion for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). However, APS has rarely been reported in cases of chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS). Case presentation: A 36-year-old woman presented with APS and clinical features of diffuse central nervous system involvement during the early stage of the disease. Owing to the absence of serum aquaporin 4 antibodies, she was initially misdiagnosed as a case of seronegative NMOSD. However, the distinct neuroimaging characteristics [symmetrical small punctuate gadolinium enhancing lesions (pepper-like)], typical clinical/radiological relapse, and intense steroid-dependence in this case, prompted us to correct the diagnosis as probable CLIPPERS. To prevent relapse, long-term oral steroids and an immunosuppressive agent were administered. Conclusions: CLIPPERS may present as APS, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of NMOSD.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Stéphane Potvin; Stéphane Potvin; Lydia Gamache; Ovidiu Lungu; +1 Authors

    Background: Schizophrenia is characterized by self-disturbances, including impaired self-evaluation abilities and source monitoring. The cortical midline structures (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus) and the temporoparietal junction are known to play a key role in self-related processing. In theory, self-disturbances in schizophrenia may arise from impaired activity in these regions. We performed a functional neuroimaging meta-analysis to verify this hypothesis. Methods: A literature search was performed with PubMed and Google Scholar to identify functional neuroimaging studies examining the neural correlates of self-processing in schizophrenia, using self-other or source monitoring paradigms. Fourteen studies were retrieved, involving 245 patients and 201 controls. Using peak coordinates to recreate an effect-size map of contrast results, a standard random-effects variance weighted meta-analysis for each voxel was performed with the Seed-based d Mapping software. Results: During self-processing, decreased activations were observed in schizophrenia patients relative to controls in the bilateral thalamus and the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and dorso-medial prefrontal cortex. Importantly, results were homogeneous across studies, and no publication bias was observed. Sensitivity analyses revealed that results were replicable in 93–100% of studies. Conclusion: The current results partially support the hypothesized impaired activity of cortical midline brain regions in schizophrenia during self-processing. Decreased activations were observed in the dACC and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, which are involved in cognitive control and/or salience attribution, as well as decision-making, respectively. These alterations may compromise patients' ability to direct their attention toward themselves and/or others and to make the decision whether a certain trait applies to one's self or to someone else. In addition, decreased activations were observed in the thalamus, which is not a core region of the default-mode network, and is involved in information integration. These thalamic alterations may compromise self-coherence in schizophrenia.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
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      Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Petr Sojka; Petr Sojka; Jan Lošák; Jan Lošák; +9 Authors

    Background: Affective dysregulation and impaired cognitive control are implicated in the pathology of functional neurological disorders (FNDs). However, voluntary regulation of emotions has seldom been researched in this group of patients. We hypothesized that patients with FNDs use inefficient voluntary emotion regulation strategies and regulate emotional reactions via increased motor activation. Methods: Fifteen patients with functional movement disorder (FMD) and fifteen healthy subjects matched by age, sex, and education underwent an emotion regulation task in fMRI. For stimuli, we used neutral and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. There was no restriction on their emotion regulation strategy. Both patients and healthy subjects were asked about the strategies they had used in a post-scanning interview. Participant levels of depression, trait anxiety, and alexithymia were assessed. Results: There were no significant differences in the emotion regulation strategies used by patients and healthy subjects, nor in levels of reported alexithymia and depression. However, patients showed increased activation in several brain areas when observing negative pictures, notably in the post-central gyrus, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and cerebellar vermis, and also in their emotion regulation condition, particularly in the precuneus and post-central gyrus. Alexithymia was negatively associated with left insular activation during the observation of unpleasant stimuli only in the patient group. Conclusions: Our findings may implicate areas associated with self-referential processing in voluntary emotional regulation and lower emotional awareness as having a role in patients with functional movement disorders. However, our findings must be replicated with larger sample.

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      Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Aftab Bakhtiari; Agnes Balint Bjørke; Agnes Balint Bjørke; Agnes Balint Bjørke; +7 Authors

    ObjectiveEpilepsy is associated with both changes in brain connectivity and memory function, usually studied in the chronic patients. The aim of this study was to explore the presence of connectivity alterations measured by EEG in the parietofrontal network in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to examine episodic memory, at the time point of diagnosis.MethodsThe parietofrontal network of newly diagnosed patients with TLE (N = 21) was assessed through electroencephalography (EEG) effective connectivity and compared with that of matched controls (N = 21). Furthermore, we assessed phenomenological aspects of episodic memory in both groups. Association between effective connectivity and episodic memory were assessed through correlation.ResultsPatients with TLE displayed decreased episodic (p ≤ 0.001, t = −5.18) memory scores compared with controls at the time point of diagnosis. The patients showed a decreased right parietofrontal connectivity (p = 0.03, F = 4.94) compared with controls, and significantly weaker connectivity in their right compared with their left hemisphere (p = 0.008, t = −2.93). There were no significant associations between effective connectivity and episodic memory scores.ConclusionsWe found changes in both memory function and connectivity at the time point of diagnosis, supporting the notion that TLE involves complex memory functions and brain networks beyond the seizure focus to strongly interconnected brain regions, already early in the disease course. Whether the observed connectivity changes can be interpreted as functionally important to the alterations in memory function, it remains speculative.

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    Article . 2022
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      Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Nathan W. Churchill; Nathan W. Churchill; Nathan W. Churchill; Eugenie Roudaia; +47 Authors

    IntroductionThe long-term impact of COVID-19 on brain function remains poorly understood, despite growing concern surrounding post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS). The goal of this cross-sectional, observational study was to determine whether there are significant alterations in resting brain function among non-hospitalized individuals with PACS, compared to symptomatic individuals with non-COVID infection.MethodsData were collected for 51 individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 (mean age 41±12 yrs., 34 female) and 15 controls who had cold and flu-like symptoms but tested negative for COVID-19 (mean age 41±14 yrs., 9 female), with both groups assessed an average of 4-5 months after COVID testing. None of the participants had prior neurologic, psychiatric, or cardiovascular illness. Resting brain function was assessed via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and self-reported symptoms were recorded.ResultsIndividuals with COVID-19 had lower temporal and subcortical functional connectivity relative to controls. A greater number of ongoing post-COVID symptoms was also associated with altered functional connectivity between temporal, parietal, occipital and subcortical regions.DiscussionThese results provide preliminary evidence that patterns of functional connectivity distinguish PACS from non-COVID infection and correlate with the severity of clinical outcome, providing novel insights into this highly prevalent disorder.

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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2023
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      Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Yonatan Serlin; Gal Ben-Arie; Svetlana Lublinsky; Hagit Flusser; +3 Authors

    Background: Benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) is defined by rapid increase in head circumference in infancy, with neuroimaging evidence of enlarged cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. BEH was postulated to predispose to subdural hematoma, neurocognitive impairments, and autism. There is currently no consensus on BEH diagnostic criteria and no biomarkers to predict neurological sequalae.Methods: MRI-based quantitative approach was used for measurement of potential imaging markers related to external hydrocephalus and their association with neurological outcomes. We scanned 23 infants diagnosed with BEH and 11 age-similar controls. Using anatomical measurements from a large sample of healthy infants (n = 150), Z-scores were calculated to classify subject's CSF spaces as enlarged (≥1.96SD of mean values) or normal.Results: Subjects with abnormally enlarged CSF spaces had a significantly wider and longer ON (p = 0.017 and p = 0.020, respectively), and a significantly less tortuous ON (p = 0.006). ON deformity demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy for abnormally enlarged frontal subarachnoid space (AUC = 0.826) and interhemispheric fissure (AUC = 0.833). No significant association found between enlarged CSF spaces and neurological complications (OR = 0.330, 95%CI 0.070–1.553, p = 0.161). However, cluster analysis identified a distinct subgroup of children (23/34, 67.6%) with enlarged CSF spaces and a wider, longer and less tortuous ON, to have an increased risk for neurological complications (RR = 7.28, 95%CI 1.07–49.40).Discussion: This is the first report on the association between external hydrocephalus, ON deformity and neurological complications. Our findings challenge the current view of external hydrocephalus as a benign condition. ON deformity is a potential auxiliary marker for risk stratification in patients with enlarged CSF spaces.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
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      Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Maxime Montembeault; Maxime Montembeault; Maxime Montembeault; Simona M. Brambati; +4 Authors

    International audience; Primary progressive aphasias (PPA) are neurodegenerative diseases clinically characterized by an early and relatively isolated language impairment. Three main clinical variants, namely the nonfluent/agrammatic variant (nfvPPA), the semantic variant (svPPA), and the logopenic variant (lvPPA) have been described, each with specific linguistic/cognitive deficits, corresponding anatomical and most probable pathological features. Since the discovery and the development of diagnostic criteria for the PPA variants by the experts in the field, significant progress has been made in the understanding of these diseases. This review aims to provide an overview of the literature on each of the PPA variant in terms of their clinical, anatomical and pathological features, with a specific focus on recent findings. In terms of clinical advancements, recent studies have allowed a better characterization and differentiation of PPA patients based on both their linguistic and non-linguistic profiles. In terms of neuroimaging, techniques such as diffusion imaging and resting-state fMRI have allowed a deeper understanding of the impact of PPA on structural and functional connectivity alterations beyond the well-defined pattern of regional gray matter atrophy. Finally, in terms of pathology, despite significant advances, clinico-pathological correspondence in PPA remains far from absolute. Nonetheless, the improved characterization of PPA has the potential to have a positive impact on the management of patients. Improved reliability of diagnoses and the development of reliable in vivo biomarkers for underlying neuropathology will also be increasingly important in the future as trials for etiology-specific treatments become available.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sarah Tabrizi; Blair leavitt; Rachael Scahill; Sarah Gregory; +1 Authors

    The selection of an appropriate segmentation tool is a challenge facing any researcher aiming to measure grey matter (GM) volume. Many tools have been compared, yet there is currently no method that can be recommended above all others; in particular, there is a lack of validation in disease cohorts. This work utilises a clinical dataset to conduct an extensive comparison of segmentation tools. Our results confirm that all tools have advantages and disadvantages, and we present a series of considerations that may be of use when selecting a grey matter segmentation method, rather than a ranking of these tools. Seven segmentation tools were compared using 3T MRI data from 20 controls, 40 premanifest Huntington’s disease (HD) and 40 early HD participants. Segmented volumes underwent detailed visual quality control. Reliability and repeatability of total, cortical and lobular grey matter was investigated in repeated baseline scans. The relationship between each tool was also examined. Longitudinal within-group change over 3 years was assessed via generalised least squares regression to determine sensitivity of each tool to disease effects. Visual quality control and raw volumes highlighted large variability between tools, especially in occipital and temporal regions. Most tools showed reliable performance and the volumes were generally correlated. Results for longitudinal within-group change varied between tools, especially within lobular regions. These differences highlight the need for careful selection of segmentation methods in clinical neuroimaging studies. This guide acts as a primer aimed at the novice or non-technical imaging scientist providing recommendations for the selection of cohort-appropriate GM segmentation software.

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    Frontiers in Neurology; OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology; OpenAPC Global Initiative
      Article . Conference object . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sanjay, Kalra;

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides a means of measuring cerebral metabolites relevant to neurodegeneration in vivo. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neurochemical changes reflecting neuronal loss or dysfunction (decreased N-actylaspartate [NAA]) is most significant in the motor cortex and corticospinal tracts. Other neurochemical changes observed include increased myo-inositol (mIns), a putative marker of gliosis. MRS confirmation of involvement of non-motor regions such as the frontal lobes, thalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulum are consistent with the multi-system facet of motor neuron disease with ALS being part of a MND-FTD spectrum. MRS-derived markers exhibit an encouraging discriminatory ability to identify patients from healthy controls, however more data is needed to determine its ability to assist with the diagnosis in early stages when upper motor neuron signs are limited, and in distinguishing from disease mimics. Longitudinal change of NAA and mIns do not appear to be reliable in monitoring disease progression. Technological advances in hardware and high field scanning are increasing the number of accessible metabolites available for interrogation.

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