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  • Frontiers in Neurology

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pham, Minh H.; Elshehabi, Morad; Haertner, Linda; Heger, Tanja; +8 Authors

    IntroductionAging and age-associated disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) are often associated with turning difficulties, which can lead to falls and fractures. Valid assessment of turning and turning deficits specifically in non-standardized environments may foster specific treatment and prevention of consequences.MethodsRelative orientation, obtained from 3D-accelerometer and 3D-gyroscope data of a sensor worn at the lower back, was used to develop an algorithm for turning detection and qualitative analysis in PD patients and controls in non-standardized environments. The algorithm was validated with a total of 2,304 turns ≥90° extracted from an independent dataset of 20 PD patients during medication ON- and OFF-conditions and 13 older adults. Video observation by two independent clinical observers served as gold standard.ResultsIn PD patients under medication OFF, the algorithm detected turns with a sensitivity of 0.92, a specificity of 0.89, and an accuracy of 0.92. During medication ON, values were 0.92, 0.78, and 0.83. In older adults, the algorithm reached validation values of 0.94, 0.89, and 0.92. Turning magnitude (difference, 0.06°; SEM, 0.14°) and duration (difference, 0.004 s; SEM, 0.005 s) yielded high correlation values with gold standard. Overall accuracy for direction of turning was 0.995. Intra class correlation of the clinical observers was 0.92.ConclusionThis wearable sensor- and relative orientation-based algorithm yields very high agreement with clinical observation for the detection and evaluation of ≥90° turns under non-standardized conditions in PD patients and older adults. It can be suggested for the assessment of turning in daily life.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Rudroff, Thorsten; Honce, Justin M.;
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: LeVine, Steven M.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Seamon, Bryant A.; Harris-Love, Michael O.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Agoston, Denes V.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pham, Minh H.; Elshehabi, Morad; Haertner, Linda; Del Din, Silvia; +15 Authors

    IntroductionInertial measurement units (IMUs) positioned on various body locations allow detailed gait analysis even under unconstrained conditions. From a medical perspective, the assessment of vulnerable populations is of particular relevance, especially in the daily-life environment. Gait analysis algorithms need thorough validation, as many chronic diseases show specific and even unique gait patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to validate an acceleration-based step detection algorithm for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and older adults in both a lab-based and home-like environment.MethodsIn this prospective observational study, data were captured from a single 6-degrees of freedom IMU (APDM) (3DOF accelerometer and 3DOF gyroscope) worn on the lower back. Detection of heel strike (HS) and toe off (TO) on a treadmill was validated against an optoelectronic system (Vicon) (11 PD patients and 12 older adults). A second independent validation study in the home-like environment was performed against video observation (20 PD patients and 12 older adults) and included step counting during turning and non-turning, defined with a previously published algorithm.ResultsA continuous wavelet transform (cwt)-based algorithm was developed for step detection with very high agreement with the optoelectronic system. HS detection in PD patients/older adults, respectively, reached 99/99% accuracy. Similar results were obtained for TO (99/100%). In HS detection, Bland–Altman plots showed a mean difference of 0.002 s [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.09 to 0.10] between the algorithm and the optoelectronic system. The Bland–Altman plot for TO detection showed mean differences of 0.00 s (95% CI −0.12 to 0.12). In the home-like assessment, the algorithm for detection of occurrence of steps during turning reached 90% (PD patients)/90% (older adults) sensitivity, 83/88% specificity, and 88/89% accuracy. The detection of steps during non-turning phases reached 91/91% sensitivity, 90/90% specificity, and 91/91% accuracy.ConclusionThis cwt-based algorithm for step detection measured at the lower back is in high agreement with the optoelectronic system in both PD patients and older adults. This approach and algorithm thus could provide a valuable tool for future research on home-based gait analysis in these vulnerable cohorts.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Sokol, Leonard L.; Shapiro, Debbie; Young, Michael J.; Wise, Adina H.; +4 Authors
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Siepmann, Timo; Pintér, Alexandra; Buchmann, Sylvia J.; Stibal, Leonie; +16 Authors

    BackgroundIn Parkinson’s disease (PD), alpha-synuclein accumulation in cutaneous autonomic pilomotor and sudomotor nerve fibers has been linked to autonomic nervous system disturbances even in the early stages of the disease. This study aims to assess the association between alpha-synuclein-mediated structural autonomic nerve fiber damage and function in PD, elucidate the role of neuropathy progression during the early disease stages, and test reproducibility and external validity of pilomotor function assessment using quantitative pilomotor axon-reflex test and sudomotor function via quantitative direct and indirect test of sudomotor function.Methods/designA prospective controlled study will be conducted at four study sites in Europe and the USA. Fifty-two male and female patients with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr 1–2) and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls will be recruited. Axon-reflex-mediated pilomotor erection will be induced by iontophoresis of phenylephrine on the dorsal forearm. Silicone impressions of the response will be obtained, scanned, and quantified for pilomotor muscle impressions by number, impression size, and area of axon-reflex spread. Axon-reflex-mediated sweating following acetylcholine iontophoresis will be quantified for number and size of droplets and axon-reflex spread. Sympathetic skin responses, autonomic and motor symptoms will be evaluated. Tests will be performed at baseline, after 2 weeks, 1, 2, and 3 years. Skin biopsies will be obtained at baseline and after 3 years and will be analyzed for nerve fiber density and alpha-synuclein accumulation.DiscussionWe anticipate that progression of autonomic nerve dysfunction assessed via pilomotor and sudomotor axon-reflex tests is related to progression of autonomic symptom severity and alpha-synuclein deposition. Potential applications of the techniques include interventional studies evaluating disease-modifying approaches and clinical assessment of autonomic dysfunction in patients with PD.Clinical trail registrationTRN NCT03043768.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Shatil, Anwar S.; Matsuda, Kant M.; Figley, Chase R.;

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that is capable of localizing pathologies and assessing other anatomical features (e.g., tissue volume, microstructure, and white matter connectivity) in postmortem, ex vivo human brains. However, when brains are removed from the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (i.e., their normal in vivo magnetic environment), air bubbles and air–tissue interfaces typically cause magnetic susceptibility artifacts that severely degrade the quality of ex vivo MRI data. In this report, we describe a relatively simple and cost-effective experimental setup for acquiring artifact-free ex vivo brain images using a clinical MRI system with standard hardware. In particular, we outline the necessary steps, from collecting an ex vivo human brain to the MRI scanner setup, and have also described changing the formalin (as might be necessary in longitudinal postmortem studies). Finally, we share some representative ex vivo MRI images that have been acquired using the proposed setup in order to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach. We hope that this protocol will provide both clinicians and researchers with a straight-forward and cost-effective solution for acquiring ex vivo MRI data from whole postmortem human brains.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Tomlinson, Samuel B.; Bermudez, Camilo; Conley, Chiara; Brown, Merritt W.; +2 Authors

    Synchronized cortical activity is implicated in both normative cognitive functioning and many neurologic disorders. For epilepsy patients with intractable seizures, irregular synchronization within the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is believed to provide the network substrate through which seizures initiate and propagate. Mapping the EZ prior to epilepsy surgery is critical for detecting seizure networks in order to achieve postsurgical seizure control. However, automated techniques for characterizing epileptic networks have yet to gain traction in the clinical setting. Recent advances in signal processing and spike detection have made it possible to examine the spatiotemporal propagation of interictal spike discharges across the epileptic cortex. In this study, we present a novel methodology for detecting, extracting, and visualizing spike propagation and demonstrate its potential utility as a biomarker for the EZ. Eighteen presurgical intracranial EEG recordings were obtained from pediatric patients ultimately experiencing favorable (i.e., seizure-free, n = 9) or unfavorable (i.e., seizure-persistent, n = 9) surgical outcomes. Novel algorithms were applied to extract multichannel spike discharges and visualize their spatiotemporal propagation. Quantitative analysis of spike propagation was performed using trajectory clustering and spatial autocorrelation techniques. Comparison of interictal propagation patterns revealed an increase in trajectory organization (i.e., spatial autocorrelation) among Sz-Free patients compared with Sz-Persist patients. The pathophysiological basis and clinical implications of these findings are considered.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pham, Minh H.; Elshehabi, Morad; Haertner, Linda; Heger, Tanja; +8 Authors

    IntroductionAging and age-associated disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) are often associated with turning difficulties, which can lead to falls and fractures. Valid assessment of turning and turning deficits specifically in non-standardized environments may foster specific treatment and prevention of consequences.MethodsRelative orientation, obtained from 3D-accelerometer and 3D-gyroscope data of a sensor worn at the lower back, was used to develop an algorithm for turning detection and qualitative analysis in PD patients and controls in non-standardized environments. The algorithm was validated with a total of 2,304 turns ≥90° extracted from an independent dataset of 20 PD patients during medication ON- and OFF-conditions and 13 older adults. Video observation by two independent clinical observers served as gold standard.ResultsIn PD patients under medication OFF, the algorithm detected turns with a sensitivity of 0.92, a specificity of 0.89, and an accuracy of 0.92. During medication ON, values were 0.92, 0.78, and 0.83. In older adults, the algorithm reached validation values of 0.94, 0.89, and 0.92. Turning magnitude (difference, 0.06°; SEM, 0.14°) and duration (difference, 0.004 s; SEM, 0.005 s) yielded high correlation values with gold standard. Overall accuracy for direction of turning was 0.995. Intra class correlation of the clinical observers was 0.92.ConclusionThis wearable sensor- and relative orientation-based algorithm yields very high agreement with clinical observation for the detection and evaluation of ≥90° turns under non-standardized conditions in PD patients and older adults. It can be suggested for the assessment of turning in daily life.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Rudroff, Thorsten; Honce, Justin M.;
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: LeVine, Steven M.;
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Seamon, Bryant A.; Harris-Love, Michael O.;
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Agoston, Denes V.;
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pham, Minh H.; Elshehabi, Morad; Haertner, Linda; Del Din, Silvia; +15 Authors

    IntroductionInertial measurement units (IMUs) positioned on various body locations allow detailed gait analysis even under unconstrained conditions. From a medical perspective, the assessment of vulnerable populations is of particular relevance, especially in the daily-life environment. Gait analysis algorithms need thorough validation, as many chronic diseases show specific and even unique gait patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to validate an acceleration-based step detection algorithm for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and older adults in both a lab-based and home-like environment.MethodsIn this prospective observational study, data were captured from a single 6-degrees of freedom IMU (APDM) (3DOF accelerometer and 3DOF gyroscope) worn on the lower back. Detection of heel strike (HS) and toe off (TO) on a treadmill was validated against an optoelectronic system (Vicon) (11 PD patients and 12 older adults). A second independent validation study in the home-like environment was performed against video observation (20 PD patients and 12 older adults) and included step counting during turning and non-turning, defined with a previously published algorithm.ResultsA continuous wavelet transform (cwt)-based algorithm was developed for step detection with very high agreement with the optoelectronic system. HS detection in PD patients/older adults, respectively, reached 99/99% accuracy. Similar results were obtained for TO (99/100%). In HS detection, Bland–Altman plots showed a mean difference of 0.002 s [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.09 to 0.10] between the algorithm and the optoelectronic system. The Bland–Altman plot for TO detection showed mean differences of 0.00 s (95% CI −0.12 to 0.12). In the home-like assessment, the algorithm for detection of occurrence of steps during turning reached 90% (PD patients)/90% (older adults) sensitivity, 83/88% specificity, and 88/89% accuracy. The detection of steps during non-turning phases reached 91/91% sensitivity, 90/90% specificity, and 91/91% accuracy.ConclusionThis cwt-based algorithm for step detection measured at the lower back is in high agreement with the optoelectronic system in both PD patients and older adults. This approach and algorithm thus could provide a valuable tool for future research on home-based gait analysis in these vulnerable cohorts.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sokol, Leonard L.; Shapiro, Debbie; Young, Michael J.; Wise, Adina H.; +4 Authors
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Siepmann, Timo; Pintér, Alexandra; Buchmann, Sylvia J.; Stibal, Leonie; +16 Authors

    BackgroundIn Parkinson’s disease (PD), alpha-synuclein accumulation in cutaneous autonomic pilomotor and sudomotor nerve fibers has been linked to autonomic nervous system disturbances even in the early stages of the disease. This study aims to assess the association between alpha-synuclein-mediated structural autonomic nerve fiber damage and function in PD, elucidate the role of neuropathy progression during the early disease stages, and test reproducibility and external validity of pilomotor function assessment using quantitative pilomotor axon-reflex test and sudomotor function via quantitative direct and indirect test of sudomotor function.Methods/designA prospective controlled study will be conducted at four study sites in Europe and the USA. Fifty-two male and female patients with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr 1–2) and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls will be recruited. Axon-reflex-mediated pilomotor erection will be induced by iontophoresis of phenylephrine on the dorsal forearm. Silicone impressions of the response will be obtained, scanned, and quantified for pilomotor muscle impressions by number, impression size, and area of axon-reflex spread. Axon-reflex-mediated sweating following acetylcholine iontophoresis will be quantified for number and size of droplets and axon-reflex spread. Sympathetic skin responses, autonomic and motor symptoms will be evaluated. Tests will be performed at baseline, after 2 weeks, 1, 2, and 3 years. Skin biopsies will be obtained at baseline and after 3 years and will be analyzed for nerve fiber density and alpha-synuclein accumulation.DiscussionWe anticipate that progression of autonomic nerve dysfunction assessed via pilomotor and sudomotor axon-reflex tests is related to progression of autonomic symptom severity and alpha-synuclein deposition. Potential applications of the techniques include interventional studies evaluating disease-modifying approaches and clinical assessment of autonomic dysfunction in patients with PD.Clinical trail registrationTRN NCT03043768.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Shatil, Anwar S.; Matsuda, Kant M.; Figley, Chase R.;

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that is capable of localizing pathologies and assessing other anatomical features (e.g., tissue volume, microstructure, and white matter connectivity) in postmortem, ex vivo human brains. However, when brains are removed from the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (i.e., their normal in vivo magnetic environment), air bubbles and air–tissue interfaces typically cause magnetic susceptibility artifacts that severely degrade the quality of ex vivo MRI data. In this report, we describe a relatively simple and cost-effective experimental setup for acquiring artifact-free ex vivo brain images using a clinical MRI system with standard hardware. In particular, we outline the necessary steps, from collecting an ex vivo human brain to the MRI scanner setup, and have also described changing the formalin (as might be necessary in longitudinal postmortem studies). Finally, we share some representative ex vivo MRI images that have been acquired using the proposed setup in order to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach. We hope that this protocol will provide both clinicians and researchers with a straight-forward and cost-effective solution for acquiring ex vivo MRI data from whole postmortem human brains.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Tomlinson, Samuel B.; Bermudez, Camilo; Conley, Chiara; Brown, Merritt W.; +2 Authors

    Synchronized cortical activity is implicated in both normative cognitive functioning and many neurologic disorders. For epilepsy patients with intractable seizures, irregular synchronization within the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is believed to provide the network substrate through which seizures initiate and propagate. Mapping the EZ prior to epilepsy surgery is critical for detecting seizure networks in order to achieve postsurgical seizure control. However, automated techniques for characterizing epileptic networks have yet to gain traction in the clinical setting. Recent advances in signal processing and spike detection have made it possible to examine the spatiotemporal propagation of interictal spike discharges across the epileptic cortex. In this study, we present a novel methodology for detecting, extracting, and visualizing spike propagation and demonstrate its potential utility as a biomarker for the EZ. Eighteen presurgical intracranial EEG recordings were obtained from pediatric patients ultimately experiencing favorable (i.e., seizure-free, n = 9) or unfavorable (i.e., seizure-persistent, n = 9) surgical outcomes. Novel algorithms were applied to extract multichannel spike discharges and visualize their spatiotemporal propagation. Quantitative analysis of spike propagation was performed using trajectory clustering and spatial autocorrelation techniques. Comparison of interictal propagation patterns revealed an increase in trajectory organization (i.e., spatial autocorrelation) among Sz-Free patients compared with Sz-Persist patients. The pathophysiological basis and clinical implications of these findings are considered.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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