search
Include:
88 Research products, page 1 of 9

  • Other research products
  • 2013-2022
  • Open Access
  • Wellcome Trust
  • English

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Other research product . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Reis, Pedro;
    Publisher: SpringerOpen
    Country: Portugal
    Project: WT

    The exercise of Environmental Citizenship is strongly associated with a citizen’s capacity to act in society as an agent of change (ENEC 2018), and this depends on the development of a person’s willingness and competence for a critical, active and democratic engagement in preventing and solving environmental problems. There is a call for a citizenry that is well informed and empowered to take appropriate actions on the seriousness of the environmental problems affecting our world (Gray et al. 2009; Hodson 2003). However, many citizens do not feel empowered enough to participate in decision-making processes regarding socio-environmental issues, and, at the same time, the faith and trust in politicians have decreased, and political apathy is gaining ground (Hodson 2014). Throughout the past decade, the surge in authoritarian government practices, the failure of popular movements to replace undemocratic regimes and the increase in populist movements all over the world are fuelling concerns about a possible ‘democratic recession’ (Diamond 2015). Part of the success of this movement has been credited to the failures in mobilising young people’s political participation (Schulz et al. 2018; Jackson et al. 2016). Civic engagement depends on students and their ‘motivation to participate in civic activities, their confidence in the effectiveness of their participation, and their beliefs about their own capacity to become actively involved’ (Schulz et al. 2018, p. 72). Research shows that a student’s civic engagement can be supported and encouraged by school, with the help of (1) open school climates, (2) democratic structures within schools and (3) early opportunities for active participation, the promotion of students’ civic knowledge and the predisposition to engage in civic activities in the future (Schulz et al. 2018; Pancer 2015; Roth and Barton 2004). Therefore, education represents a key element in counteracting low levels of civic engagement among young people, namely, through the promotion of democratic activism (Hodson 2014).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wathuo, Miriam; Medley, Graham; Nokes, D. James; Munywoki, Patrick K.;
    Publisher: F1000Research
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT | Household transmission of... (090853), WT | Defining pathways of resp... (102975)

    Background: A better understanding of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemiology requires realistic estimates of RSV shedding patterns, quantities shed, and identification of the related underlying factors.\ud \ud Methods: RSV infection data arise from a cohort study of 47 households with 493 occupants, in coastal Kenya, during the 2009/2010 RSV season. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken every 3 to 4 days and screened for RSV using a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The amount of virus shed was quantified by calculating the ‘area under the curve’ using the trapezoidal rule applied to rescaled PCR cycle threshold output. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify correlates of amount of virus shed.\ud \ud Results: The median quantity of virus shed per infection episode was 29.4 (95% CI: 15.2, 54.2) log10 ribonucleic acid (RNA) copies. Young age (<1 year), presence of upper respiratory symptoms, intra-household acquisition of infection, an individual’s first infection episode in the RSV season, and having a co-infection of RSV group A and B were associated with increased amount of virus shed.\ud \ud Conclusions: The findings provide insight into which groups of individuals have higher potential for transmission, information which may be useful in designing RSV prevention strategies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Deans, Zandra C.; Costa, Jose Luis; Cree, Ian; Dequeker, Els; Edsjo, Anders; Henderson, Shirley; Hummel, Michael; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Loddo, Marco; Machado, Jose Carlos; +12 more
    Project: WT

    The clinical demand for mutation detection within multiple genes from a single tumour sample requires molecular diagnostic laboratories to develop rapid, high-throughput, highly sensitive, accurate and parallel testing within tight budget constraints. To meet this demand, many laboratories employ next-generation sequencing (NGS) based on small amplicons. Building on existing publications and general guidance for the clinical use of NGS and learnings from germline testing, the following guidelines establish consensus standards for somatic diagnostic testing, specifically for identifying and reporting mutations in solid tumours. These guidelines cover the testing strategy, implementation of testing within clinical service, sample requirements, data analysis and reporting of results. In conjunction with appropriate staff training and international standards for laboratory testing, these consensus standards for the use of NGS in molecular pathology of solid tumours will assist laboratories in implementing NGS in clinical services.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dijk, E.M.S.; Dimitropoulos, Harry; Iatropoulou, Katerina; Foufoulas, Ioannis;
    Publisher: OpenAIRE2020
    Project: WT , EC | OpenAIRE2020 (643410)

    This deliverable relates to the work carried out under task T8.3, “Research Impact Services”. The task’s focus is on the development of pilots with selected National funding agencies and infrastructure initiatives in order to serve them with the OpenAIRE research impact suite of services. A major service that OpenAIRE provides is the linking of research results to funding. Aside from importing the links from the repositories and journals, OpenAIRE designs, develops and enhances mining algorithms that identify and extract funding information from the text of scientific publications. With the help of NOADs we have initiated bi-lateral, often informal, collaborations with national funding agencies to facilitate mining extraction on their data. This is an on-going activity throughout the duration of the project. Currently the national funding agencies that we are working with are: FCT (Portugal), ARC (Australia), NHMRC (Australia), NSF & NIH (USA), SFI (Ireland), “Ministry of Science Education and Sport” & "Croatian Science Foundation” (Croatia), NWO (Netherlands), and DFG (Germany). This deliverable describes the nature of the data of the identified National funding agencies, as well as their export technologies, and provides the specification of the general-purpose OpenAIRE services required to support research impact measurements.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gaspar, Rui; Domingos, Samuel; Diniz, António M.; Falanga, Roberto;
    Publisher: IGI Global
    Country: Portugal
    Project: WT , FCT | UID/PSI/04810/2013 (UID/PSI/04810/2013)

    Non-adherence to health recommendations (e.g. medical prescriptions) presents potential costs for healthcare, which could be prevented or mitigated. This is often attributed to a person’s rational choice, to not adhere. However, this may also be determined by individual and contextual factors implied in the recommendations communication process. In accordance, this chapter focuses specifically on barriers to and facilitators of adherence to recommendations and engagement with the healthcare process, particularly concerning the communication between health professionals and patients. For this, the authors present examples of engagement increment through different degrees of participation, from a one-way/directive towards a two-way/engaging communication process. This focuses specifically on a vulnerable population group with increasing healthcare needs: older adults. Future possibilities for two-way engaging communications are discussed, aimed at promoting increased adherence to health recommendations and people’s self-regulation of their own health.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marks, Sarah;
    Publisher: SAGE
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT

    This article will briefly explore some of the ways in which the past has been used as a means to talk about psychotherapy as a practice and as a profession, its impact on individuals and society, and the ethical debates at stake. It will show how, despite the multiple and competing claims about psychotherapy’s history and its meanings, historians themselves have, to a large degree, not attended to the intellectual and cultural development of many therapeutic approaches. This absence has the potential consequence of implying that therapies have emerged as value-free techniques, outside of a social, economic and political context. The relative neglect of psychotherapy, by contrast with the attention historians have paid to other professions, particularly psychiatry, has also underplayed its societal impact. This article will foreground some of the instances where psychotherapy has become an object of emerging historical interest, including the new research that forms the substance of this special issue of History of the Human Sciences.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Scholtens, Salome; Postma, Dirkje S.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Panasevich, Sviatlana; Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A. John; Melen, Erik; Nyberg, Fredrik; Pershagen, Goeran; Jarvis, Deborah; +44 more
    Project: WT | A second-generation genom... (084703)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Semedo, Carla Alexandra Gonçalves;
    Country: Portugal
    Project: WT

    Tomografia por Emissão de Positrões (PET, do Inglês Positron Emission Tomography) é uma técnica de medicina nuclear que se baseia no uso de radiofármacos, permitindo o estudo de mecanismos metabólicos. Os radionuclídeos emitem positrões no decorrer do tempo, os quais definem uma determinada trajectória até se aniquilarem com os electrões presentes no meio, originando dois fotões com 511 keV de energia que serão detectados pelo sistema de PET. Assim, é possível a obtenção de imagens funcionais para fins de diagnóstico de diversas patologias. Todavia, as imagens de PET são caracterizadas por uma baixa resolução espacial em virtude de vários factores: - Alcance dos positrões; - Efeito de Compton que corresponde à deflexão na trajectória dos fotões; - Atenuação dos fotões gama; - Movimento do paciente, batimento cardíaco e respiração. Todos estes factores são responsáveis pela ocorrência de PVEs (do Inglês, Partial Volume Effects) que corresponde à perda de detalhe e/ou aparente actividade em pequenos objectos ou regiões nas imagens médicas. De forma a minimizar o impacto de PVEs na qualidade das imagens de PET, vários procedimentos designados de PVC (do Inglês, Partial Volume Correction) têm sido desenvolvidos. Por outro lado, cada técnica de imagiologia permite a obtenção de imagens funcionais e/ou anatómicas para aplicações bem específicas, contudo todas elas apresentam limitações. Neste contexto, imagiologia por intermédio de agentes bi- ou multimodais surgiu como meio de estudo dos processos biológicos para fins de investigação, diagnóstico e terapia, uma vez que as potencialidades de várias técnicas de imagiologia são exploradas em um único agente, garantindo a obtenção de dados mais precisos. Tendo em conta a baixa resolução das imagens de PET e as vantagens dos agentes bimodais, este projecto teve como objectivo avaliar a associação de nanopartículas detectáveis por PET e Ressonância Magnética (MRI, do Inglês Magnetic Resonance Imaging) e procedimentos de PVC para melhorar a qualidade das imagens de PET. Mais especificamente, como base deste projecto foram utilizadas nanopartículas SPIO (Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide) associadas a Fl_uor-18 (18F) e o método de PVC denominado SFSRR (Structural and Functional Information for Resolution Recovery). SFSRR foi seleccionado como método de PVC a utilizar neste projecto, uma vez que este procedimento já demonstrou resultados promissores em estudos neurológicos de PET quando comparado com outras metodologias standard de PVC, nomeadamente as técnicas de deconvolução van Cittert e Lucy-Richardson e o procedimento GTM (Geometrix Transfer Matrix). [32, 67, 68]. A realização deste projecto envolveu quatro fases: (i) realização de uma simulação para entendimento do funcionamento do método de SFSRR; (ii) aquisição de imagens de PET e MRI de um fantoma utilizando um scanner nanoPET/MRI; (iii) definição de um protocolo para processamento dos dados de fantoma e (iv) aplicação do procedimento SFSRR a dados simulados e de fantoma. O Capítulo 2 inicia-se com a apresentação dos princípios básicos de PET, dando especial ^enfase aos factores que afectam a qualidade das imagens desta técnica (Secção 2.1.3). Por sua vez, são abordados os conceitos relacionados com sistemas PET/MRI, agentes de contraste detectáveis por PET e MRI e por fim PVC. No Capítulo 3 é descrito o trabalho desenvolvido no decorrer deste projecto, mais especificamente a simulação realizada, estratégias seguidas para processamento dos dados de fantoma e por fim a aplicação do método SFSRR a dados simulados e de fantoma. A simulação realizada consistiu em um quadrado cujos voxéis possuíam a mesma intensidade 1000 e no exterior 0. Para recriar a baixa resolução espacial de PET um filtro Gaussiano foi aplicado, resultando num dos ficheiros de entrada do método SFSRR denominado PET data. Os outros dois ficheiros de entrada foram obtidos: (i) ao estimar-se a média dos vóxeis situados no interior do quadrado em PET data, originando Segmented PET data e (ii) aplicação de um filtro Gaussiano a Segmented PET data resultando no último ficheiro de entrada designado Smoothed Segmented PET data. Estes três ficheiros foram considerados para efectuar a melhoria de qualidade de PET data. Em termos dos dados reais, os três principais objectivos estudados foram: - Verificar como o tamanho do objecto influência a PVC efectuada; - Analisar a eficiência do procedimento de SFSRR quando várias concentrações de nanopartículas e 18F são utilizadas; - Examinar como a filtragem afecta os resultados obtidos com o método SFSRR. Assim, um Cucumis sativus (pepino) foi utilizado como fantoma no qual no seu interior continha doze tubos com três possíveis diâmetros, com o intuito de explorar a relação entre a dimensão do objecto e PVC: - Tubo pequeno - 0.5 mm de diâmetro; - Tubo médio - 1 mm de diâmetro; - Tubo grande - 1.5 mm de diâmetro. Todos os tubos possuíam soluções de nanopartículas associadas a Fluór-18, com excepção de dois que continham água, solução a considerar como referência. Tal visou estudar como é que a concentração de radioisótopo e nanopartículas influencia os resultados de PVC. O último aspecto analisado foi como a filtragem está relacionada com a melhoria da qualidade das imagens de PET. Para tal, valores distintos de filtragem foram utilizados num dos ficheiros de entrada do procedimento de SFSRR, mais especificamente Smoothed Segmented PET. Os dados reais foram adquiridos ao realizar-se um exame simultâneo de PETMRI durante 63 minutos em um scanner Mediso nanoPET/MRI. Imagens ponderadas em T2 foram obtidas de forma a explorar a capacidade de contraste por T2 das nanopartículas SPIO, possibilitando determinar a exacta localização espacial dos doze tubos. Por outro lado, as imagens de PET permitiram inferir a actividade de 18F existente em cada um dos tubos. O método de SFSRR foi desenvolvido de forma a ser aplicado em imagens neurológicas de PET, sendo que o procedimento inclui uma estratégia para processamento dos dados de PET e MRI antes de efectuar-se a melhoria das imagens de PET. Todavia, uma vez que neste projecto foram utilizados dados de fantoma, uma das etapas do trabalho desenvolvido consistiu na definição de um protocolo de processamento dos dados. O protocolo de processamento definido incluiu três softwares: (i) VivoQuant; (ii) Fiji e (iii) MATLAB. VivoQuant automaticamente altera as dimensões e tamanho dos vóxeis dos dados de PET, de forma a coincidir com as características da imagem de referência, neste caso MRI. Igualmente, é possível reorientar os dados e realizar transformações espaciais com os dois tipos de dados presentes na mesma janela, minimizando a ocorrência de erros no decorrer desta etapa. Por outro lado, Fiji foi utilizado para desenhar áreas de interesse uma vez que este software possui uma grande variedade de formas e ferramentas para este efeito. Outra vantagem é a existência do plugin denominado MIJ que permite a leitura e troca de dados entre Fiji e MATLAB. Seguidamente, MATLAB foi seleccionado para: (i) aplicar uma máscara aos dados de PET com o intuito de seleccionar-se somente as contagens de PET situadas no interior dos tubos; (ii) estimação da média em cada tubo; (iii) filtragem dos dados e (iv) exportar dados no formato Analyze e tipo double. Assim, os três ficheiros de entrada do método SFSRR foram criados - PET, Segmented PET and Smoothed Segmented PET - e foi possível efectuar PVC do ficheiro PET. Os resultados obtidos e respectiva discussão são mencionados no Capítulo 4. A simulação realizada demonstrou que o procedimento de SFSRR levou a uma melhoria nos valores máximo e média de PET, em aproximadamente 6.8% e 10.3%. Igualmente, os dados simulados foram criados de tal forma que todas as fatias tivessem a mesma distribuição de intensidades, contudo a imagem obtida após a aplicação do método de SFSRR não apresenta esta uniformidade o qual não era esperado. O esclarecimento desta questão será alvo de estudo futuro. Seguidamente, o trabalho desenvolvido focou-se na análise de dados de fantoma. A existência de PVEs é mais significante para objectos de pequenas dimensões e na presença de maiores valores de filtragem. Os resultados obtidos com o fantoma revelaram maiores diferenças nas contagens de PET em tubos de menores dimensões contendo maiores concentrações de nanopartículas e 18F, assim como quando maiores valores de filtragem foram considerados. Além disso, nos outros dois tipos de tubos - médio e grande - as maiores melhorias nas contagens foram observadas para menores concentrações de SPIOs e 18F, bem como para valores superiores de filtragem. Por fim, conclusões e perspectivas futuras são apresentadas no Capítulo 5. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o procedimento de SFSRR é eficiente para minimizar a influência de PVEs nas imagens de PET. Todavia, é importante realçar que o procedimento SFSRR foi desenvolvido de forma a ser utilizado em estudos neurológicos de PET, pelo que os parâmetros existentes estão optimizados para esta aplicação. Assim, futuramente vários parâmetros terão de ser alterados com vista a que o método seja adaptado aos dados de fantoma utilizados no decorrer deste projecto. Igualmente, mais estudos com dados simulados e reais terão de ser efectuados para melhor entender-se os resultados iniciais. Positron emission tomography (PET) images are characterized by a low spatial resolution mainly due to: (i) radioisotopes' positron ranges; (ii) scatter; (iii) attenuation; (iv) parallax error or radial elongation and (v) motion. Due to these aspects, partial volume effects (PVEs) can occur which are characterized by loss of detail and/or apparent activity in small objects or regions at spatial and/or time levels. Partial Volume Correction (PVC) methodologies aim to minimize the impact of PVEs in PET images [4, 8, 73]. Also, dual- or multi-modality imaging arise from the combination of two or more imaging techniques based on the use of multi-modal probes, ensuring a better visualization of biological processes and acquisition of more accurate data. In this context, this project aimed to evaluate the potential of combining PET/MRI nanoprobes and PVC procedures for improving the quality of PET images. More specifically, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles combined to 18F radioisotope and the PVC method named SFSRR (Structural and Functional Information for Resolution Recovery) were used as basis of the work developed in this project [32, 67, 68]. The simulation study performed showed that the SFSRR procedure led to an average improvement of 6.8% in maximum and 10.3% in mean values. Additionally, the tracer's activity distribution was equivalent in all slices of each input data, however this uniformity was not observed in recovered data. Thus, this aspect will be clarified in future work. PVEs are more significant for smaller objects and greater smoothing values. Phantom data results demonstrated larger uptake differences in small tubes containing a higher concentration of SPIOS-18F and for greater smoothing values. In contrast, higher quantification deviations in medium and big tubes were detected for lower isotopes' concentrations and greater smoothing values, especially in medium tubes. The results obtained showed that the SFSRR procedure is efficient for minimizing the influence of PVEs in PET images. Nevertheless, further experiments are required for better understanding the initial results. Tese de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biomédica e Biofísica, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2014

  • Other research product . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Singh, Satwant;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT

    The theme of this contextual statement is Hoarding Disorder (HD), which can be defined as a failure to discard possessions, which may be useless or of little value, resulting in excessive clutter that precludes activities for which the living space was originally intended. Individuals with HD have a strong emotional and sentimental attachment to these items resulting in the experience or perceived high levels of distress at the thought of discarding them.\ud \ud Hoarding disorder is a relatively new disorder. Within this contextual statement, I will demonstrate how I contributed to the increased awareness and understanding of this disorder in the United Kingdom in four key areas outlined below which is the basis of the public works that are being presented for consideration of the award Doctorate in Psychotherapy by Public Works:\ud \ud • RAISING AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING\ud As a relatively new disorder, there has been a lack of understanding and awareness of this condition across the professional domains. I have been involved in raising the understanding and awareness of HD and its impact on the individuals, community, environment and professions through radio interviews, teaching and training and providing consultations to individuals, professionals and organisations. This has also influenced and contributed to the development of protocols for engaging those who have hoarding issues.\ud \ud • RESEARCH COLLABORATION\ud My personal experiences of providing therapy, observations, reflections and reflexivity led me to undertake private and collaborative research with a range of professionals and variety of fields to improve understanding of the disorder.\ud This collaborative work has helped develop innovative and creative interventions that led to the development of the London Hoarding Treatment Group model.\ud \ud • DISSEMINATION\ud As part of good practice and to improve the quality of life for individuals who engage in hoarding behaviours I have been actively disseminating research findings, treatment practices through teaching and training, while presenting at national and international conferences and peer review journal publications. I have contributing to the field by offering expertise, knowledge and skills by undertaking professional reviews for professional journals for academic articles submitted for publications.\ud \ud • TREATMENT MODEL\ud The impact of my personal experiences of providing treatment, undertaking both private and collaborative research, developing creative and innovative interventions has led to the development of the London Hoarding Treatment Group model. There have been a number of self-help books published on HD. This treatment model has been published as the UK’s first self-help book titled Overcoming Hoarding and led to the development of the smart phone app titled Reclaim your space and life.\ud \ud Part 1 contains a summary of the Public Works, a timeline, an introduction to HD, and the practice of engagement in narrative inquiry and reflexivity on which I based my personal and professional development in relation to my professional practice and in the development of my interest in HD. \ud \ud Part 2 describes the Public Works, the knowledge and skills, collaborative work and challenges faced and achievements in the development of the works, and how I have applied them in the development of my influence in increasing the awareness and treatment of HD and the impact it has had on the field. I will draw on the work I have produced in relation to HD between the periods of 2011 to 2016. I will refer to my earlier works in Part 1 between 2004 and 2010 to set the context, demonstrate my interest in HD and the journey of my personal and professional development in this field. I will conclude with a critical reflection on the development of awareness, understanding, and treatment for HD and outline future development in this area.\ud \ud Part 3 contains examples of the Public Works and supporting evidence.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kaye, TL; West, NP; Jayne, DJ; Tolan, DJ;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT
Send a message
How can we help?
We usually respond in a few hours.