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  • Frontiers in Neurology

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Arnaud Boujut; Arnaud Boujut; Lynn Valeyry Verty; Lynn Valeyry Verty; +11 Authors

    Background: Working memory (WM) capacity declines with advancing age, which impacts the ability to carry out complex cognitive activities in everyday life. Updating and inhibition processes have been identified as some of the most critical attentional control processes of WM and are linked to age-related WM decline. The general aim of the Attentional Control Training in Older People (ACTOP) study was to perform a side-by-side comparison of updating and inhibition training to examine their respective efficacy and transfer in cognitively healthy older adults.Method: The study was a three-arm, double-blind, randomized controlled trial registered with the US National Institutes of Health clinical trials registry. Ninety older adults were randomly assigned to 12 half-hour sessions of updating (N-back type exercises), inhibition (Stroop-like exercises) computerized training or active control (general knowledge quiz game). A group of thirty younger adults completed all proximal and WM transfer tasks without training to assess age-related deficits prior to training and whether training reduces these deficits.Results: Piecewise mixed models show quick improvement of performance during training for both updating and inhibition training. During updating training, the progression was more pronounced for the most difficult (3-back) than for the least (1-back) difficult level until the ninth session. Updating and inhibition training groups improved performance on all proximal and WM transfer measures but these improvements did not differ from the active control group. Younger adults outperformed older ones on all transfer tasks prior to training. However, this was no longer the case following training for two transfer tasks regardless of the training group.Conclusion: The overall results from this study suggest that attentional control training is effective in improving updating and inhibition performance on training tasks. The optimal dose to achieve efficacy is ~9 half-hour sessions and the dose effect was related to difficulty level for updating training. Despite an overall improvement of older adults on all transfer tasks, neither updating nor inhibition training provided additional improvements in comparison with the active control condition. This suggests that the efficacy of process-based training does not directly affect transfer tasks.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03532113

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Almeida, Quincy J.; Brown, Matt J. N.;

    Bradykinesia is a well-documented DOPA-responsive clinical feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD). While amplitude deficits (hypokinesia) are a key component of this slowness, it is important to consider how dopamine influences both the amplitude (hypokinesia) and frequency components of bradykinesia when a bimanually coordinated movement is required. Based on the notion that the basal ganglia are associated with sensory deficits, the influence of dopaminergic replacement on sensory feedback conditions during bimanual coordination was also evaluated. Bimanual movements were examined in PD and healthy comparisons in an unconstrained three-dimensional coordination task. PD were tested “off” (overnight withdrawal of dopaminergic treatment) and “on” (peak dose of dopaminergic treatment), while the healthy group was evaluated for practice effects across two sessions. Required cycle frequency (increased within each trial from 0.75 to 2 Hz), type of visual feedback (no vision, normal vision, and augmented vision), and coordination pattern (symmetrical in-phase and non-symmetrical anti-phase) were all manipulated. Overall, coordination (mean accuracy and standard deviation of relative phase) and amplitude deficits during bimanual coordination were confirmed in PD participants. In addition, significant correlations were identified between severity of motor symptoms as well as bradykinesia to greater coordination deficits (accuracy and stability) in PD “off” group. However, even though amplitude deficits (hypokinesia) improved with dopaminergic replacement, it did not improve bimanual coordination performance (accuracy or stability) in PD patients from “off” to “on.” Interestingly, while coordination performance in both groups suffered in the augmented vision condition, the amplitude of the more affected limb of PD was notably influenced. It can be concluded that DOPA-responsive hypokinesia contributes to, but is not directly responsible for bimanual coordination impairments in PD. It is likely that bimanual coordination deficits in PD are caused by the combination of dopaminergic system dysfunction as well as other neural impairments that may be DOPA-resistant or related to non-dopaminergic pathways.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2013
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gabriela S. Gilmour; Davide Martino; Davide Martino; Karen Hunka; +5 Authors

    Introduction: Essential tremor (ET) is a tremor syndrome characterized by bilateral, upper limb action tremor. Essential tremor-plus (ET-plus) describes ET patients with additional neurologic signs. It is unknown whether there is a difference in response to treatment with ventralis intermedius nucleus deep brain stimulation (VIM DBS) in patients with ET and ET-plus. Due to potential variability in underlying etiology in ET-plus, there is a concern that ET-plus patients may have worse outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify whether patients with ET-plus have worse tremor outcomes after VIM DBS than patients with ET.Methods: This is a retrospective chart and video review evaluating VIM DBS outcomes by comparing changes from baseline in the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale Part B (FTM-B) for the treated limb between patients with ET and ET-plus at follow-up examinations. Patients were re-classified as having ET or ET-plus using pre-operative examination videos by two independent movement disorders neurologists blinded to patient characteristics. As a secondary outcome, we evaluated for correlations and potential predictors of treatment response.Results: Twenty-six patients were included: 13 with ET, 13 with ET-plus. There were no significant differences in the change in FTM-B scores between the ET and ET-plus patients at each follow-up examination. None of the included patients developed new symptoms compatible with dystonia, parkinsonism or gait disturbances.Conclusions: Patients with ET-plus had tremor improvement from VIM DBS, with no differences when compared to those with ET, without emergence of postoperative neurological issues. Patients with ET-plus should still be considered good candidates for VIM DBS for treatment of tremor.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brian D. Robertson; Abdullah S. Al Jaja; Abdullah S. Al Jaja; Alex A. MacDonald; +12 Authors

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive functions mediated by brain regions innervated by ventral tegmental area (VTA) worsen with dopamine replacement therapy, whereas processes relying on regions innervated by the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) improve. The SLC6A3 gene encodes the dopamine transporter (DAT). The common 9R polymorphism produces higher DAT concentrations and consequently lower baseline dopamine than SLC6A3 wildtype. Whether SLC6A3 genotype modulates the effect of dopaminergic therapy on cognition in PD is not known. We investigated the effect of dopaminergic therapy and SLC6A3 genotype on encoding and recall of abstract images using the Aggie Figures Learning Test in PD patients. Encoding depends upon brain regions innervated by the VTA, whereas recall is mediated by widespread brain regions, a number innervated by the SNc. We found that dopaminergic therapy worsened encoding of abstract images in 9R carriers only. In contrast, dopaminergic therapy improved recall of abstract images in all PD patients, irrespective of SLC6A3 genotype. Our findings suggest that 9R-carrier PD patients are more predisposed to dopamine overdose and medication-induced impairment of cognitive functions mediated by VTA-innervated brain regions. Interestingly, PD patients without the 9R polymorphism did not show such an impairment. SLC6A3 genotype does not modulate the dopaminergic therapy-induced improvement of functions mediated by SNc-innervated regions in PD patients.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Cody Rex; Marie-Josée Nadeau; Renée Douville; Renée Douville; +1 Authors

    Background: Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy (SBMA) is caused by the extension of the polyglutamine tract within the androgen receptor (AR) gene, and results in a multisystem presentation, including the degeneration of lower motor neurons. The androgen receptor (AR) is known to modulate the expression of endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK), a pathogenic viral genomic symbiont. Since ERVK is associated with motor neuron disease, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), we sought to determine if patients with SBMA exhibit evidence of ERVK reactivation. Results: Data from a pilot study demonstrate that peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from controls and patients with SBMA were examined ex vivo for the expression of ERVK viral transcripts and proteins. No differences in ERVK RNA expression was observed between the clinical groups. In contrast, enhancement of processed ERVK Gag and integrase proteins were observed in SBMA-derived PBMC as compared to healthy control specimens. Increased ERVK protein maturation co-occurred with elevation in the expression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor IRF1 in SBMA. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that ERVK viral protein maturation in SBMA is an unrecognized biomarker and facet of the disease. We discuss how our current understanding of ERVK-driven pathology may tie into key aspects of multi-system dysfunction in SBMA, with a focus on inflammation, proteinopathy, as well as DNA damage and repair.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Article . 2019
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2019
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      Frontiers in Neurology
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Todd Nelson; Todd Nelson; Lan-Xin Zhang; Lan-Xin Zhang; +6 Authors

    Background: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a multisystem medical condition with heterogeneous symptom expression. Currently, there is no effective cure or treatment for the standard care of patients. A variety of ME/CFS symptoms can be linked to the vital life functions of the brainstem, the lower extension of the brain best known as the hub relaying information back and forth between the cerebral cortex and various parts of the body.Objective/Methods: Over the past decade, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have emerged to understand ME/CFS with interesting findings, but there has lacked a synthesized evaluation of what has been found thus far regarding the involvement of the brainstem. We conducted this study to review and evaluate the recent MRI findings via a literature search of the MEDLINE database, from which 11 studies met the eligibility criteria.Findings: Data showed that MRI studies frequently reported structural changes in the white and gray matter. Abnormalities of the functional connectivity within the brainstem and with other brain regions have also been found. The studies have suggested possible mechanisms including astrocyte dysfunction, cerebral perfusion impairment, impaired nerve conduction, and neuroinflammation involving the brainstem, which may at least partially explain a substantial portion of the ME/CFS symptoms and their heterogeneous presentations in individual patients.Conclusions: This review draws research attention to the role of the brainstem in ME/CFS, helping enlighten future work to uncover the pathologies and mechanisms of this complex medical condition, for improved management and patient care.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Ruth Ann, Marrie; Ronak, Patel; Chase R, Figley; Jennifer, Kornelsen; +9 Authors

    ObjectiveVascular comorbidities are associated with reduced cognitive performance and with changes in brain structure in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Understanding causal pathways is necessary to support the design of interventions to mitigate the impacts of comorbidities, and to monitor their effectiveness. We assessed the inter-relationships among vascular comorbidity, cognition and brain structure in people with MS.MethodsAdults with neurologist-confirmed MS reported comorbidities, and underwent assessment of their blood pressure, HbA1c, and cognitive functioning (i.e., Symbol Digit Modalities Test, California Verbal Learning Test, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, and verbal fluency). Test scores were converted to age-, sex-, and education-adjusted z-scores. Whole brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was completed, from which measures of thalamic and hippocampal volumes, and mean diffusivity of gray matter and normal-appearing white matter were converted to age and sex-adjusted z-scores. Canonical correlation analysis was used to identify linear combinations of cognitive measures (cognitive variate) and MRI measures (MRI variate) that accounted for the most correlation between the cognitive and MRI measures. Regression analyses were used to test whether MRI measures mediated the relationships between the number of vascular comorbidities and cognition measures.ResultsOf 105 participants, most were women (84.8%) with a mean (SD) age of 51.8 (12.8) years and age of symptom onset of 29.4 (10.5) years. Vascular comorbidity was common, with 35.2% of participants reporting one, 15.2% reporting two, and 8.6% reporting three or more. Canonical correlation analysis of the cognitive and MRI variables identified one pair of variates (Pillai's trace = 0.45, p = 0.0035). The biggest contributors to the cognitive variate were the SDMT and CVLT-II, and to the MRI variate were gray matter MD and thalamic volume. The correlation between cognitive and MRI variates was 0.50; these variates were used in regression analyses. On regression analysis, vascular comorbidity was associated with the MRI variate, and with the cognitive variate. After adjusting for the MRI variate, vascular comorbidity was not associated with the cognitive variate.ConclusionVascular comorbidity is associated with lower cognitive function in people with MS and this association is partially mediated via changes in brain macrostructure and microstructure.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Xin Tong; Xinxing Wang; Yiyang Cai; Diane Gromala; +4 Authors

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a type of chronic pain that follows limb amputation, brachial plexus avulsion injury, or spinal cord injury. Treating PLP is a well-known challenge. Currently, virtual reality (VR) interventions are attracting increasing attention because they show promising analgesic effects. However, most previous studies of VR interventions were conducted with a limited number of patients in a single trial. Few studies explored questions such as how multiple VR sessions might affect pain over time, or if a patient's ability to move their phantom limb may affect their PLP. Here we recruited five PLP patients to practice two motor tasks for multiple VR sessions over 6 weeks. In VR, patients “inhabit” a virtual body or avatar, and the movements of their intact limbs are mirrored in the avatar, providing them with the illusion that their limbs respond as if they were both intact and functional. We found that repetitive exposure to our VR intervention led to reduced pain and improvements in anxiety, depression, and a sense of embodiment of the virtual body. Importantly, we also found that their ability to move their phantom limbs improved as quantified by shortened motor imagery time with the impaired limb. Although the limited sample size prevents us from performing a correlational analysis, our findings suggest that providing PLP patients with sensorimotor experience for the impaired limb in VR appears to offer long-term benefits for patients and that these benefits may be related to changes in their control of the phantom limbs' movement.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Eric Eyolfson; Haris Malik; Richelle Mychasiuk; Richelle Mychasiuk;

    Children and adolescents have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI), with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for most of these injuries. This demographic also often suffers from post-injury symptomologies that may persist for months. Telomere length (TL) has previously been used as a marker for outcomes following repetitive mild TBI (RmTBI) and it may be possible that telomere elongation can reduce post-traumatic behavioral impairments. Telomerase activator-65 (TA-65) is a telomerase small-molecule activator purified from the root of Chinese herbs that has been anecdotally reported to have anti-aging and life-extending potential. We hypothesized that RmTBI would shorten TL but administration of TA-65 would reverse RmTBI-induced telomere shortening and behavioral deficits. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered TA-65 or a placebo substance for 30 consecutive days [postnatal day (P) 25–55]. Following the injury protocol (mTBIs on P33, 36, and 40), rats went through a behavioral test battery designed to examine symptomologies commonly associated with mTBI (balance and motor coordination, exploratory behavior, short-term working memory, and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors). TL in ear and brain tissue (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus) and relative expression of TERT and Tep1 via qPCR were assessed 15 days following the last injury. We observed a heterogenous response between males and females, with TA65 administration resulting in increased mRNA expression of TERT and Tep1 in female rats that experienced RmTBI, which was accompanied by some functional recovery on motor behavior and footslips in the beam walk task and depressive-like behavior in the forced swim task.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Authors: Olivia Lhomond; Normand Teasdale; Martin Simoneau; Martin Simoneau; +1 Authors

    The weighting of the sensory inputs is not uniform during movement preparation and execution. For instance, a transient increase in the transmission to the cortical level of cutaneous input ~700 ms was observed before participants initiated a step forward. The sensory facilitation occurred at a time when feet cutaneous information is critical for setting the forces to be exerted onto the ground to shift the center of mass toward the supporting side prior to foot-off. Despite clear evidence of task-dependent modulation of the early somatosensory signal transmission, the neural mechanisms are mainly unknown. One hypothesis suggests that during movement preparation the premotor cortex and specifically the supplementary motor area (SMA) can be the source of an efferent signal that facilitates the somatosensory processes irrespectively of the amount of sensory inputs arriving at the somatosensory areas. Here, we depressed mechanically the plantar sole cutaneous transmission by increasing pressure under the feet by adding an extra body weight to test whether the task-dependent modulation is present during step preparation. Results showed upregulation of the neural response to tactile stimulation in the extra-weight condition during the stepping preparation whereas depressed neural response was still observed in standing condition. Source localization indicated the SMA and to a lesser extent the superior parietal lobule (SPL) areas as the likely origin of the response modulation. Upregulating cutaneous inputs (when mechanically depressed) at an early stage by efferent signals from the motor system could be an attempt to restore the level of sensory afferents to make it suitable for setting the anticipatory adjustments prior to step initiation.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2019
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Arnaud Boujut; Arnaud Boujut; Lynn Valeyry Verty; Lynn Valeyry Verty; +11 Authors

    Background: Working memory (WM) capacity declines with advancing age, which impacts the ability to carry out complex cognitive activities in everyday life. Updating and inhibition processes have been identified as some of the most critical attentional control processes of WM and are linked to age-related WM decline. The general aim of the Attentional Control Training in Older People (ACTOP) study was to perform a side-by-side comparison of updating and inhibition training to examine their respective efficacy and transfer in cognitively healthy older adults.Method: The study was a three-arm, double-blind, randomized controlled trial registered with the US National Institutes of Health clinical trials registry. Ninety older adults were randomly assigned to 12 half-hour sessions of updating (N-back type exercises), inhibition (Stroop-like exercises) computerized training or active control (general knowledge quiz game). A group of thirty younger adults completed all proximal and WM transfer tasks without training to assess age-related deficits prior to training and whether training reduces these deficits.Results: Piecewise mixed models show quick improvement of performance during training for both updating and inhibition training. During updating training, the progression was more pronounced for the most difficult (3-back) than for the least (1-back) difficult level until the ninth session. Updating and inhibition training groups improved performance on all proximal and WM transfer measures but these improvements did not differ from the active control group. Younger adults outperformed older ones on all transfer tasks prior to training. However, this was no longer the case following training for two transfer tasks regardless of the training group.Conclusion: The overall results from this study suggest that attentional control training is effective in improving updating and inhibition performance on training tasks. The optimal dose to achieve efficacy is ~9 half-hour sessions and the dose effect was related to difficulty level for updating training. Despite an overall improvement of older adults on all transfer tasks, neither updating nor inhibition training provided additional improvements in comparison with the active control condition. This suggests that the efficacy of process-based training does not directly affect transfer tasks.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03532113

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Almeida, Quincy J.; Brown, Matt J. N.;

    Bradykinesia is a well-documented DOPA-responsive clinical feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD). While amplitude deficits (hypokinesia) are a key component of this slowness, it is important to consider how dopamine influences both the amplitude (hypokinesia) and frequency components of bradykinesia when a bimanually coordinated movement is required. Based on the notion that the basal ganglia are associated with sensory deficits, the influence of dopaminergic replacement on sensory feedback conditions during bimanual coordination was also evaluated. Bimanual movements were examined in PD and healthy comparisons in an unconstrained three-dimensional coordination task. PD were tested “off” (overnight withdrawal of dopaminergic treatment) and “on” (peak dose of dopaminergic treatment), while the healthy group was evaluated for practice effects across two sessions. Required cycle frequency (increased within each trial from 0.75 to 2 Hz), type of visual feedback (no vision, normal vision, and augmented vision), and coordination pattern (symmetrical in-phase and non-symmetrical anti-phase) were all manipulated. Overall, coordination (mean accuracy and standard deviation of relative phase) and amplitude deficits during bimanual coordination were confirmed in PD participants. In addition, significant correlations were identified between severity of motor symptoms as well as bradykinesia to greater coordination deficits (accuracy and stability) in PD “off” group. However, even though amplitude deficits (hypokinesia) improved with dopaminergic replacement, it did not improve bimanual coordination performance (accuracy or stability) in PD patients from “off” to “on.” Interestingly, while coordination performance in both groups suffered in the augmented vision condition, the amplitude of the more affected limb of PD was notably influenced. It can be concluded that DOPA-responsive hypokinesia contributes to, but is not directly responsible for bimanual coordination impairments in PD. It is likely that bimanual coordination deficits in PD are caused by the combination of dopaminergic system dysfunction as well as other neural impairments that may be DOPA-resistant or related to non-dopaminergic pathways.

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    Article . 2013
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