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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    The structural template, quantitative myelin water imaging atlases, tissue segmentations, and regions of interest (ROIs) generated and analyzed for An atlas for human brain myelin content throughout the adult life span https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-79540-3

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: ZENODO
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  • Authors: Ariani, Giacomo; J Andrew Pruszynski; Diedrichsen, Jörn;
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  • Authors: Kamal, Farooq; Campbell, Kenneth; Taler, Vanessa;

    IntroductionThe recording of resting-state EEG may provide a means to predict early cognitive decline associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Previous studies have typically used very short recording times to avoid a confound with drowsiness that may occur in longer recordings. The effects of a longer recording have not however been systematically examined.MethodsEyes-closed resting-state EEG activity was recorded in 40 older adult participants (20 healthy older adults and 20 people with MCI). The recording period was a relatively long 6 minutes, divided into two equal 3-minute halves to determine if drowsiness will be more apparent as the recording progresses. The participants also completed standardized neuropsychological tasks that assessed global cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and memory (California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition). A spectral analysis was performed on both short (2 seconds) and long (8 seconds) segments in both 3-minute halves.ResultsNo differences in power density for any of the EEG frequency bands were found between the 2 halves of the study for either group. There was little evidence of increased drowsiness in the second half of the study even when frequency resolution was increased with the 8-second segmentation. Theta power density was overall larger for people with MCI compared to healthy older adults. A negative correlation was also observed between theta power and global cognition in healthy older adults.ConclusionsThe present results indicate that longer resting-state EEG recording can be reliably employed without increased risk of drowsiness.

    https://doi.org/10.2...arrow_drop_down
    https://doi.org/10.25384/sage....
    Collection . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    https://doi.org/10.25384/sage....
    Collection . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.2...arrow_drop_down
      https://doi.org/10.25384/sage....
      Collection . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      https://doi.org/10.25384/sage....
      Collection . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Grecias, Lucie; Francois Olivier Hebert; Verônica Angelica Alves; Barber, Iain; +1 Authors

    Many parasites with complex life cycles modify their intermediate hosts' behaviour, presumably to increase transmission to their final host. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an intermediate host in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus life cycle, which ends in an avian host, and shows increased risky behaviours when infected. We studied brain gene expression profiles of sticklebacks infected with S. solidus to determine the proximal causes of these behavioural alterations. We show that infected fish have altered expression levels in genes involved in the inositol pathway. We thus tested the functional implication of this pathway and successfully rescued normal behaviours in infected sticklebacks using lithium exposure. We also show that exposed but uninfected fish have a distinct gene expression profile from both infected fish and control individuals, allowing us to separate gene activity related to parasite exposure from consequences of a successful infection. Finally, we find that Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-treated sticklebacks and infected fish do not have similarly altered gene expression, despite their comparable behaviours, suggesting that the serotonin pathway is probably not the main driver of phenotypic changes in infected sticklebacks. Taken together, our results allow us to predict that if S. solidus directly manipulates its host, it could target the inositol pathway.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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    Dataset . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Dataset . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Dataset . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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      Dataset . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Dataset . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Dataset . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Grecias, Lucie; Francois Olivier Hebert; Verônica Angelica Alves; Barber, Iain; +1 Authors

    Many parasites with complex life cycles modify their intermediate hosts' behaviour, presumably to increase transmission to their final host. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an intermediate host in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus life cycle, which ends in an avian host, and shows increased risky behaviours when infected. We studied brain gene expression profiles of sticklebacks infected with S. solidus to determine the proximal causes of these behavioural alterations. We show that infected fish have altered expression levels in genes involved in the inositol pathway. We thus tested the functional implication of this pathway and successfully rescued normal behaviours in infected sticklebacks using lithium exposure. We also show that exposed but uninfected fish have a distinct gene expression profile from both infected fish and control individuals, allowing us to separate gene activity related to parasite exposure from consequences of a successful infection. Finally, we find that Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-treated sticklebacks and infected fish do not have similarly altered gene expression, despite their comparable behaviours, suggesting that the serotonin pathway is probably not the main driver of phenotypic changes in infected sticklebacks. Taken together, our results allow us to predict that if S. solidus directly manipulates its host, it could target the inositol pathway.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Collection . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Collection . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Collection . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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      Collection . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Collection . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Collection . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Additional file 1. An .xls file containing all the raw data from the study. The file has 12 pagesâ one for each of the 12 subjects. Each page shows all of its subjectâ s data: the 30 blocks of 15 targets each, and the long block of 100 targets. For each block, the page shows the w* and b* values for that block, the time of each shot (since the start of the block), the target location for that shot, and the cursor location when the shot was taken.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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    Dataset . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Dataset . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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      Dataset . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Dataset . 2017
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mahmoudreza Ramin; Yueyang Li; Wen-Tzu Chang; Shaw, Hunter; +1 Authors

    Abstract Natural aggressiveness is commonly observed in all animal species, and is displayed frequently when animals compete for food, territory and mating. Aggression is an innate behaviour, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. However, the genetics of aggression remains largely unclear. In this study, we identify the peacefulness (pfs) gene as a novel player in the control of male-male aggression in Drosophila. Mutations in pfs decreased intermale aggressiveness, but did not affect locomotor activity, olfactory avoidance response and sexual behaviours. pfs encodes for the evolutionarily conserved molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) synthesis 1 protein (Mocs1), which catalyzes the first step in the MoCo biosynthesis pathway. Neuronal-specific knockdown of pfs decreased aggressiveness. By contrast, overexpression of pfs greatly increased aggressiveness. Knocking down Cinnamon (Cin) catalyzing the final step in the MoCo synthesis pathway, caused a pfs-like aggression phenotype. In humans, inhibition of MoCo-dependent enzymes displays anti-aggressive effects. Thus, the control of aggression by Pfs-dependent MoCo pathways may be conserved throughout evolution.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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    Collection . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Collection . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Collection . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Collection . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Abstract Background Learning algorithms come in three orders of complexity: zeroth-order (perturbation), first-order (gradient descent), and second-order (e.g., quasi-Newton). But which of these are used in the brain? We trained 12 people to shoot targets, and compared them to simulated subjects that learned the same task using various algorithms. Results Humans learned significantly faster than optimized zeroth-order algorithms, but slower than second-order ones. Conclusions Human visuomotor learning is too fast to be explained by zeroth-order processes alone, and must involve first or second-order mechanisms.

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    Authors: Sacher, Wesley; Chen, Fu-Der; Moradi-Chameh, Homeira; Liu, Xinyu; +12 Authors

    Additional video showing beam-steering from the neural probe in a hippocampal brain slice from a VGAT-ChR2-EYFP mouse. The video is real-time and was captured using the same method as Visualization 2.

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  • Authors: Bergeron-Brlek, Milan; Goodwin-Tindall, Jake; Cekic, Nevena; Roth, Christian; +7 Authors

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures. Related Article: Milan Bergeron-Brlek, Jake Goodwin-Tindall, Nevena Cekic, Christian Roth, Wesley F. Zandberg, Xiaoyang Shan, Vimal Varghese, Sherry Chan, Gideon J. Davies, David J. Vocadlo, Robert Britton|2015|Angew.Chem.,Int.Ed.|54|15429|doi:10.1002/anie.201507985

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    The structural template, quantitative myelin water imaging atlases, tissue segmentations, and regions of interest (ROIs) generated and analyzed for An atlas for human brain myelin content throughout the adult life span https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-79540-3

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      ZENODO
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  • Authors: Ariani, Giacomo; J Andrew Pruszynski; Diedrichsen, Jörn;
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  • Authors: Kamal, Farooq; Campbell, Kenneth; Taler, Vanessa;

    IntroductionThe recording of resting-state EEG may provide a means to predict early cognitive decline associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Previous studies have typically used very short recording times to avoid a confound with drowsiness that may occur in longer recordings. The effects of a longer recording have not however been systematically examined.MethodsEyes-closed resting-state EEG activity was recorded in 40 older adult participants (20 healthy older adults and 20 people with MCI). The recording period was a relatively long 6 minutes, divided into two equal 3-minute halves to determine if drowsiness will be more apparent as the recording progresses. The participants also completed standardized neuropsychological tasks that assessed global cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and memory (California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition). A spectral analysis was performed on both short (2 seconds) and long (8 seconds) segments in both 3-minute halves.ResultsNo differences in power density for any of the EEG frequency bands were found between the 2 halves of the study for either group. There was little evidence of increased drowsiness in the second half of the study even when frequency resolution was increased with the 8-second segmentation. Theta power density was overall larger for people with MCI compared to healthy older adults. A negative correlation was also observed between theta power and global cognition in healthy older adults.ConclusionsThe present results indicate that longer resting-state EEG recording can be reliably employed without increased risk of drowsiness.

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    https://doi.org/10.25384/sage....
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      https://doi.org/10.25384/sage....
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    Authors: Grecias, Lucie; Francois Olivier Hebert; Verônica Angelica Alves; Barber, Iain; +1 Authors

    Many parasites with complex life cycles modify their intermediate hosts' behaviour, presumably to increase transmission to their final host. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an intermediate host in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus life cycle, which ends in an avian host, and shows increased risky behaviours when infected. We studied brain gene expression profiles of sticklebacks infected with S. solidus to determine the proximal causes of these behavioural alterations. We show that infected fish have altered expression levels in genes involved in the inositol pathway. We thus tested the functional implication of this pathway and successfully rescued normal behaviours in infected sticklebacks using lithium exposure. We also show that exposed but uninfected fish have a distinct gene expression profile from both infected fish and control individuals, allowing us to separate gene activity related to parasite exposure from consequences of a successful infection. Finally, we find that Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-treated sticklebacks and infected fish do not have similarly altered gene expression, despite their comparable behaviours, suggesting that the serotonin pathway is probably not the main driver of phenotypic changes in infected sticklebacks. Taken together, our results allow us to predict that if S. solidus directly manipulates its host, it could target the inositol pathway.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Grecias, Lucie; Francois Olivier Hebert; Verônica Angelica Alves; Barber, Iain; +1 Authors

    Many parasites with complex life cycles modify their intermediate hosts' behaviour, presumably to increase transmission to their final host. The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an intermediate host in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus life cycle, which ends in an avian host, and shows increased risky behaviours when infected. We studied brain gene expression profiles of sticklebacks infected with S. solidus to determine the proximal causes of these behavioural alterations. We show that infected fish have altered expression levels in genes involved in the inositol pathway. We thus tested the functional implication of this pathway and successfully rescued normal behaviours in infected sticklebacks using lithium exposure. We also show that exposed but uninfected fish have a distinct gene expression profile from both infected fish and control individuals, allowing us to separate gene activity related to parasite exposure from consequences of a successful infection. Finally, we find that Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-treated sticklebacks and infected fish do not have similarly altered gene expression, despite their comparable behaviours, suggesting that the serotonin pathway is probably not the main driver of phenotypic changes in infected sticklebacks. Taken together, our results allow us to predict that if S. solidus directly manipulates its host, it could target the inositol pathway.

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