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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Madan, Christopher R.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Human N...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Human N...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dhami, Harjit;

    This report outlines the design and testing of an olfactory stimulus in an fMRI setting. The goal of this project was to create a device that would be both cost effective and compatible with an extremely unique environment. The sense of smell provides a unique challenge for scientists. Because of most of the processing goes on in the deeper centers of the brain, it can be often hard to image. Another issue with the study of olfaction is the actual delivery of the odour. This problem is what our device was designed to solve. We went through many prototypes which had several drawbacks, whether they were price or compatibility. In the end we decided to go with a device that was pneumatically controlled and involved the use of a Laerdal mask. This device provided an air tight mechanism to deliver smell into the MRI environment, without having to worry about passing signals in and out, which can be challenging. The system was fairly simple but proved very effective. The overall result was activation seen in expected regions of the brain.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MacSpherearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MacSphere
    2010
    Data sources: MacSphere
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Canada Research
    Other ORP type . 2010
    Data sources: Canada Research
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ MacSpherearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MacSphere
      2010
      Data sources: MacSphere
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Canada Research
      Other ORP type . 2010
      Data sources: Canada Research
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mingasson, Tom; Duval, Tanguy; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien;

    HIGHLIGHTS AxonPacking: Open-source software for simulating white matter microstructure.Validation on a theoretical disk packing problem.Reproducible and stable for various densities and diameter distributions.Can be used to study interplay between myelin/fiber density and restricted fraction.Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can provide parameters that describe white matter microstructure, such as the fiber volume fraction (FVF), the myelin volume fraction (MVF) or the axon volume fraction (AVF) via the fraction of restricted water (fr). While already being used for clinical application, the complex interplay between these parameters requires thorough validation via simulations. These simulations required a realistic, controlled and adaptable model of the white matter axons with the surrounding myelin sheath. While there already exist useful algorithms to perform this task, none of them combine optimisation of axon packing, presence of myelin sheath and availability as free and open source software. Here, we introduce a novel disk packing algorithm that addresses these issues. The performance of the algorithm is tested in term of reproducibility over 50 runs, resulting density, and stability over iterations. This tool was then used to derive multiple values of FVF and to study the impact of this parameter on fr and MVF in light of the known microstructure based on histology sample. The standard deviation of the axon density over runs was lower than 10−3 and the expected hexagonal packing for monodisperse disks was obtained with a density close to the optimal density (obtained: 0.892, theoretical: 0.907). Using an FVF ranging within [0.58, 0.82] and a mean inter-axon gap ranging within [0.1, 1.1] μm, MVF ranged within [0.32, 0.44] and fr ranged within [0.39, 0.71], which is consistent with the histology. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the open-source software AxonPacking (https://github.com/neuropoly/axonpacking) and can be useful for validating diffusion models as well as for enabling researchers to study the interplay between microstructure parameters when evaluating qMRI methods.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neuroin...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ezekpo,Ashley;

    This paper serves to understand if there can be a difference in the brain activity of a professional dancer and an unprofessional dancer. First, a general comparison is made between music and dance to show how they are related and why dance is associated with music often. Secondly, the relationship between brain activity and music will be discussed, and then the relationship between Dance and brain activity are broken down into three subtopics: timing, rhythm, and spatial organization in order to explain why people dance and how dance can be a sequentially planned series of movement. To conclude the research, music, dance, and brain activity are related altogether to different brain regions to understand why dance occurs and how its subsequent movements occur. Listening to music requires at least three basic motor control functions: timing, sequencing, and spatial organisation of movement. These functions mediate complex behaviors controlled and interpreted by several cortical regions, subcortical regions, motor areas, and most importantly, mirror neurons by converting incoming sensory information into motor instructions and actions.

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    https://doi.org/10.7939/r3-mbs...
    Other ORP type . 2015
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.7939/r3-mbs...
      Other ORP type . 2015
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Boutin, Hervé; Crossman, David; Smigova, Alison; Drake, Caroline; +22 Authors

    Chronic systemic inflammatory conditions, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity are associated with increased risk of stroke, which suggests that systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of stroke in humans. The hypothesis that systemic inflammation may induce brain pathology can be tested in animals, and this was the key objective of the present study. First, we assessed inflammatory changes in the brain in rodent models of chronic, systemic inflammation. PET imaging revealed increased microglia activation in the brain of JCR-LA (corpulent) rats, which develop atherosclerosis and obesity, compared to the control lean strain. Immunostaining against Iba1 confirmed reactive microgliosis in these animals. An atherogenic diet in apolipoprotein E knock-out (ApoE−/−) mice induced microglial activation in the brain parenchyma within 8 weeks and increased expression of vascular adhesion molecules. Focal lipid deposition and neuroinflammation in periventricular and cortical areas and profound recruitment of activated myeloid phagocytes, T cells and granulocytes into the choroid plexus were also observed. In a small, preliminary study, patients at risk of stroke (multiple risk factors for stroke, with chronically elevated C-reactive protein, but negative MRI for brain pathology) exhibited increased inflammation in the brain, as indicated by PET imaging. These findings show that brain inflammation occurs in animals, and tentatively in humans, harbouring risk factors for stroke associated with elevated systemic inflammation. Thus a “primed” inflammatory environment in the brain may exist in individuals at risk of stroke and this can be adequately recapitulated in appropriate co-morbid animal models.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Combrisson, Etienne; Vallat, Raphael; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; O'Reilly, Christian; +4 Authors

    We introduce Sleep, a new Python open-source graphical user interface (GUI) dedicated to visualization, scoring and analyses of sleep data. Among its most prominent features are: (1) Dynamic display of polysomnographic data, spectrogram, hypnogram and topographic maps with several customizable parameters, (2) Implementation of several automatic detection of sleep features such as spindles, K-complexes, slow waves, and rapid eye movements (REM), (3) Implementation of practical signal processing tools such as re-referencing or filtering, and (4) Display of main descriptive statistics including publication-ready tables and figures. The software package supports loading and reading raw EEG data from standard file formats such as European Data Format, in addition to a range of commercial data formats. Most importantly, Sleep is built on top of the VisPy library, which provides GPU-based fast and high-level visualization. As a result, it is capable of efficiently handling and displaying large sleep datasets. Sleep is freely available (http://visbrain.org/sleep) and comes with sample datasets and an extensive documentation. Novel functionalities will continue to be added and open-science community efforts are expected to enhance the capacities of this module.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neuroin...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tremblay, Pascale; Gagnon, Lydia; Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Arseneault, Alison;

    Purpose: Amateur singing is a universal, accessible, and enjoyable musical activity that may have positive impacts on human communication. However, evidence of an impact of singing on speech articulation is still scarce, yet, understanding the effects of vocal training on speech production could provide a model for treating people with speech deficits. The aim of this study was to examine speech production in younger and older adults with or without amateur singing experience. Method: 38 amateur singers (aged 20–87 years, 23 females) and 40 non-musician controls (aged 23–88 years, 19 females) were recruited. A set of tasks were used to evaluate the oral motor sphere: two voice production tasks, a passage reading task and a modified diadochokinetic rates task (DDK) performed at a natural rhythm and as fast as possible. Results: Our results show that older age was associated with lower reading rate, lower articulation rate and articulation rate variability in the DDK task, as well as reduced accuracy for the phonologically complex stimuli. Most importantly, our results show an advantage for singers over cognitively active non-singers in terms of articulatory accuracy in the most challenging situations. Conclusions: This result suggests extended maximal performance capacities in amateur singers perhaps resulting from the articulatory efforts required during singing.

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    CorpusUL
    Other ORP type . 2023
    Data sources: CorpusUL
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      CorpusUL
      Other ORP type . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aparajita Rahman; Eden Redman; Avary Kostiw; Jacqueline Cummine;

    Koalacademy is a language learning tool predicated on the subsequent memory effect (SME), which differentiates the brain activity between the successful or unsuccessful encoding of a studied word to memory, relaying this information back to the user in real- time. We take advantage of the SME in confirming or denying the encoding of words during the process of studying them, allowing for selective repetition of poorly studied words, thus improving the success-rate of learning. The present study is focussed on validating the underlying framework of Koalacademy, a scalable Brain Computer Interface (BCI) platform that is able to present stimuli and stream brain data in a timely fashion comparable to other traditionally validated means of obtaining electroencephalography (EEG) data from BCI headsets. The present study utilizes a comparison oddball task. We have two conditions, including a control condition using a single board computer—which brain data is streamed to and is triggered via a light sensor at the onset of stimulus on the Koalacademy platform—, and an experimental condition consisting of brain data streaming and triggered through Koalacademy. The present study is the first of two, while the latter aims to validate whether a cloud trained machine learning model based on data collected through Koalacademy is able to successfully predict subsequent recall in real-time.

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    Authors: Lewis, John D.;

    Across species, increases in white matter volume outpace increases in gray-matter volume, but increases in gray- matter volume outpace increases in the size of the corpus callosum. This dissertation explores the hypothesis that this hyposcaling of the callosum stems from the impact of the conduction delays and cellular costs of the long- distance connections on normal developmental mechanisms. Neuroanatomy research to date has only indirectly examined this relation, using measures such as brain volume. The research in this dissertation uses diffusion tensor imaging to more directly measure the relation between the length of the interhemispheric connections and the degree of connectivity -- the ratio of between-area connections to total projection neurons in the areas connected. Using tractography to detail the patterns of interhemispheric connectivity and to determine the length of the connections, and formulae based on histological results to estimate degree of connectivity, we show that, across normal young adult males, connection length is significantly negatively correlated with degree of connectivity in the anterior, posterior, and body of the callosum. Using the same methodology, in typically developing boys a significant relation between connection length and degree of connectivity was found only in the posterior of the callosum. The combined results indicate that the relation between connection length and degree of connectivity develops during childhood and adolescence. Children with autism are known to have enlarged brains during the first years of life. This is predicted to lead to decreased long-distance connectivity. To explore this prediction, neural networks which modeled inter- hemispheric interaction were grown at the rate of either typically developing children or children with autism. By 2 years of simulated age, the networks that modeled autistic growth showed a reduced reliance on long-distance connections, performance reductions, and reductions in structural connectivity. Using the same methodology as with the adults and children, the relation between connection length and degree of connectivity in adults with autism was examined. Connection length and degree of connectivity showed the typical negative relation, but with a reduced degree of connectivity in anterior regions -- the locus of development during the period of maximal brain overgrowth, and where axon diameters are smallest

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    Authors: Pauline Usuanlele; Dr Allen Chan; Landon Fuhr; Ryan Zahacy;
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    Authors: Madan, Christopher R.;
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    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Dhami, Harjit;

    This report outlines the design and testing of an olfactory stimulus in an fMRI setting. The goal of this project was to create a device that would be both cost effective and compatible with an extremely unique environment. The sense of smell provides a unique challenge for scientists. Because of most of the processing goes on in the deeper centers of the brain, it can be often hard to image. Another issue with the study of olfaction is the actual delivery of the odour. This problem is what our device was designed to solve. We went through many prototypes which had several drawbacks, whether they were price or compatibility. In the end we decided to go with a device that was pneumatically controlled and involved the use of a Laerdal mask. This device provided an air tight mechanism to deliver smell into the MRI environment, without having to worry about passing signals in and out, which can be challenging. The system was fairly simple but proved very effective. The overall result was activation seen in expected regions of the brain.

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    MacSphere
    2010
    Data sources: MacSphere
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    Canada Research
    Other ORP type . 2010
    Data sources: Canada Research
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      MacSphere
      2010
      Data sources: MacSphere
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      Canada Research
      Other ORP type . 2010
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    Authors: Mingasson, Tom; Duval, Tanguy; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien;

    HIGHLIGHTS AxonPacking: Open-source software for simulating white matter microstructure.Validation on a theoretical disk packing problem.Reproducible and stable for various densities and diameter distributions.Can be used to study interplay between myelin/fiber density and restricted fraction.Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can provide parameters that describe white matter microstructure, such as the fiber volume fraction (FVF), the myelin volume fraction (MVF) or the axon volume fraction (AVF) via the fraction of restricted water (fr). While already being used for clinical application, the complex interplay between these parameters requires thorough validation via simulations. These simulations required a realistic, controlled and adaptable model of the white matter axons with the surrounding myelin sheath. While there already exist useful algorithms to perform this task, none of them combine optimisation of axon packing, presence of myelin sheath and availability as free and open source software. Here, we introduce a novel disk packing algorithm that addresses these issues. The performance of the algorithm is tested in term of reproducibility over 50 runs, resulting density, and stability over iterations. This tool was then used to derive multiple values of FVF and to study the impact of this parameter on fr and MVF in light of the known microstructure based on histology sample. The standard deviation of the axon density over runs was lower than 10−3 and the expected hexagonal packing for monodisperse disks was obtained with a density close to the optimal density (obtained: 0.892, theoretical: 0.907). Using an FVF ranging within [0.58, 0.82] and a mean inter-axon gap ranging within [0.1, 1.1] μm, MVF ranged within [0.32, 0.44] and fr ranged within [0.39, 0.71], which is consistent with the histology. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the open-source software AxonPacking (https://github.com/neuropoly/axonpacking) and can be useful for validating diffusion models as well as for enabling researchers to study the interplay between microstructure parameters when evaluating qMRI methods.

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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Ezekpo,Ashley;

    This paper serves to understand if there can be a difference in the brain activity of a professional dancer and an unprofessional dancer. First, a general comparison is made between music and dance to show how they are related and why dance is associated with music often. Secondly, the relationship between brain activity and music will be discussed, and then the relationship between Dance and brain activity are broken down into three subtopics: timing, rhythm, and spatial organization in order to explain why people dance and how dance can be a sequentially planned series of movement. To conclude the research, music, dance, and brain activity are related altogether to different brain regions to understand why dance occurs and how its subsequent movements occur. Listening to music requires at least three basic motor control functions: timing, sequencing, and spatial organisation of movement. These functions mediate complex behaviors controlled and interpreted by several cortical regions, subcortical regions, motor areas, and most importantly, mirror neurons by converting incoming sensory information into motor instructions and actions.

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    https://doi.org/10.7939/r3-mbs...
    Other ORP type . 2015
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.7939/r3-mbs...
      Other ORP type . 2015
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    Authors: Boutin, Hervé; Crossman, David; Smigova, Alison; Drake, Caroline; +22 Authors

    Chronic systemic inflammatory conditions, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity are associated with increased risk of stroke, which suggests that systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of stroke in humans. The hypothesis that systemic inflammation may induce brain pathology can be tested in animals, and this was the key objective of the present study. First, we assessed inflammatory changes in the brain in rodent models of chronic, systemic inflammation. PET imaging revealed increased microglia activation in the brain of JCR-LA (corpulent) rats, which develop atherosclerosis and obesity, compared to the control lean strain. Immunostaining against Iba1 confirmed reactive microgliosis in these animals. An atherogenic diet in apolipoprotein E knock-out (ApoE−/−) mice induced microglial activation in the brain parenchyma within 8 weeks and increased expression of vascular adhesion molecules. Focal lipid deposition and neuroinflammation in periventricular and cortical areas and profound recruitment of activated myeloid phagocytes, T cells and granulocytes into the choroid plexus were also observed. In a small, preliminary study, patients at risk of stroke (multiple risk factors for stroke, with chronically elevated C-reactive protein, but negative MRI for brain pathology) exhibited increased inflammation in the brain, as indicated by PET imaging. These findings show that brain inflammation occurs in animals, and tentatively in humans, harbouring risk factors for stroke associated with elevated systemic inflammation. Thus a “primed” inflammatory environment in the brain may exist in individuals at risk of stroke and this can be adequately recapitulated in appropriate co-morbid animal models.

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    Authors: Combrisson, Etienne; Vallat, Raphael; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; O'Reilly, Christian; +4 Authors

    We introduce Sleep, a new Python open-source graphical user interface (GUI) dedicated to visualization, scoring and analyses of sleep data. Among its most prominent features are: (1) Dynamic display of polysomnographic data, spectrogram, hypnogram and topographic maps with several customizable parameters, (2) Implementation of several automatic detection of sleep features such as spindles, K-complexes, slow waves, and rapid eye movements (REM), (3) Implementation of practical signal processing tools such as re-referencing or filtering, and (4) Display of main descriptive statistics including publication-ready tables and figures. The software package supports loading and reading raw EEG data from standard file formats such as European Data Format, in addition to a range of commercial data formats. Most importantly, Sleep is built on top of the VisPy library, which provides GPU-based fast and high-level visualization. As a result, it is capable of efficiently handling and displaying large sleep datasets. Sleep is freely available (http://visbrain.org/sleep) and comes with sample datasets and an extensive documentation. Novel functionalities will continue to be added and open-science community efforts are expected to enhance the capacities of this module.

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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Tremblay, Pascale; Gagnon, Lydia; Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Arseneault, Alison;

    Purpose: Amateur singing is a universal, accessible, and enjoyable musical activity that may have positive impacts on human communication. However, evidence of an impact of singing on speech articulation is still scarce, yet, understanding the effects of vocal training on speech production could provide a model for treating people with speech deficits. The aim of this study was to examine speech production in younger and older adults with or without amateur singing experience. Method: 38 amateur singers (aged 20–87 years, 23 females) and 40 non-musician controls (aged 23–88 years, 19 females) were recruited. A set of tasks were used to evaluate the oral motor sphere: two voice production tasks, a passage reading task and a modified diadochokinetic rates task (DDK) performed at a natural rhythm and as fast as possible. Results: Our results show that older age was associated with lower reading rate, lower articulation rate and articulation rate variability in the DDK task, as well as reduced accuracy for the phonologically complex stimuli. Most importantly, our results show an advantage for singers over cognitively active non-singers in terms of articulatory accuracy in the most challenging situations. Conclusions: This result suggests extended maximal performance capacities in amateur singers perhaps resulting from the articulatory efforts required during singing.

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    CorpusUL
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    Authors: Aparajita Rahman; Eden Redman; Avary Kostiw; Jacqueline Cummine;

    Koalacademy is a language learning tool predicated on the subsequent memory effect (SME), which differentiates the brain activity between the successful or unsuccessful encoding of a studied word to memory, relaying this information back to the user in real- time. We take advantage of the SME in confirming or denying the encoding of words during the process of studying them, allowing for selective repetition of poorly studied words, thus improving the success-rate of learning. The present study is focussed on validating the underlying framework of Koalacademy, a scalable Brain Computer Interface (BCI) platform that is able to present stimuli and stream brain data in a timely fashion comparable to other traditionally validated means of obtaining electroencephalography (EEG) data from BCI headsets. The present study utilizes a comparison oddball task. We have two conditions, including a control condition using a single board computer—which brain data is streamed to and is triggered via a light sensor at the onset of stimulus on the Koalacademy platform—, and an experimental condition consisting of brain data streaming and triggered through Koalacademy. The present study is the first of two, while the latter aims to validate whether a cloud trained machine learning model based on data collected through Koalacademy is able to successfully predict subsequent recall in real-time.

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    Authors: Lewis, John D.;

    Across species, increases in white matter volume outpace increases in gray-matter volume, but increases in gray- matter volume outpace increases in the size of the corpus callosum. This dissertation explores the hypothesis that this hyposcaling of the callosum stems from the impact of the conduction delays and cellular costs of the long- distance connections on normal developmental mechanisms. Neuroanatomy research to date has only indirectly examined this relation, using measures such as brain volume. The research in this dissertation uses diffusion tensor imaging to more directly measure the relation between the length of the interhemispheric connections and the degree of connectivity -- the ratio of between-area connections to total projection neurons in the areas connected. Using tractography to detail the patterns of interhemispheric connectivity and to determine the length of the connections, and formulae based on histological results to estimate degree of connectivity, we show that, across normal young adult males, connection length is significantly negatively correlated with degree of connectivity in the anterior, posterior, and body of the callosum. Using the same methodology, in typically developing boys a significant relation between connection length and degree of connectivity was found only in the posterior of the callosum. The combined results indicate that the relation between connection length and degree of connectivity develops during childhood and adolescence. Children with autism are known to have enlarged brains during the first years of life. This is predicted to lead to decreased long-distance connectivity. To explore this prediction, neural networks which modeled inter- hemispheric interaction were grown at the rate of either typically developing children or children with autism. By 2 years of simulated age, the networks that modeled autistic growth showed a reduced reliance on long-distance connections, performance reductions, and reductions in structural connectivity. Using the same methodology as with the adults and children, the relation between connection length and degree of connectivity in adults with autism was examined. Connection length and degree of connectivity showed the typical negative relation, but with a reduced degree of connectivity in anterior regions -- the locus of development during the period of maximal brain overgrowth, and where axon diameters are smallest

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