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  • English
    Authors: 
    Fitzgibbon, D.W.M.; Cameron, A.;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Original article can be found at: http://www.pavpub.com/pavpub/journals/BJFP/index.asp Copyright Pavilion Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Ivison, R.J.; Dunlop, J.S.; Hughes, D.H.; Archibald, E.N.; Stevens, J. A.; Holland, W.S.; Robson, E.I.; Eales, S.; Rawlings, S.; Dey, A.; +1 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    We present the results of new rest-frame far-IR observations of the z\4.25 radio galaxy 8C 1435]635, which not only conÐrm that it contains an enormous quantity of dust (as Ðrst inferred from its millimeter-wave detection by Ivison in 1995), but also allow the Ðrst meaningful constraints to be placed on the mass of this dust and associated gas. The new measurements consist of (1) clear detections of submillimeter continuum emission at jobs\450 and 850 km obtained with the new submillimeter bolometer array, SCUBA, on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, (2) continuum upper limits at jobs\ 350, 750, and 175 km obtained with SCUBA and the PHT far-IR camera aboard the Infrared Space Observatory, and (3) a sensitive upper limit on the CO (4È3) line Ñux obtained with the IRAM 30 m Millimeter Radio Telescope. The resulting rest-frame 33È238 km continuum coverage allows us to deduce that 2]108 M of dust at a temperature of 40^5 K is responsible for the observed millimeter/ _ submillimeter emission. Using our CO upper limit, which constrains MH to less than 950, we go on 2 /Md to calculate robust limits on the total gas reserves (H I), which are thereby constrained to between 2]H 4]1010 and 1.2]1012 M The submillimeter properties of 8C 1435]635 are thus strikingly similar _. to those of the z\3.80 radio galaxy 4C 41.17, the only other high-redshift galaxy detected to date at submillimeter wavelengths whose properties appear not to be exaggerated by gravitational lensing. The inferred gas masses of both objects are sufficiently large to suggest that the formative starbursts of massive elliptical galaxies are still in progress at z^4. Observations of complete samples of radio galaxies spanning a range of redshifts and radio luminosities will be required to determine whether the spectacular far-IR properties of 8C 1435]635 and 4C 41.17 are primarily due to their extreme redshifts or to their extreme radio luminosities. Original article can be found at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/--Copyright University of Chicago Press / AAS Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Witham, A.R.; Knigge, C.; Gansicke, B.T.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Corradi, R.M.; Drew, J.E.; Greimel, R.; Groot, P.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Rodriguez-Flores, E.R.; +2 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com. Copyright Blackwell Publishing DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10395.x Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina; Schepanski, Kerstin; Tesche, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gross, Silke; Kandler, Konrad; Knippertz, Peter; Mueller, D.; +8 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    The spatio-temporal evolution of the Saharan dust and biomass-burning plume during the SAMUM-2 field campaign in January and February 2008 is simulated at 28 km horizontal resolution with the regional model-system COSMO-MUSCAT. The model performance is thoroughly tested using routine ground-based and space-borne remote sensing and local field measurements. Good agreement with the observations is found in many cases regarding transport patterns, aerosol optical thicknesses and the ratio of dust to smoke aerosol. The model also captures major features of the complex aerosol layering. Nevertheless, discrepancies in the modelled aerosol distribution occur, which are analysed in detail. The dry synoptic dynamics controlling dust uplift and transport during the dry season are well described by the model, but surface wind peaks associated with the breakdown of nocturnal low-level jets are not always reproduced. Thus, a strong dust outbreak is underestimated. While dust emission modelling is a priori more challenging, since strength and placement of dust sources depend on on-line computed winds, considerable inaccuracies also arise in observation-based estimates of biomass-burning emissions. They are caused by cloud and spatial errors of satellite fire products and uncertainties in fire emission parameters, and can lead to unrealistic model results of smoke transport. © 2011 The Authors Tellus B © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Steen, Eliza; McCrum, Carol; Cairns, Mindy;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background: Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is an inflammatory disease associated with significant diagnostic delays and is commonly missed in assessments of persistent back pain. Objective: To explore musculoskeletal physiotherapists' awareness, knowledge and confidence in screening for signs, symptoms and risk factors of suspected axSpA and criteria for rheumatology referral. Design: An online UK survey was undertaken combining back pain vignettes (reflecting axSpA, non‐specific back pain and radicular syndrome) and questioning on features of suspected axSpA. Recruitment utilised online professional forums and social media. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and conceptual content analysis for free text responses. Results: 132 survey responses were analysed. Only 67% (88/132) of respondents identified inflammatory pathologies as a possible cause of persistent back pain. Only 60% (79/132) recognised the axSpA vignette compared to non‐specific low back pain (94%) and radicular syndrome (80%). Most suspecting axSpA would refer for specialist assessment (77/79; 92%). Awareness of national referral guidance was evident in only 50% of ‘clinical reasoning’ and 20% of ‘further subjective screening’ responses. There was misplaced confidence in recognising clinical features of axSpA (≥7/10) compared to knowledge levels shown, including high importance given to inflammatory markers and human leucocyte antigen B27 (median = 8/10). Conclusions: Musculoskeletal physiotherapists may not be giving adequate consideration to axSpA in back pain assessments. Awareness of national referral guidance was also limited. Professional education on screening and referral for suspected axSpA is needed to make axSpA screening and referral criteria core knowledge in musculoskeletal clinical practice, supporting earlier diagnosis and better outcomes. © 2021 The Authors. Musculoskeletal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Krause, Martin G. H.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Gieles, Mark; Klessen, Ralf S.; Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Girichidis, Philipp; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Ward, Jacob L.; +1 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    Star clusters form in dense, hierarchically collapsing gas clouds. Bulk kinetic energy is transformed to turbulence with stars forming from cores fed by filaments. In the most compact regions, stellar feedback is least effective in removing the gas and stars may form very efficiently. These are also the regions where, in high-mass clusters, ejecta from some kind of high-mass stars are effectively captured during the formation phase of some of the low mass stars and effectively channeled into the latter to form multiple populations. Star formation epochs in star clusters are generally set by gas flows that determine the abundance of gas in the cluster. We argue that there is likely only one star formation epoch after which clusters remain essentially clear of gas by cluster winds. Collisional dynamics is important in this phase leading to core collapse, expansion and eventual dispersion of every cluster. We review recent developments in the field with a focus on theoretical work. © 2020 Springer-Verlag. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00689-4. Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Ankers, Paul; Brennan, Ross;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Concern has been expressed by business and marketing scholars that academic research in these fields should be made more relevant to managers. In this paper the focus in on the views of marketing managers concerning the relevance of academic research to them. The empirical context of the work is business‐to‐business marketing. The experienced marketing practitioners interviewed knew very little about the current state of academic research in marketing, and considered that academic researchers did not understand the realities of business life and could not communicate effectively with managers. Marketing practitioners prefer to work with consultants, whom they consider understand business realities better and are more effective communicators. The paper discusses the barriers that marketing academies will have to overcome if they are to make their research more relevant to practitioners Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Stainer, L.; McDermott, T.; Stainer, A.;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Original article can be found at: http://www.inderscience.com/browse/index.php?journalCODE=ijetm Copyright Inderscience Enterprises Limited. DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2005.006504 [Full text of this article is not available in the UHRA] Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Gittins, Rosalind; Guirguis, Amira; Schifano, Fabrizio; Maidment, Ian;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Substance misuse services need to meet the growing demand and needs of individuals using new psychoactive substances (NPS). A review of the literature identified a paucity of research regarding NPS use by these individuals and UK guidelines outline the need for locally tailored strategies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and explore key themes in relation to the use of NPS by individuals receiving community treatment for their substance use. Electronic records identified demographics and semi-structured interviews were undertaken. A thematic analysis of transcripts identified a variety of substance use histories; 50% were prescribed opiate substitutes and 25% used NPS as a primary substance. All were males, age range 26–59 years (SD = 9), who predominantly smoked cannabinoids and snorted/injected stimulant NPS. The type of NPS used was determined by affordability, availability, side-effect profile and desired effects (physical and psychological: 25% reported weight loss as motivation for their use). Poly-pharmacy, supplementation and displacement of other drugs were prevalent. In conclusion, NPS use and associated experiences vary widely among people receiving substance use treatment. Development of effective recovery pathways should be tailored to individuals, and include harm reduction strategies, psychosocial interventions, and effective signposting. Services should be vigilant for NPS use, “on top” use and diversion of prescriptions. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0). Peer reviewed

  • Other research product . 2001
    English
    Authors: 
    Hardcastle, M.J.; Worrall, D.M.;
    Publisher: Astronomical Society of the Pacific
    Country: United Kingdom

    Using ROSAT observations, we estimate gas pressures in the X-ray-emitting media surrounding 63 FR II radio galaxies and quasars. We compare these pressures with the internal pressures of the radio-emitting plasma estimated by assuming minimum energy or equipartition. The majority of the radio sources (including 12/13 sources with modelled, spatially resolved X-ray emission) appear to be underpressured with respect to the external medium, suggesting that simple minimum-energy arguments underestimate the sources' internal energy densities. Some consequences of this result are discussed. Original paper can be found at: http://www.astrosociety.org/pubs/cs/222-252.html--Copyright Astronomical Society of the Pacific

search
Include:
20,554 Research products, page 1 of 2,056
  • English
    Authors: 
    Fitzgibbon, D.W.M.; Cameron, A.;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Original article can be found at: http://www.pavpub.com/pavpub/journals/BJFP/index.asp Copyright Pavilion Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Ivison, R.J.; Dunlop, J.S.; Hughes, D.H.; Archibald, E.N.; Stevens, J. A.; Holland, W.S.; Robson, E.I.; Eales, S.; Rawlings, S.; Dey, A.; +1 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    We present the results of new rest-frame far-IR observations of the z\4.25 radio galaxy 8C 1435]635, which not only conÐrm that it contains an enormous quantity of dust (as Ðrst inferred from its millimeter-wave detection by Ivison in 1995), but also allow the Ðrst meaningful constraints to be placed on the mass of this dust and associated gas. The new measurements consist of (1) clear detections of submillimeter continuum emission at jobs\450 and 850 km obtained with the new submillimeter bolometer array, SCUBA, on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, (2) continuum upper limits at jobs\ 350, 750, and 175 km obtained with SCUBA and the PHT far-IR camera aboard the Infrared Space Observatory, and (3) a sensitive upper limit on the CO (4È3) line Ñux obtained with the IRAM 30 m Millimeter Radio Telescope. The resulting rest-frame 33È238 km continuum coverage allows us to deduce that 2]108 M of dust at a temperature of 40^5 K is responsible for the observed millimeter/ _ submillimeter emission. Using our CO upper limit, which constrains MH to less than 950, we go on 2 /Md to calculate robust limits on the total gas reserves (H I), which are thereby constrained to between 2]H 4]1010 and 1.2]1012 M The submillimeter properties of 8C 1435]635 are thus strikingly similar _. to those of the z\3.80 radio galaxy 4C 41.17, the only other high-redshift galaxy detected to date at submillimeter wavelengths whose properties appear not to be exaggerated by gravitational lensing. The inferred gas masses of both objects are sufficiently large to suggest that the formative starbursts of massive elliptical galaxies are still in progress at z^4. Observations of complete samples of radio galaxies spanning a range of redshifts and radio luminosities will be required to determine whether the spectacular far-IR properties of 8C 1435]635 and 4C 41.17 are primarily due to their extreme redshifts or to their extreme radio luminosities. Original article can be found at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/--Copyright University of Chicago Press / AAS Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Witham, A.R.; Knigge, C.; Gansicke, B.T.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Corradi, R.M.; Drew, J.E.; Greimel, R.; Groot, P.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Rodriguez-Flores, E.R.; +2 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com. Copyright Blackwell Publishing DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10395.x Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina; Schepanski, Kerstin; Tesche, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gross, Silke; Kandler, Konrad; Knippertz, Peter; Mueller, D.; +8 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    The spatio-temporal evolution of the Saharan dust and biomass-burning plume during the SAMUM-2 field campaign in January and February 2008 is simulated at 28 km horizontal resolution with the regional model-system COSMO-MUSCAT. The model performance is thoroughly tested using routine ground-based and space-borne remote sensing and local field measurements. Good agreement with the observations is found in many cases regarding transport patterns, aerosol optical thicknesses and the ratio of dust to smoke aerosol. The model also captures major features of the complex aerosol layering. Nevertheless, discrepancies in the modelled aerosol distribution occur, which are analysed in detail. The dry synoptic dynamics controlling dust uplift and transport during the dry season are well described by the model, but surface wind peaks associated with the breakdown of nocturnal low-level jets are not always reproduced. Thus, a strong dust outbreak is underestimated. While dust emission modelling is a priori more challenging, since strength and placement of dust sources depend on on-line computed winds, considerable inaccuracies also arise in observation-based estimates of biomass-burning emissions. They are caused by cloud and spatial errors of satellite fire products and uncertainties in fire emission parameters, and can lead to unrealistic model results of smoke transport. © 2011 The Authors Tellus B © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Steen, Eliza; McCrum, Carol; Cairns, Mindy;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background: Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is an inflammatory disease associated with significant diagnostic delays and is commonly missed in assessments of persistent back pain. Objective: To explore musculoskeletal physiotherapists' awareness, knowledge and confidence in screening for signs, symptoms and risk factors of suspected axSpA and criteria for rheumatology referral. Design: An online UK survey was undertaken combining back pain vignettes (reflecting axSpA, non‐specific back pain and radicular syndrome) and questioning on features of suspected axSpA. Recruitment utilised online professional forums and social media. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and conceptual content analysis for free text responses. Results: 132 survey responses were analysed. Only 67% (88/132) of respondents identified inflammatory pathologies as a possible cause of persistent back pain. Only 60% (79/132) recognised the axSpA vignette compared to non‐specific low back pain (94%) and radicular syndrome (80%). Most suspecting axSpA would refer for specialist assessment (77/79; 92%). Awareness of national referral guidance was evident in only 50% of ‘clinical reasoning’ and 20% of ‘further subjective screening’ responses. There was misplaced confidence in recognising clinical features of axSpA (≥7/10) compared to knowledge levels shown, including high importance given to inflammatory markers and human leucocyte antigen B27 (median = 8/10). Conclusions: Musculoskeletal physiotherapists may not be giving adequate consideration to axSpA in back pain assessments. Awareness of national referral guidance was also limited. Professional education on screening and referral for suspected axSpA is needed to make axSpA screening and referral criteria core knowledge in musculoskeletal clinical practice, supporting earlier diagnosis and better outcomes. © 2021 The Authors. Musculoskeletal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Krause, Martin G. H.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Gieles, Mark; Klessen, Ralf S.; Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Girichidis, Philipp; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Ward, Jacob L.; +1 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    Star clusters form in dense, hierarchically collapsing gas clouds. Bulk kinetic energy is transformed to turbulence with stars forming from cores fed by filaments. In the most compact regions, stellar feedback is least effective in removing the gas and stars may form very efficiently. These are also the regions where, in high-mass clusters, ejecta from some kind of high-mass stars are effectively captured during the formation phase of some of the low mass stars and effectively channeled into the latter to form multiple populations. Star formation epochs in star clusters are generally set by gas flows that determine the abundance of gas in the cluster. We argue that there is likely only one star formation epoch after which clusters remain essentially clear of gas by cluster winds. Collisional dynamics is important in this phase leading to core collapse, expansion and eventual dispersion of every cluster. We review recent developments in the field with a focus on theoretical work. © 2020 Springer-Verlag. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00689-4. Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Ankers, Paul; Brennan, Ross;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Concern has been expressed by business and marketing scholars that academic research in these fields should be made more relevant to managers. In this paper the focus in on the views of marketing managers concerning the relevance of academic research to them. The empirical context of the work is business‐to‐business marketing. The experienced marketing practitioners interviewed knew very little about the current state of academic research in marketing, and considered that academic researchers did not understand the realities of business life and could not communicate effectively with managers. Marketing practitioners prefer to work with consultants, whom they consider understand business realities better and are more effective communicators. The paper discusses the barriers that marketing academies will have to overcome if they are to make their research more relevant to practitioners Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Stainer, L.; McDermott, T.; Stainer, A.;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Original article can be found at: http://www.inderscience.com/browse/index.php?journalCODE=ijetm Copyright Inderscience Enterprises Limited. DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2005.006504 [Full text of this article is not available in the UHRA] Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Gittins, Rosalind; Guirguis, Amira; Schifano, Fabrizio; Maidment, Ian;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Substance misuse services need to meet the growing demand and needs of individuals using new psychoactive substances (NPS). A review of the literature identified a paucity of research regarding NPS use by these individuals and UK guidelines outline the need for locally tailored strategies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and explore key themes in relation to the use of NPS by individuals receiving community treatment for their substance use. Electronic records identified demographics and semi-structured interviews were undertaken. A thematic analysis of transcripts identified a variety of substance use histories; 50% were prescribed opiate substitutes and 25% used NPS as a primary substance. All were males, age range 26–59 years (SD = 9), who predominantly smoked cannabinoids and snorted/injected stimulant NPS. The type of NPS used was determined by affordability, availability, side-effect profile and desired effects (physical and psychological: 25% reported weight loss as motivation for their use). Poly-pharmacy, supplementation and displacement of other drugs were prevalent. In conclusion, NPS use and associated experiences vary widely among people receiving substance use treatment. Development of effective recovery pathways should be tailored to individuals, and include harm reduction strategies, psychosocial interventions, and effective signposting. Services should be vigilant for NPS use, “on top” use and diversion of prescriptions. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0). Peer reviewed

  • Other research product . 2001
    English
    Authors: 
    Hardcastle, M.J.; Worrall, D.M.;
    Publisher: Astronomical Society of the Pacific
    Country: United Kingdom

    Using ROSAT observations, we estimate gas pressures in the X-ray-emitting media surrounding 63 FR II radio galaxies and quasars. We compare these pressures with the internal pressures of the radio-emitting plasma estimated by assuming minimum energy or equipartition. The majority of the radio sources (including 12/13 sources with modelled, spatially resolved X-ray emission) appear to be underpressured with respect to the external medium, suggesting that simple minimum-energy arguments underestimate the sources' internal energy densities. Some consequences of this result are discussed. Original paper can be found at: http://www.astrosociety.org/pubs/cs/222-252.html--Copyright Astronomical Society of the Pacific

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