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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kleine, Lukas; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Smith, Aaron; Wang, Hailong; +1 Authors

    In drought sensitive lowland catchments, ecohydrological feedbacks to climatic anomalies can give valuable insights into ecosystem functioning in the context of alarming climate change projections. However, the dynamic influences of vegetation on spatio-temporal processes in water cycling in the critical zone of catchments are not yet fully understood. We used stable isotopes to investigate the impacts of the 2018 drought on dominant soil-vegetation units of the mixed land-use Demnitzer Mill Creek (DMC, NE Germany) catchment (66 km²). The isotope sampling was carried out in conjunction with hydroclimatic, soil, groundwater, and vegetation monitoring. Drying soils, falling groundwater levels, cessation of stream flow and reduced crop yields demonstrated the failure of catchment water storage to support blue and green water fluxes. We further conducted monthly bulk soil water isotope sampling to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of water soil storage under forest and grassland vegetation. Forest soils were drier than the grassland mainly due to higher interception and transpiration losses. However, the forest soils also had more freely draining shallow layers, and were dominated by rapid young (age  2 months), though the lack of deep percolation produced water ages ~ 1 year under forest. We found the displacement of any drought signal within the soil profile limited to the isotopic signatures and no displacement or memory effect in d-excess over the monthly time step, indicating rapid mixing of new rainfall. Our findings suggest that contrasting soil-vegetation assemblages communities have distinct impacts on ecohydrological partitioning and water ages in the sub surface. Such insights will be invaluable for developing sustainable land management strategies appropriate to water availability and build resilience to climate change.

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    Authors: Kleine, Lukas; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Smith, Aaron; Wang, Hailong; +1 Authors

    In drought-sensitive lowland catchments, ecohydrological feedbacks to climatic anomalies can give valuable insights into ecosystem functioning in the context of alarming climate change projections. However, the dynamic influences of vegetation on spatio-temporal processes in water cycling in the critical zone of catchments are not yet fully understood. We used water stable isotopes to investigate the impacts of the 2018 drought on dominant soil–vegetation units of the mixed land use Demnitz Millcreek (DMC, north-eastern Germany) catchment (66 km2). The isotope sampling was carried out in conjunction with hydroclimatic, soil, groundwater, and vegetation monitoring. Drying soils, falling groundwater levels, cessation of streamflow, and reduced crop yields demonstrated the failure of catchment water storage to support “blue” (groundwater recharge and stream discharge) and “green” (evapotranspiration) water fluxes. We further conducted monthly bulk soil water isotope sampling to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of water soil storage under forest and grassland vegetation. Forest soils were drier than the grassland, mainly due to higher interception and transpiration losses. However, the forest soils also had more freely draining shallow layers and were dominated by rapid young (age <2 months) water fluxes after rainfall events. The grassland soils were more retentive and dominated by older water (age >2 months), though the lack of deep percolation produced water ages >1 year under forest. We found the displacement of any “drought signal” within the soil profile limited to the isotopic signatures and no displacement or “memory effect” in d-excess over the monthly time step, indicating rapid mixing of new rainfall. Our findings suggest that contrasting soil–vegetation communities have distinct impacts on ecohydrological partitioning and water ages in the sub-surface. Such insights will be invaluable for developing sustainable land management strategies appropriate to water availability and building resilience to climate change.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Copernicus Publicati...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Dorigo, Wouter; Himmelbauer, Irene; Aberer, Daniel; Schremmer, Lukas; +64 Authors

    In 2009, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) was initiated as a community effort, funded by the European Space Agency, to serve as a centralised data hosting facility for globally available in situ soil moisture measurements (Dorigo et al., 2011b, a). The ISMN brings together in situ soil moisture measurements collected and freely shared by a multitude of organisations, harmonises them in terms of units and sampling rates, applies advanced quality control, and stores them in a database. Users can freely retrieve the data from this database through an online web portal (https://ismn.earth/en/, last access: 28 October 2021). Meanwhile, the ISMN has evolved into the primary in situ soil moisture reference database worldwide, as evidenced by more than 3000 active users and over 1000 scientific publications referencing the data sets provided by the network. As of July 2021, the ISMN now contains the data of 71 networks and 2842 stations located all over the globe, with a time period spanning from 1952 to the present. The number of networks and stations covered by the ISMN is still growing, and approximately 70 % of the data sets contained in the database continue to be updated on a regular or irregular basis. The main scope of this paper is to inform readers about the evolution of the ISMN over the past decade, including a description of network and data set updates and quality control procedures. A comprehensive review of the existing literature making use of ISMN data is also provided in order to identify current limitations in functionality and data usage and to shape priorities for the next decade of operations of this unique community-based data repository.

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    Authors: Fernández, Alfonso; Muñoz, Ariel; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; +8 Authors

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ∼ 37–42∘ S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial (∼ 37∘ 40′ S–38∘ 50′ S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record (∼ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Copernicus Publicati...arrow_drop_down
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Ferri, Michele; Wehn, Uta; See, Linda; Monego, Martina; +1 Authors

    Citizen observatories are a relatively recent form of citizen science. As part of the flood risk management strategy of the Brenta-Bacchiglione catchment, a citizen observatory for flood risk management has been proposed and is currently being implemented. Citizens are involved through monitoring water levels and obstructions and providing other relevant information through mobile apps, where the data are assimilated with other sensor data in a hydrological-hydraulic model used in early warning. A cost benefit analysis of the citizen observatory was undertaken to demonstrate the value of this approach in monetary terms. Although not yet fully operational, the citizen observatory is assumed to decrease the social vulnerability of the flood risk. By calculating the hazard, exposure and vulnerability of three flood scenarios (required for flood risk management planning by the EU Directive on Flood Risk Management) with and without the proposed citizen observatory, it is possible to evaluate the benefits in terms of the average annual avoided damage costs. Although currently a hypothetical exercise, the results showed a reduction in avoided damage of 45 % compared to a business as usual scenario. Thus, linking citizen science with hydrological modelling, and to raise awareness of flood hazards, has great potential in reducing future flood risk in the Brenta-Bacchiglione catchment. Moreover, such approaches are easily transferable to other catchments.

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    Authors: Smith, Aaron; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Laudon, Hjalmar; Maneta, Marco; +1 Authors

    Ecohydrological models are powerful tools to quantify the effects that independent fluxes may have on catchment storage dynamics. Here, we adapted the tracer-aided ecohydrological model, EcH2O-iso, for cold regions with the explicit conceptualization of dynamic soil freeze–thaw processes. We tested the model at the data-rich Krycklan site in northern Sweden with multi-criterion calibration using discharge, stream isotopes and soil moisture in three nested catchments. We utilized the model's incorporation of ecohydrological partitioning to evaluate the effect of soil frost on evaporation and transpiration water ages, and thereby the age of source waters. The simulation of stream discharge, isotopes, and soil moisture variability captured the seasonal dynamics at all three stream sites and both soil sites, with notable reductions in discharge and soil moisture during the winter months due to the development of the frost front. Stream isotope simulations reproduced the response to the isotopically depleted pulse of spring snowmelt. The soil frost dynamics adequately captured the spatial differences in the freezing front throughout the winter period, despite no direct calibration of soil frost to measured soil temperature. The simulated soil frost indicated a maximum freeze depth of 0.25 m below forest vegetation. Water ages of evaporation and transpiration reflect the influence of snowmelt inputs, with a high proclivity of old water (pre-winter storage) at the beginning of the growing season and a mix of snowmelt and precipitation (young water) toward the end of the summer. Soil frost had an early season influence of the transpiration water ages, with water pre-dating the snowpack mainly sustaining vegetation at the start of the growing season. Given the long-term expected change in the energy balance of northern climates, the approach presented provides a framework for quantifying the interactions of ecohydrological fluxes and waters stored in the soil and understanding how these may be impacted in future.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Abayneh Abebe, Yared; Ghorbani, Amineh; Nikolic, Igor; Manojlovic, Natasa; +2 Authors

    Flood adaptation measures implemented at the household level play an important role in reducing communities' vulnerability. The aim of this study is to enhance the current modelling practices of human–flood interaction to draw new insights for flood risk management (FRM) policy design. The paper presents a coupled agent-based and flood model for the case of Hamburg, Germany, to explore how individual adaptation behaviour is influenced by flood event scenarios, economic incentives and shared and individual strategies. Simulation results show that a unique trajectory of adaptation measures and flood damages emerges from different flood event series. Another finding is that providing subsidies increases the number of coping households in the long run. Households' social network also has a strong influence on their coping behaviour. The paper also highlights the role of simple measures such as adapted furnishings, which do not incur any monetary cost, in reducing households' vulnerability and preventing millions of euros of contents damages. Generally, we demonstrate that coupled agent-based and flood models can potentially be used as decision support tools to examine the role of household adaptation measures in flood risk management. Although the findings of the paper are case-specific, the improved modelling approach shows the potential to be applied in testing policy levers and strategies considering heterogeneous individual behaviours.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2020
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2020
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    Authors: Snelgrove, Jenna R.; Buttle, James M.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Tetzlaff, Dörthe;

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to the issue of ecohydrological separation during water uptake by vegetation. This has been spurred in part by the two water worlds hypothesis, whereby mobile blue water contributes to groundwater recharge and streamflow generation whereas less mobile green water held in the soil is taken up and transpired by vegetation. This study examines the potential for ecohydrological separation in a northern mixed forest in Ontario, Canada. Stable isotopic compositions of gross precipitation, bulk soil water and xylem water were measured throughout the 2016 growing season for four species: eastern white cedar, eastern hemlock, red oak and eastern white pine. Near-bole soil water contents and mobile soil water isotopic compositions were measured for the last three species. Mobile soil water did not deviate significantly from the local meteoric water line (LMWL); in contrast, both bulk soil water and xylem water deviated significantly from the LMWL, with xylem water significantly depleted in 18O and particularly 2H relative to bulk soil water. Near-surface bulk soil water experienced evaporative enrichment from pre-leaf out to peak leaf out under all tree canopies. There were inter-species differences in displacement of xylem water isotopic compositions from the LMWL and their temporal changes during the growing season, with those of coniferous species becoming isotopically enriched while those of red oak became more depleted in 2H and 18O. These divergences occurred despite thin soil cover (generally

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    Authors: Kaandorp, Vince P.; Broers, Hans Peter; Velde, Ype; Rozemeijer, Joachim; +1 Authors

    Surface waters are under pressure from diffuse pollution from agricultural activities, and groundwater is known to be a connection between the agricultural fields and streams. This paper is one of the first to calculate long-term in-stream concentrations of tritium, chloride, and nitrate using dynamic groundwater travel time distributions (TTDs) derived from a distributed, transient, 3D groundwater flow model using forward particle tracking. We tested our approach in the Springendalse Beek catchment, a lowland stream in the east of the Netherlands, for which we collected a long time series of chloride and nitrate concentrations (1969–2018). The Netherlands experienced a sharp decrease in concentrations of solutes leaching to groundwater in the 1980s due to legislations on the application of nitrogen to agricultural fields. Stream measurements of chloride and nitrate showed that the corresponding trend reversal in the groundwater-fed stream occurred after a time lag of 5–10 years. By combining calculated TTDs with the known history of nitrogen and chloride inputs, we found that the variable contribution of different groundwater flow paths to stream water quality reasonably explained the majority of long-term and seasonal variation in the measured stream nitrate concentrations. However, combining only TTDs and inputs underestimated the time lag between the peak in nitrogen input and the following trend reversal of nitrate in the stream. This feature was further investigated through an exploration of the model behaviour under different scenarios. A time lag of several years, and up to decades, can occur due to (1) a thick unsaturated zone adding a certain travel time, (2) persistent organic matter with a slow release of N in the unsaturated zone, (3) a long mean travel time (MTT) compared to the rate of the reduction in nitrogen application, (4) areas with a high application of nitrogen (agricultural fields) being located further away from the stream or drainage network, or (5) a higher presence of nitrate attenuating processes close to the stream or drainage network compared to the rest of the catchment. By making the connection between dynamic groundwater travel time distributions and in-stream concentration measurements, we provide a method for validating the travel time approach and make the step towards application in water quality modelling and management.

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    Authors: Ferri, Michele; Wehn, Uta; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen;

    Citizen observatories are a relatively recent form of citizen science, which involve citizens in making environmental observations over a period of time. These observations can help to inform the decision making of local authorities and other stakeholders, creating a platform for two-way interaction between citizens and public agencies. Although citizen observatories can clearly generate many different benefits, they also have an associated cost. There are currently no examples of quantifying the costs and benefits of citizen observatories in the literature, yet this type of analysis is critical if there is to be real uptake of citizen observatories by public agencies more generally. This paper presents and applies a generic methodology for capturing the value of a citizen observatory for flood risk reduction in the Brenta-Bacchiglione catchment using a cost-benefit analysis. The results show that the benefits of implementing a citizen observatory approach outweigh the costs by approximately 2 to 1 and can reduce the annual expected damage to a greater degree than a much more costly structural approach.

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    Authors: Kleine, Lukas; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Smith, Aaron; Wang, Hailong; +1 Authors

    In drought sensitive lowland catchments, ecohydrological feedbacks to climatic anomalies can give valuable insights into ecosystem functioning in the context of alarming climate change projections. However, the dynamic influences of vegetation on spatio-temporal processes in water cycling in the critical zone of catchments are not yet fully understood. We used stable isotopes to investigate the impacts of the 2018 drought on dominant soil-vegetation units of the mixed land-use Demnitzer Mill Creek (DMC, NE Germany) catchment (66 km²). The isotope sampling was carried out in conjunction with hydroclimatic, soil, groundwater, and vegetation monitoring. Drying soils, falling groundwater levels, cessation of stream flow and reduced crop yields demonstrated the failure of catchment water storage to support blue and green water fluxes. We further conducted monthly bulk soil water isotope sampling to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of water soil storage under forest and grassland vegetation. Forest soils were drier than the grassland mainly due to higher interception and transpiration losses. However, the forest soils also had more freely draining shallow layers, and were dominated by rapid young (age  2 months), though the lack of deep percolation produced water ages ~ 1 year under forest. We found the displacement of any drought signal within the soil profile limited to the isotopic signatures and no displacement or memory effect in d-excess over the monthly time step, indicating rapid mixing of new rainfall. Our findings suggest that contrasting soil-vegetation assemblages communities have distinct impacts on ecohydrological partitioning and water ages in the sub surface. Such insights will be invaluable for developing sustainable land management strategies appropriate to water availability and build resilience to climate change.

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    Authors: Kleine, Lukas; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Smith, Aaron; Wang, Hailong; +1 Authors

    In drought-sensitive lowland catchments, ecohydrological feedbacks to climatic anomalies can give valuable insights into ecosystem functioning in the context of alarming climate change projections. However, the dynamic influences of vegetation on spatio-temporal processes in water cycling in the critical zone of catchments are not yet fully understood. We used water stable isotopes to investigate the impacts of the 2018 drought on dominant soil–vegetation units of the mixed land use Demnitz Millcreek (DMC, north-eastern Germany) catchment (66 km2). The isotope sampling was carried out in conjunction with hydroclimatic, soil, groundwater, and vegetation monitoring. Drying soils, falling groundwater levels, cessation of streamflow, and reduced crop yields demonstrated the failure of catchment water storage to support “blue” (groundwater recharge and stream discharge) and “green” (evapotranspiration) water fluxes. We further conducted monthly bulk soil water isotope sampling to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of water soil storage under forest and grassland vegetation. Forest soils were drier than the grassland, mainly due to higher interception and transpiration losses. However, the forest soils also had more freely draining shallow layers and were dominated by rapid young (age <2 months) water fluxes after rainfall events. The grassland soils were more retentive and dominated by older water (age >2 months), though the lack of deep percolation produced water ages >1 year under forest. We found the displacement of any “drought signal” within the soil profile limited to the isotopic signatures and no displacement or “memory effect” in d-excess over the monthly time step, indicating rapid mixing of new rainfall. Our findings suggest that contrasting soil–vegetation communities have distinct impacts on ecohydrological partitioning and water ages in the sub-surface. Such insights will be invaluable for developing sustainable land management strategies appropriate to water availability and building resilience to climate change.

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    Authors: Dorigo, Wouter; Himmelbauer, Irene; Aberer, Daniel; Schremmer, Lukas; +64 Authors

    In 2009, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) was initiated as a community effort, funded by the European Space Agency, to serve as a centralised data hosting facility for globally available in situ soil moisture measurements (Dorigo et al., 2011b, a). The ISMN brings together in situ soil moisture measurements collected and freely shared by a multitude of organisations, harmonises them in terms of units and sampling rates, applies advanced quality control, and stores them in a database. Users can freely retrieve the data from this database through an online web portal (https://ismn.earth/en/, last access: 28 October 2021). Meanwhile, the ISMN has evolved into the primary in situ soil moisture reference database worldwide, as evidenced by more than 3000 active users and over 1000 scientific publications referencing the data sets provided by the network. As of July 2021, the ISMN now contains the data of 71 networks and 2842 stations located all over the globe, with a time period spanning from 1952 to the present. The number of networks and stations covered by the ISMN is still growing, and approximately 70 % of the data sets contained in the database continue to be updated on a regular or irregular basis. The main scope of this paper is to inform readers about the evolution of the ISMN over the past decade, including a description of network and data set updates and quality control procedures. A comprehensive review of the existing literature making use of ISMN data is also provided in order to identify current limitations in functionality and data usage and to shape priorities for the next decade of operations of this unique community-based data repository.

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    Authors: Fernández, Alfonso; Muñoz, Ariel; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; +8 Authors

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ∼ 37–42∘ S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial (∼ 37∘ 40′ S–38∘ 50′ S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record (∼ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management.

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    Authors: Ferri, Michele; Wehn, Uta; See, Linda; Monego, Martina; +1 Authors

    Citizen observatories are a relatively recent form of citizen science. As part of the flood risk management strategy of the Brenta-Bacchiglione catchment, a citizen observatory for flood risk management has been proposed and is currently being implemented. Citizens are involved through monitoring water levels and obstructions and providing other relevant information through mobile apps, where the data are assimilated with other sensor data in a hydrological-hydraulic model used in early warning. A cost benefit analysis of the citizen observatory was undertaken to demonstrate the value of this approach in monetary terms. Although not yet fully operational, the citizen observatory is assumed to decrease the social vulnerability of the flood risk. By calculating the hazard, exposure and vulnerability of three flood scenarios (required for flood risk management planning by the EU Directive on Flood Risk Management) with and without the proposed citizen observatory, it is possible to evaluate the benefits in terms of the average annual avoided damage costs. Although currently a hypothetical exercise, the results showed a reduction in avoided damage of 45 % compared to a business as usual scenario. Thus, linking citizen science with hydrological modelling, and to raise awareness of flood hazards, has great potential in reducing future flood risk in the Brenta-Bacchiglione catchment. Moreover, such approaches are easily transferable to other catchments.

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    Authors: Smith, Aaron; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Laudon, Hjalmar; Maneta, Marco; +1 Authors

    Ecohydrological models are powerful tools to quantify the effects that independent fluxes may have on catchment storage dynamics. Here, we adapted the tracer-aided ecohydrological model, EcH2O-iso, for cold regions with the explicit conceptualization of dynamic soil freeze–thaw processes. We tested the model at the data-rich Krycklan site in northern Sweden with multi-criterion calibration using discharge, stream isotopes and soil moisture in three nested catchments. We utilized the model's incorporation of ecohydrological partitioning to evaluate the effect of soil frost on evaporation and transpiration water ages, and thereby the age of source waters. The simulation of stream discharge, isotopes, and soil moisture variability captured the seasonal dynamics at all three stream sites and both soil sites, with notable reductions in discharge and soil moisture during the winter months due to the development of the frost front. Stream isotope simulations reproduced the response to the isotopically depleted pulse of spring snowmelt. The soil frost dynamics adequately captured the spatial differences in the freezing front throughout the winter period, despite no direct calibration of soil frost to measured soil temperature. The simulated soil frost indicated a maximum freeze depth of 0.25 m below forest vegetation. Water ages of evaporation and transpiration reflect the influence of snowmelt inputs, with a high proclivity of old water (pre-winter storage) at the beginning of the growing season and a mix of snowmelt and precipitation (young water) toward the end of the summer. Soil frost had an early season influence of the transpiration water ages, with water pre-dating the snowpack mainly sustaining vegetation at the start of the growing season. Given the long-term expected change in the energy balance of northern climates, the approach presented provides a framework for quantifying the interactions of ecohydrological fluxes and waters stored in the soil and understanding how these may be impacted in future.

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    Copernicus Publications
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      Copernicus Publications
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    Authors: Abayneh Abebe, Yared; Ghorbani, Amineh; Nikolic, Igor; Manojlovic, Natasa; +2 Authors

    Flood adaptation measures implemented at the household level play an important role in reducing communities' vulnerability. The aim of this study is to enhance the current modelling practices of human–flood interaction to draw new insights for flood risk management (FRM) policy design. The paper presents a coupled agent-based and flood model for the case of Hamburg, Germany, to explore how individual adaptation behaviour is influenced by flood event scenarios, economic incentives and shared and individual strategies. Simulation results show that a unique trajectory of adaptation measures and flood damages emerges from different flood event series. Another finding is that providing subsidies increases the number of coping households in the long run. Households' social network also has a strong influence on their coping behaviour. The paper also highlights the role of simple measures such as adapted furnishings, which do not incur any monetary cost, in reducing households' vulnerability and preventing millions of euros of contents damages. Generally, we demonstrate that coupled agent-based and flood models can potentially be used as decision support tools to examine the role of household adaptation measures in flood risk management. Although the findings of the paper are case-specific, the improved modelling approach shows the potential to be applied in testing policy levers and strategies considering heterogeneous individual behaviours.

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    Copernicus Publications
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      Copernicus Publications
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    Authors: Snelgrove, Jenna R.; Buttle, James M.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Tetzlaff, Dörthe;

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to the issue of ecohydrological separation during water uptake by vegetation. This has been spurred in part by the two water worlds hypothesis, whereby mobile blue water contributes to groundwater recharge and streamflow generation whereas less mobile green water held in the soil is taken up and transpired by vegetation. This study examines the potential for ecohydrological separation in a northern mixed forest in Ontario, Canada. Stable isotopic compositions of gross precipitation, bulk soil water and xylem water were measured throughout the 2016 growing season for four species: eastern white cedar, eastern hemlock, red oak and eastern white pine. Near-bole soil water contents and mobile soil water isotopic compositions were measured for the last three species. Mobile soil water did not deviate significantly from the local meteoric water line (LMWL); in contrast, both bulk soil water and xylem water deviated significantly from the LMWL, with xylem water significantly depleted in 18O and particularly 2H relative to bulk soil water. Near-surface bulk soil water experienced evaporative enrichment from pre-leaf out to peak leaf out under all tree canopies. There were inter-species differences in displacement of xylem water isotopic compositions from the LMWL and their temporal changes during the growing season, with those of coniferous species becoming isotopically enriched while those of red oak became more depleted in 2H and 18O. These divergences occurred despite thin soil cover (generally

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    Authors: Kaandorp, Vince P.; Broers, Hans Peter; Velde, Ype; Rozemeijer, Joachim; +1 Authors

    Surface waters are under pressure from diffuse pollution from agricultural activities, and groundwater is known to be a connection between the agricultural fields and streams. This paper is one of the first to calculate long-term in-stream concentrations of tritium, chloride, and nitrate using dynamic groundwater travel time distributions (TTDs) derived from a distributed, transient, 3D groundwater flow model using forward particle tracking. We tested our approach in the Springendalse Beek catchment, a lowland stream in the east of the Netherlands, for which we collected a long time series of chloride and nitrate concentrations (1969–2018). The Netherlands experienced a sharp decrease in concentrations of solutes leaching to groundwater in the 1980s due to legislations on the application of nitrogen to agricultural fields. Stream measurements of chloride and nitrate showed that the corresponding trend reversal in the groundwater-fed stream occurred after a time lag of 5–10 years. By combining calculated TTDs with the known history of nitrogen and chloride inputs, we found that the variable contribution of different groundwater flow paths to stream water quality reasonably explained the majority of long-term and seasonal variation in the measured stream nitrate concentrations. However, combining only TTDs and inputs underestimated the time lag between the peak in nitrogen input and the following trend reversal of nitrate in the stream. This feature was further investigated through an exploration of the model behaviour under different scenarios. A time lag of several years, and up to decades, can occur due to (1) a thick unsaturated zone adding a certain travel time, (2) persistent organic matter with a slow release of N in the unsaturated zone, (3) a long mean travel time (MTT) compared to the rate of the reduction in nitrogen application, (4) areas with a high application of nitrogen (agricultural fields) being located further away from the stream or drainage network, or (5) a higher presence of nitrate attenuating processes close to the stream or drainage network compared to the rest of the catchment. By making the connection between dynamic groundwater travel time distributions and in-stream concentration measurements, we provide a method for validating the travel time approach and make the step towards application in water quality modelling and management.

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    Authors: Ferri, Michele; Wehn, Uta; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen;

    Citizen observatories are a relatively recent form of citizen science, which involve citizens in making environmental observations over a period of time. These observations can help to inform the decision making of local authorities and other stakeholders, creating a platform for two-way interaction between citizens and public agencies. Although citizen observatories can clearly generate many different benefits, they also have an associated cost. There are currently no examples of quantifying the costs and benefits of citizen observatories in the literature, yet this type of analysis is critical if there is to be real uptake of citizen observatories by public agencies more generally. This paper presents and applies a generic methodology for capturing the value of a citizen observatory for flood risk reduction in the Brenta-Bacchiglione catchment using a cost-benefit analysis. The results show that the benefits of implementing a citizen observatory approach outweigh the costs by approximately 2 to 1 and can reduce the annual expected damage to a greater degree than a much more costly structural approach.

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    Copernicus Publications
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