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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2020
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: NeuroVault
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2020
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ziegler, Erik; Rouillard, Maud; André, Elodie; Coolen, Tim; +4 Authors

    Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach-track density imaging (TDI). Twenty-seven non-demented Parkinsons patients (mean disease duration: 5years, mean score on the Hoehn & Yahr scale=1.5) were compared with 26 elderly controls matched for age, sex, and education level. Track density images were created by sampling each subjects spatially normalized fiber tracks in 1mm isotropic intervals and counting the fibers that passed through each voxel. Whole-brain voxel-based analysis was performed and significance was assessed with permutation testing. Statistically significant increases in track density were found in the Parkinsons patients, relative to controls. Clusters were distributed in disease-relevant areas including motor, cognitive, and limbic networks. From the lower medulla to the diencephalon and striatum, clusters encompassed the known location of the locus coeruleus and pedunculopontine nucleus in the pons, and from the substantia nigra up to medial aspects of the posterior putamen, bilaterally. The results identified in brainstem and nigrostriatal pathways show a large overlap with the known distribution of neuropathological changes in non-demented PD patients. Our results also support an early involvement of limbic and cognitive networks in Parkinsons disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2014
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: NeuroVault
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2014
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Other ORP type . 2020
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Other ORP type . 2020
      Data sources: NARCIS
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shimada, Kazutake;

    The term neurosteroids applies to those steroids that are both synthesized in the nervous system, either de novo from cholesterol or from steroid hormone precursors, and that accumulate in the nervous system to levels that are at least in part independent of steroidogenic gland secretion rates. Neurosteroids consist of 17- or 20-oxosteroids and accumulate in the brain as unconjugated form and their sulfates, fatty acid esters and sulfolipid conjugates.The separation and characterization of pregennolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their 3-fatty acid esters (stearate, palmitate) in the brain are carried out using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS) operating in the positive ion mode. These obtained from rat brains were identified in comparison with their chromatographic behavior with authentic samples during LC/APCI-MS.Pregnenolone 3-sulfate in rat brains was also identified as above.The quantitative determination of pregnenolone in rat brains was done using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was applied to the determination of pregnenolone in rat brains, most of which showed lower amounts than that previously reported. 脳内ステロイドホルモンの化学構造は比較的簡単な17-又は20-オキソステロイドよりなることが知られている.しかし,遊離型のみならず硫酸あるいは脂肪酸抱合型などとしても存在し複雑であるとされているが,詳細については明らかでない.そこで,HPLC,LC/MSを駆使してラット脳を検索したところ,pregnenolone,dehydroepiandrosteroneの3-stearate,-palmitate(計4種)を同定することに成功した.また,脳内におけるpregnenolone,dehydroepiandrostrone,pregnenolone 3-sulfateの存在もLC/MSなどにより改めて確認した.この際,methyloxime誘導体へ導くことが,分子イオンピーク又は関連するピークの検出を容易とし,LC/MSでの同定上極めて有用なことも見出した.一方,定量法の開発は以下のようにして行った.測定法は簡便性を考慮して蛍光検出HPLCを,測定対象は脳内ステロイドホルモン中で最も多くを占めるとされているpregnenoloneを,蛍光誘導体化試薬には1-anthroylcyanideを選択した,確立した分析法を実試料(ラット脳)へ適用したところ,文献記載値(測定法はRIA又はGC/MS)と符合する個体も見られたが,著しい低値を示す個体もあり,大きな疑問を生じるに至った.この原因がサンプル採取上の問題によるのか,あるいは報告されている分析法に問題があるのかは明らかでないが,いずれにしてもその生理作用と共に解決されるべき重要な課題を提起したことになる.このように,本研究は今後の脳内ステロイドホルモンの研究に一つの方向を示唆したものとして評価される. 出典:研究課題「脳内ステロイドホルモン分析法の開発と脳機能解明への応用」課題番号08457594(KAKEN:科学研究費助成事業データベース(国立情報学研究所)) (https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/report/KAKENHI-PROJECT-08457594/084575941997kenkyu_seika_hokoku_gaiyo/)を加工して作成 研究課題/領域番号:08457594, 研究期間(年度):1996-1997 金沢大学自然科学研究科薬学系

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ JAIROarrow_drop_down
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    JAIRO
    1999
    Data sources: JAIRO
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ JAIROarrow_drop_down
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      JAIRO
      1999
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Villamor, Eduardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Alomar, Yaser Ibrahim; Passera, Sofia; +3 Authors

    Cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) represents the most commonly acquired lesion of the posterior fossa in the neonatal period. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies exploring the perinatal risk factors and neurological outcome of CBH in preterm infants. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if they examined preterm infants and reported primary data on maternal, obstetric, or perinatal characteristics, and/or outcomes of infants with and without CBH. A random-effects model was used to calculate mean differences (MD), odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found 231 potentially relevant studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria (4,236 infants, 347 CBH cases). Meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant association between CBH and multiple gestation, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, use of antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery, or infant sex. Infants with CBH had a significantly lower gestational age (6 studies, MD -1.55 weeks, 95% CI -1.93 to -1.16) and birth weight (6 studies, MD -173g, 95% CI -225 to -120), and significantly higher rates of intubation at birth, hypotension, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CBH was significantly associated with delayed mental (6 studies, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.20) and psychomotor (6 studies, OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.34 to 9.76) development, and higher rates of cerebral palsy (4 studies, OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.19). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis shows that the youngest and sickest preterm infants are at higher risk of developing CBH. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of CBH and reinforce the idea that cerebellar injury in very preterm newborns has important neurodevelopmental consequences among survivors.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Other ORP type . 2019
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Other ORP type . 2019
      Data sources: NARCIS
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kristinsson, Sigfús Helgi; Busby, Natalie; Rorden, Christopher; Newman-Norlund, Roger; +8 Authors

    The association between age and language recovery in stroke remains unclear. Here, we used neuroimaging data to estimate brain age, a measure of structural integrity, and examined the extent to which brain age at stroke onset is associated with (i) cross-sectional language performance, and (ii) longitudinal recovery of language function, beyond chronological age alone. A total of 49 participants (age: 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 25 female) underwent routine clinical neuroimaging (T1) and a bedside evaluation of language performance (Bedside Evaluation Screening Test-2) at onset of left hemisphere stroke. Brain age was estimated from enantiomorphically reconstructed brain scans using a machine learning algorithm trained on a large sample of healthy adults. A subsample of 30 participants returned for follow-up language assessments at least 2 years after stroke onset. To account for variability in age at stroke, we calculated proportional brain age difference, i.e. the proportional difference between brain age and chronological age. Multiple regression models were constructed to test the effects of proportional brain age difference on language outcomes. Lesion volume and chronological age were included as covariates in all models. Accelerated brain age compared with age was associated with worse overall aphasia severity (F(1, 48) = 5.65, P = 0.022), naming (F(1, 48) = 5.13, P = 0.028), and speech repetition (F(1, 48) = 8.49, P = 0.006) at stroke onset. Follow-up assessments were carried out ≥2 years after onset; decelerated brain age relative to age was significantly associated with reduced overall aphasia severity (F(1, 26) = 5.45, P = 0.028) and marginally failed to reach statistical significance for auditory comprehension (F(1, 26) = 2.87, P = 0.103). Proportional brain age difference was not found to be associated with changes in naming (F(1, 26) = 0.23, P = 0.880) and speech repetition (F(1, 26) = 0.00, P = 0.978). Chronological age was only associated with naming performance at stroke onset (F(1, 48) = 4.18, P = 0.047). These results indicate that brain age as estimated based on routine clinical brain scans may be a strong biomarker for language function and recovery after stroke. Funding Information: This study was supported by the following grant sponsors: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (P50 DC014664; DC008355); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NS054266). Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Opin visindiarrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Opin visindiarrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Dias, Lara Marlene Faria;

    A Sociedade Europeia de Pesquisa do Sono realizou muito recentemente um estudo, onde mostrou que a prevalência média de adormecimento ao volante nos últimos 2 anos foi de 17%. Além disto, tem sido provado por todo o mundo que a sonolência durante a condução é uma das principais causas de acidentes de trânsito. Torna-se assim conveniente, o desenvolvimento de sistemas que analisem a suscetibilidade de um determinado condutor para adormecer no trânsito, bem como de ferramentas que monitorem em tempo real o estado físico e mental do condutor, para alertarem nos momentos críticos. Apesar do estudo do sono se ter iniciado há vários anos, a maioria das investigações focaram-se no ciclo normal do sono, estudando os indivíduos de forma relaxada e de olhos fechados. Só mais recentemente, têm surgido os estudos que se focam nas situações de sonolência em atividade, como _e o caso da condução. Uma grande parte Dos estudos da sonolência em condução têm utilizado a eletroencefalografia (EEG), de forma a perceber se existem alterações nas diferentes bandas de frequência desta, que possam indicar o estado de sonolência do condutor. Além disso, a evolução da sonolência a partir de alterações no piscar dos olhos (que podem ser vistas nos sinais EEG) também tem sido alvo de grande pesquisa, tendo vindo a revelar resultados bastante promissores. Neste contexto e em parceria com a empresa HealthyRoad, esta tese está integrada no projeto HealthyDrive, que visa o desenvolvimento de um sistema de alerta e deteção de sinais de fadiga e sonolência nos condutores de veículos automóveis. A contribuição desta tese no projeto prendeu-se com o estudo da sonolência dos indivíduos em condução a partir de sinais EEG, para desta forma investigar possíveis indicadores dos diferentes níveis desta que possam ser utilizados pela empresa no projeto. Foram recolhidos e analisados 17 sinais EEG de indivíduos em simulação de condução. Além disso foram desenvolvidos dois métodos de análise destes sinais: O primeiro para a deteção e análise dos piscar de olhos a partir de EEG, o segundo para análise do espetro de potência. Ambos os métodos foram utilizados para analisar os sinais recolhidos e investigar que tipo de relação existe entre a sonolência do condutor e as alterações nos piscares dos olhos, bem como as alterações do espetro do EEG. Os resultados mostraram uma correlação entre a duração do piscar de olhos e a sonolência do condutor. Com o aumento da sonolência velicou-se um aumento da duração do piscar, desencadeado principalmente pelo aumento na duração de fecho, que chegou aos 51.2%. Em relação ao espectro de potência, os resultados sugerem que a potência relativa de todas as bandas analisadas fornecem informações relevantes sobre a sonolência do condutor. Além disso, o parâmetro (_+_)/_ demostrou estar relacionado com variações da sonolência, diminuindo com o seu avanço e aumentando significativamente (111%) no instante em que os condutores adormeceram. The European Society of Sleep Research recently conducted a study whose results howed that the average prevalence of prevalence of drowsiness in individuals during driving activities was 17% over the last two years. Similarly to this, several other studies showed that sleepiness during driving is one of the main causes of traffic accidents. Due to this fact, it is necessary the development of systems capable of analysing the susceptibility of a particular driver falling asleep in traffic. In addition, the creation of tools to monitor the physical and mental state of the driver in real time is faced as an essential point. Although the sleep study started several years ago, most in researches have focused on the normal sleep cycle by studying relaxed and closed eyes subjects. More recently, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on sleepiness situations in activity, such as driving. A large piece of the driving drowsiness studies have sed the electroencephalogram (EEG) to observe changes in its different frequency bands, indicating the driver drowsiness state. Moreover, the study of drowsiness from the variability of eye blinks which have shown a significant relationship with drowsiness, and can be observed in the EEG. In this context and in partnership with HealthyRoad Company, this thesis is integrated in the HealthyDrive project. The project seeks to develop a detection and alert system of the drivers fatigue and sleepiness. This work’s contribution to the HealthyDrive project is linked to the experimental study of the subjects’ drowsiness while driving simulations. The purpose is to determine possible indicators of the drowsiness levels that may be used posteriorly by the company. A set of experiments were conducted and 17 EEG signals were collected and analysed while driving simulations. In addition, two methods of EEG analysis were developed. The first was designed to detect and analyze the eye blink of the EEG data. The second was developed to analyze the EEG power spectrum. Both methods were used to analyze the collected signals and thereby to determine the relation between the driver’s drowsiness and the eye blink changes, as well as the EEG spectrum changes. The results show a high correlation between the eye blink measures and driver’s drowsiness. As the drowsiness increases it was observed an increase of the eye blink duration, mainly triggered by the increase in the eye closure duration which reached 51.2%. Regarding the power spectrum, the results suggest that the relative power of all analyzed bands give relevant information about the driver drowsiness. Furthermore, the ratio (θ+α)/β as shown to be intimately related to drowsiness variations, by decreasing with its advance and increasing significantly (111%) at the same time that drivers fall asleep.

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    Authors: Hartmann, Helena; Riva, Federica; Rütgen, Markus; Lamm, Claus;

    This collection contains the statistical maps of a picture-based empathy for pain task. We induced a localized, first-hand placebo analgesia effect in the right hand of 45 participants by means of a placebo gel and conditioning techniques, and compared this to the left hand as a control condition. Participants then underwent task in the MRI scanner, where they observed pictures of right vs. left hands in pain.

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2021
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      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2021
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    Authors: Landers, Maud; Sitskoorn, Margriet; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; +1 Authors

    Background: Over the past decade, the functional importance of white matter pathways has been increasingly acknowledged in neurosurgical planning. A method to directly study anatomo-functional correlations is direct electrical stimulation (DES). DES has been widely accepted by neurosurgeons as a reliable tool to minimize the occurrence of permanent postoperative motor, vision and language deficits. In recent years, DES has also been used for stimulation mapping of other cognitive functions, such as executive functions and visuospatial awareness. Methods: The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence so far from DES studies on subcortical pathways that are involved in visuospatial awareness and in the following three executive functions: (1) inhibitory control, (2) working memory and (3) cognitive flexibility. Results: Eleven articles reported on intraoperative electrical stimulation of white matter pathways to map the cognitive functions and explicitly clarified which subcortical tract was stimulated. The results indicate that the right SLF-II is involved in visuospatial awareness, the left SLF-III and possibly the right SLF-I are involved in working memory and the cingulum is involved in cognitive flexibility. Conclusions: We were unable to draw any more specific conclusions, nor unequivocally establish the critical involvement of pathways in executive functions or visuospatial awareness due to the heterogeneity of the study types and methods, and the limited number of studies that assessed these relationships. Possible approaches for future research to obtain converging and more definite evidence for the involvement of pathways in specific cognitive functions are discussed.

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    Authors: Fovet, Thomas; Orlov, Natasza; Dyck, Miriam; Allen, Paul; +2 Authors

    Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF). During fMRI-NF, brain activity is measured and fed back in real time to the participant in order to help subjects to progressively achieve voluntary control over their own neural activity. Precisely defining the target brain area/network(s) appears critical in fMRI-NF protocols. After reviewing the available neurocognitive models for AVHs, we elaborate on how recent findings in the field may help to develop strong a priori strategies for fMRI-NF target localization. The first approach relies on imaging-based “trait markers” (i.e., persistent traits or vulnerability markers that can also be detected in the presymptomatic and remitted phases of AVHs). The goal of such strategies is to target areas that show aberrant activations during AVHs or are known to be involved in compensatory activation (or resilience processes). Brain regions, from which the NF signal is derived, can be based on structural MRI and neurocognitive knowledge, or functional MRI information collected during specific cognitive tasks. Because hallucinations are acute and intrusive symptoms, a second strategy focuses more on “state markers.” In this case, the signal of interest relies on fMRI capture of the neural networks exhibiting increased activity during AVHs occurrences, by means of multivariate pattern recognition methods. The fine-grained activity patterns concomitant to hallucinations can then be fed back to the patients for therapeutic purpose. Considering the potential cost necessary to implement fMRI-NF, proof-of-concept studies are urgently required to define the optimal strategy for application in patients with AVHs. This technique has the potential to establish a new brain imaging-guided psychotherapy for patients that do not respond to conventional treatments and take functional neuroimaging to therapeutic applications.

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    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

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    NeuroVault
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      NeuroVault
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    Authors: Ziegler, Erik; Rouillard, Maud; André, Elodie; Coolen, Tim; +4 Authors

    Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach-track density imaging (TDI). Twenty-seven non-demented Parkinsons patients (mean disease duration: 5years, mean score on the Hoehn & Yahr scale=1.5) were compared with 26 elderly controls matched for age, sex, and education level. Track density images were created by sampling each subjects spatially normalized fiber tracks in 1mm isotropic intervals and counting the fibers that passed through each voxel. Whole-brain voxel-based analysis was performed and significance was assessed with permutation testing. Statistically significant increases in track density were found in the Parkinsons patients, relative to controls. Clusters were distributed in disease-relevant areas including motor, cognitive, and limbic networks. From the lower medulla to the diencephalon and striatum, clusters encompassed the known location of the locus coeruleus and pedunculopontine nucleus in the pons, and from the substantia nigra up to medial aspects of the posterior putamen, bilaterally. The results identified in brainstem and nigrostriatal pathways show a large overlap with the known distribution of neuropathological changes in non-demented PD patients. Our results also support an early involvement of limbic and cognitive networks in Parkinsons disease.

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2014
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      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2014
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    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

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    Authors: Shimada, Kazutake;

    The term neurosteroids applies to those steroids that are both synthesized in the nervous system, either de novo from cholesterol or from steroid hormone precursors, and that accumulate in the nervous system to levels that are at least in part independent of steroidogenic gland secretion rates. Neurosteroids consist of 17- or 20-oxosteroids and accumulate in the brain as unconjugated form and their sulfates, fatty acid esters and sulfolipid conjugates.The separation and characterization of pregennolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their 3-fatty acid esters (stearate, palmitate) in the brain are carried out using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS) operating in the positive ion mode. These obtained from rat brains were identified in comparison with their chromatographic behavior with authentic samples during LC/APCI-MS.Pregnenolone 3-sulfate in rat brains was also identified as above.The quantitative determination of pregnenolone in rat brains was done using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was applied to the determination of pregnenolone in rat brains, most of which showed lower amounts than that previously reported. 脳内ステロイドホルモンの化学構造は比較的簡単な17-又は20-オキソステロイドよりなることが知られている.しかし,遊離型のみならず硫酸あるいは脂肪酸抱合型などとしても存在し複雑であるとされているが,詳細については明らかでない.そこで,HPLC,LC/MSを駆使してラット脳を検索したところ,pregnenolone,dehydroepiandrosteroneの3-stearate,-palmitate(計4種)を同定することに成功した.また,脳内におけるpregnenolone,dehydroepiandrostrone,pregnenolone 3-sulfateの存在もLC/MSなどにより改めて確認した.この際,methyloxime誘導体へ導くことが,分子イオンピーク又は関連するピークの検出を容易とし,LC/MSでの同定上極めて有用なことも見出した.一方,定量法の開発は以下のようにして行った.測定法は簡便性を考慮して蛍光検出HPLCを,測定対象は脳内ステロイドホルモン中で最も多くを占めるとされているpregnenoloneを,蛍光誘導体化試薬には1-anthroylcyanideを選択した,確立した分析法を実試料(ラット脳)へ適用したところ,文献記載値(測定法はRIA又はGC/MS)と符合する個体も見られたが,著しい低値を示す個体もあり,大きな疑問を生じるに至った.この原因がサンプル採取上の問題によるのか,あるいは報告されている分析法に問題があるのかは明らかでないが,いずれにしてもその生理作用と共に解決されるべき重要な課題を提起したことになる.このように,本研究は今後の脳内ステロイドホルモンの研究に一つの方向を示唆したものとして評価される. 出典:研究課題「脳内ステロイドホルモン分析法の開発と脳機能解明への応用」課題番号08457594(KAKEN:科学研究費助成事業データベース(国立情報学研究所)) (https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/report/KAKENHI-PROJECT-08457594/084575941997kenkyu_seika_hokoku_gaiyo/)を加工して作成 研究課題/領域番号:08457594, 研究期間(年度):1996-1997 金沢大学自然科学研究科薬学系

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    JAIRO
    1999
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    Authors: Villamor, Eduardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Alomar, Yaser Ibrahim; Passera, Sofia; +3 Authors

    Cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) represents the most commonly acquired lesion of the posterior fossa in the neonatal period. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies exploring the perinatal risk factors and neurological outcome of CBH in preterm infants. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if they examined preterm infants and reported primary data on maternal, obstetric, or perinatal characteristics, and/or outcomes of infants with and without CBH. A random-effects model was used to calculate mean differences (MD), odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found 231 potentially relevant studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria (4,236 infants, 347 CBH cases). Meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant association between CBH and multiple gestation, chorioamnionitis, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, use of antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery, or infant sex. Infants with CBH had a significantly lower gestational age (6 studies, MD -1.55 weeks, 95% CI -1.93 to -1.16) and birth weight (6 studies, MD -173g, 95% CI -225 to -120), and significantly higher rates of intubation at birth, hypotension, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CBH was significantly associated with delayed mental (6 studies, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.20) and psychomotor (6 studies, OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.34 to 9.76) development, and higher rates of cerebral palsy (4 studies, OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.19). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis shows that the youngest and sickest preterm infants are at higher risk of developing CBH. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of CBH and reinforce the idea that cerebellar injury in very preterm newborns has important neurodevelopmental consequences among survivors.

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    Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Kristinsson, Sigfús Helgi; Busby, Natalie; Rorden, Christopher; Newman-Norlund, Roger; +8 Authors

    The association between age and language recovery in stroke remains unclear. Here, we used neuroimaging data to estimate brain age, a measure of structural integrity, and examined the extent to which brain age at stroke onset is associated with (i) cross-sectional language performance, and (ii) longitudinal recovery of language function, beyond chronological age alone. A total of 49 participants (age: 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 25 female) underwent routine clinical neuroimaging (T1) and a bedside evaluation of language performance (Bedside Evaluation Screening Test-2) at onset of left hemisphere stroke. Brain age was estimated from enantiomorphically reconstructed brain scans using a machine learning algorithm trained on a large sample of healthy adults. A subsample of 30 participants returned for follow-up language assessments at least 2 years after stroke onset. To account for variability in age at stroke, we calculated proportional brain age difference, i.e. the proportional difference between brain age and chronological age. Multiple regression models were constructed to test the effects of proportional brain age difference on language outcomes. Lesion volume and chronological age were included as covariates in all models. Accelerated brain age compared with age was associated with worse overall aphasia severity (F(1, 48) = 5.65, P = 0.022), naming (F(1, 48) = 5.13, P = 0.028), and speech repetition (F(1, 48) = 8.49, P = 0.006) at stroke onset. Follow-up assessments were carried out ≥2 years after onset; decelerated brain age relative to age was significantly associated with reduced overall aphasia severity (F(1, 26) = 5.45, P = 0.028) and marginally failed to reach statistical significance for auditory comprehension (F(1, 26) = 2.87, P = 0.103). Proportional brain age difference was not found to be associated with changes in naming (F(1, 26) = 0.23, P = 0.880) and speech repetition (F(1, 26) = 0.00, P = 0.978). Chronological age was only associated with naming performance at stroke onset (F(1, 48) = 4.18, P = 0.047). These results indicate that brain age as estimated based on routine clinical brain scans may be a strong biomarker for language function and recovery after stroke. Funding Information: This study was supported by the following grant sponsors: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (P50 DC014664; DC008355); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NS054266). Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Dias, Lara Marlene Faria;

    A Sociedade Europeia de Pesquisa do Sono realizou muito recentemente um estudo, onde mostrou que a prevalência média de adormecimento ao volante nos últimos 2 anos foi de 17%. Além disto, tem sido provado por todo o mundo que a sonolência durante a condução é uma das principais causas de acidentes de trânsito. Torna-se assim conveniente, o desenvolvimento de sistemas que analisem a suscetibilidade de um determinado condutor para adormecer no trânsito, bem como de ferramentas que monitorem em tempo real o estado físico e mental do condutor, para alertarem nos momentos críticos. Apesar do estudo do sono se ter iniciado há vários anos, a maioria das investigações focaram-se no ciclo normal do sono, estudando os indivíduos de forma relaxada e de olhos fechados. Só mais recentemente, têm surgido os estudos que se focam nas situações de sonolência em atividade, como _e o caso da condução. Uma grande parte Dos estudos da sonolência em condução têm utilizado a eletroencefalografia (EEG), de forma a perceber se existem alterações nas diferentes bandas de frequência desta, que possam indicar o estado de sonolência do condutor. Além disso, a evolução da sonolência a partir de alterações no piscar dos olhos (que podem ser vistas nos sinais EEG) também tem sido alvo de grande pesquisa, tendo vindo a revelar resultados bastante promissores. Neste contexto e em parceria com a empresa HealthyRoad, esta tese está integrada no projeto HealthyDrive, que visa o desenvolvimento de um sistema de alerta e deteção de sinais de fadiga e sonolência nos condutores de veículos automóveis. A contribuição desta tese no projeto prendeu-se com o estudo da sonolência dos indivíduos em condução a partir de sinais EEG, para desta forma investigar possíveis indicadores dos diferentes níveis desta que possam ser utilizados pela empresa no projeto. Foram recolhidos e analisados 17 sinais EEG de indivíduos em simulação de condução. Além disso foram desenvolvidos dois métodos de análise destes sinais: O primeiro para a deteção e análise dos piscar de olhos a partir de EEG, o segundo para análise do espetro de potência. Ambos os métodos foram utilizados para analisar os sinais recolhidos e investigar que tipo de relação existe entre a sonolência do condutor e as alterações nos piscares dos olhos, bem como as alterações do espetro do EEG. Os resultados mostraram uma correlação entre a duração do piscar de olhos e a sonolência do condutor. Com o aumento da sonolência velicou-se um aumento da duração do piscar, desencadeado principalmente pelo aumento na duração de fecho, que chegou aos 51.2%. Em relação ao espectro de potência, os resultados sugerem que a potência relativa de todas as bandas analisadas fornecem informações relevantes sobre a sonolência do condutor. Além disso, o parâmetro (_+_)/_ demostrou estar relacionado com variações da sonolência, diminuindo com o seu avanço e aumentando significativamente (111%) no instante em que os condutores adormeceram. The European Society of Sleep Research recently conducted a study whose results howed that the average prevalence of prevalence of drowsiness in individuals during driving activities was 17% over the last two years. Similarly to this, several other studies showed that sleepiness during driving is one of the main causes of traffic accidents. Due to this fact, it is necessary the development of systems capable of analysing the susceptibility of a particular driver falling asleep in traffic. In addition, the creation of tools to monitor the physical and mental state of the driver in real time is faced as an essential point. Although the sleep study started several years ago, most in researches have focused on the normal sleep cycle by studying relaxed and closed eyes subjects. More recently, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on sleepiness situations in activity, such as driving. A large piece of the driving drowsiness studies have sed the electroencephalogram (EEG) to observe changes in its different frequency bands, indicating the driver drowsiness state. Moreover, the study of drowsiness from the variability of eye blinks which have shown a significant relationship with drowsiness, and can be observed in the EEG. In this context and in partnership with HealthyRoad Company, this thesis is integrated in the HealthyDrive project. The project seeks to develop a detection and alert system of the drivers fatigue and sleepiness. This work’s contribution to the HealthyDrive project is linked to the experimental study of the subjects’ drowsiness while driving simulations. The purpose is to determine possible indicators of the drowsiness levels that may be used posteriorly by the company. A set of experiments were conducted and 17 EEG signals were collected and analysed while driving simulations. In addition, two methods of EEG analysis were developed. The first was designed to detect and analyze the eye blink of the EEG data. The second was developed to analyze the EEG power spectrum. Both methods were used to analyze the collected signals and thereby to determine the relation between the driver’s drowsiness and the eye blink changes, as well as the EEG spectrum changes. The results show a high correlation between the eye blink measures and driver’s drowsiness. As the drowsiness increases it was observed an increase of the eye blink duration, mainly triggered by the increase in the eye closure duration which reached 51.2%. Regarding the power spectrum, the results suggest that the relative power of all analyzed bands give relevant information about the driver drowsiness. Furthermore, the ratio (θ+α)/β as shown to be intimately related to drowsiness variations, by decreasing with its advance and increasing significantly (111%) at the same time that drivers fall asleep.

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    Authors: Hartmann, Helena; Riva, Federica; Rütgen, Markus; Lamm, Claus;

    This collection contains the statistical maps of a picture-based empathy for pain task. We induced a localized, first-hand placebo analgesia effect in the right hand of 45 participants by means of a placebo gel and conditioning techniques, and compared this to the left hand as a control condition. Participants then underwent task in the MRI scanner, where they observed pictures of right vs. left hands in pain.

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    Other ORP type . 2021
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      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2021
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    Authors: Landers, Maud; Sitskoorn, Margriet; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; +1 Authors

    Background: Over the past decade, the functional importance of white matter pathways has been increasingly acknowledged in neurosurgical planning. A method to directly study anatomo-functional correlations is direct electrical stimulation (DES). DES has been widely accepted by neurosurgeons as a reliable tool to minimize the occurrence of permanent postoperative motor, vision and language deficits. In recent years, DES has also been used for stimulation mapping of other cognitive functions, such as executive functions and visuospatial awareness. Methods: The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence so far from DES studies on subcortical pathways that are involved in visuospatial awareness and in the following three executive functions: (1) inhibitory control, (2) working memory and (3) cognitive flexibility. Results: Eleven articles reported on intraoperative electrical stimulation of white matter pathways to map the cognitive functions and explicitly clarified which subcortical tract was stimulated. The results indicate that the right SLF-II is involved in visuospatial awareness, the left SLF-III and possibly the right SLF-I are involved in working memory and the cingulum is involved in cognitive flexibility. Conclusions: We were unable to draw any more specific conclusions, nor unequivocally establish the critical involvement of pathways in executive functions or visuospatial awareness due to the heterogeneity of the study types and methods, and the limited number of studies that assessed these relationships. Possible approaches for future research to obtain converging and more definite evidence for the involvement of pathways in specific cognitive functions are discussed.