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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schlolaut, Gordon; Brauer, Achim; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Lamb, Henry F; Tyler, Jonathan J; Staff, Richard A; Marshall, Michael H; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Bryant, Charlotte L; Tarasov, Pavel E;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: UKRI | Lake Suigetsu varved sedi... (NE/F003048/1), UKRI | Pan-hemispheric synchrony... (NE/D000289/1)

    The Younger Dryas Stadial (YDS) was an episode of northern hemispheric cooling which occurred within the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT). A major driver for the YDS climate was a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). It has been inferred that the AMOC began to strengthen mid-YDS, producing a bipartite structure of the YDS in records from continental Europe. These records imply that the polar front and westerlies shifted northward, producing a warmer second phase of the YDS in Europe. Here we present multi-proxy data from the sediments of Lake Suigetsu (Japan), as evidence that a related bi-partition of the YDS also occurred in East Asia. Besides showing for the first time that the bi-partition was not limited to the North Atlantic/European region, the data also imply a climatic dipole between Europe and East Asia since the cold-warm characteristics are reversed at Lake Suigetsu. We suggest that changes in eastward moisture transport from the North Atlantic are the primary mechanism by which the teleconnection can be explained.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Felis, Thomas; McGregor, Helen V; Linsley, Braddock K; Tudhope, Alexander W; Gagan, Michael K; Suzuki, Atsushi; Inoue, Mayuri; Thomas, Alexander L; Esat, Tezer M; Thompson, William G; +5 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: UKRI | Sea level and climate cha... (NE/H014268/1), UKRI | The timing and amplitude ... (NE/H014136/1)

    Tropical south-western Pacific temperatures are of vital importance to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the growth of the GBR since the Last Glacial Maximum remains largely unknown. Here we present records of Sr/Ca and d18O for Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial corals that show a considerably steeper meridional SST gradient than the present day in the central GBR. We find a 1-2 °C larger temperature decrease between 17° and 20°S about 20,000 to 13,000 years ago. The result is best explained by the northward expansion of cooler subtropical waters due to a weakening of the South Pacific gyre and East Australian Current. Our findings indicate that the GBR experienced substantial meridional temperature change during the last deglaciation, and serve to explain anomalous deglacial drying of northeastern Australia. Overall, the GBR developed through significant SST change and may be more resilient than previously thought.

  • Other research product . Collection . 2021
    Authors: 
    Ahmed, Mohamed A. H.; Outhwaite, Benjamin;
    Publisher: Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | APCG (851411)
  • Other research product . Collection . 2019 . Embargo End Date: 22 Jan 2019
    Authors: 
    Li, W; Paulson, Lawrence;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Project: EC | ALEXANDRIA (742178)

    Many problems in computer algebra and numerical analysis can be reduced to counting or approximating the real roots of a polynomial within an interval. Existing verified root-counting procedures in major proof assistants are mainly based on the classical Sturm theorem, which only counts distinct roots. In this paper, we have strengthened the root-counting ability in Isabelle/HOL by first formally proving the Budan-Fourier theorem. Subsequently, based on Descartes' rule of signs and Taylor shift, we have provided a verified procedure to efficiently over-approximate the number of real roots within an interval, counting multiplicity. For counting multiple roots exactly, we have extended our previous formalisation of Sturm's theorem. Finally, we combine verified components in the developments above to improve our previous certified complex-root-counting procedures based on Cauchy indices. We believe those verified routines will be crucial for certifying programs and building tactics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Roberts, Jenny; Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Peck, Victoria L; Kender, Sev; Elderfield, Henry; Waelbroeck, Claire; Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Hodell, David A;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ACCLIMATE (339108), UKRI | The bi-polar seesaw and C... (NE/J010545/1), EC | NEWLOG (267931)

    Explanations of the glacial-interglacial variations in atmospheric pCO2 invoke a significant role for the deep ocean in the storage of CO2. Deep-ocean density stratification has been proposed as a mechanism to promote the storage of CO2 in the deep ocean during glacial times. A wealth of proxy data supports the presence of a "chemical divide" between intermediate and deep water in the glacial Atlantic Ocean, which indirectly points to an increase in deep-ocean density stratification. However, direct observational evidence of changes in the primary controls of ocean density stratification, i.e., temperature and salinity, remain scarce. Here, we use Mg/Ca-derived seawater temperature and salinity estimates determined from temperature-corrected d18O measurements on the benthic foraminifer Uvigerina spp. from deep and intermediate water-depth marine sediment cores to reconstruct the changes in density of sub-Antarctic South Atlantic water masses over the last deglaciation (i.e., 22-2 ka before present). We find that a major breakdown in the physical density stratification significantly lags the breakdown of the deep-intermediate chemical divide, as indicated by the chemical tracers of benthic foraminifer d13C and foraminifer/coral 14C. Our results indicate that chemical destratification likely resulted in the first rise in atmospheric pCO2, whereas the density destratification of the deep South Atlantic lags the second rise in atmospheric pCO2 during the late deglacial period. Our findings emphasize that the physical and chemical destratification of the ocean are not as tightly coupled as generally assumed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fox, Alan D.; Lea-Anne Henry; Corne, David W.; J. Murray Roberts;
    Publisher: Figshare
    Project: UKRI | Advanced environmental mo... (NE/M007235/1), EC | ATLAS (678760), UKRI | Where did all the CO2 go?... (NE/J021121/1)

    International efforts are underway to establish well-connected systems of marine protected areas (MPAs) covering at least 10% of the ocean by 2020. But the nature and dynamics of ocean ecosystem connectivity are poorly understood, with unresolved effects of climate variability. We used 40-year runs of a particle tracking model to examine the sensitivity of an MPA network for habitat-forming cold-water corals in the northeast Atlantic to changes in larval dispersal driven by atmospheric cycles and larval behaviour. Trajectories of Lophelia pertusa larvae were strongly correlated to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant pattern of interannual atmospheric circulation variability over the northeast Atlantic. Variability in trajectories significantly altered network connectivity and source-sink dynamics, with positive phase NAO conditions producing a well-connected but asymmetrical network connected from west to east. Negative phase NAO produced reduced connectivity, but notably some larvae tracked westward-flowing currents towards coral populations on the mid-Atlantic ridge. Graph theoretical metrics demonstrate critical roles played by seamounts and offshore banks in larval supply and maintaining connectivity across the network. Larval longevity and behaviour mediated dispersal and connectivity, with shorter lived and passive larvae associated with reduced connectivity. We conclude that the existing MPA network is vulnerable to atmospheric-driven changes in ocean circulation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Griffiths, James D; Barker, Stephen; Hendry, Katharine R; Thornalley, David JR; van de Flierdt, Tina; Hall, Ian R; Anderson, Robert F;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: NSF | Testing the Silicic Acid ... (1029986), UKRI | Changes in ocean circulat... (NE/F002734/1)

    Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) are the main conduits for the supply of dissolved silicon (silicic acid) from the deep Southern Ocean (SO) to the low-latitude surface ocean and therefore have an important control on low-latitude diatom productivity. Enhanced supply of silicic acid by AAIW (and SAMW) during glacial periods may have enabled tropical diatoms to outcompete carbonate-producing phytoplankton, decreasing the relative export of inorganic to organic carbon to the deep ocean and lowering atmospheric pCO2. This mechanism is known as the "silicic acid leakage hypothesis" (SALH). Here we present records of neodymium and silicon isotopes from the western tropical Atlantic that provide the first direct evidence of increased silicic acid leakage from the Southern Ocean to the tropical Atlantic within AAIW during glacial Marine Isotope Stage 4 (~60-70 ka). This leakage was approximately coeval with enhanced diatom export in the NW Atlantic and across the eastern equatorial Atlantic and provides support for the SALH as a contributor to CO2 drawdown during full glacial development.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bramha Dutt Vishwakarma; Jinwei Zhang; Sneeuw, Nico;
    Publisher: figshare
    Project: EC | CLOSeR (841407)

    Downscaled GRACE TWS fields

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Schepper, Stijn; Ray, Jessica L; Skaar, Katrine S; Sadatzki, Henrik; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Stein, Ruediger; Larsen, Aud;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: UKRI | Undestanding microbial co... (NE/L011956/1), EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | AGENSI (818449)

    At Site GS15-198-38, Greenland Sea, we analysed the surface sample (from a multicore) and eight Late Quaternary samples from a Calypso core. The age model for the Calypso core GS15-198-38CC is based on seven AMS 14C ages down to 345 cm, and a 5-cm resolution N. pachyderma sinistral isotope stratigraphy (1) below that level. We analysed the palynology, generated organic biomarker data (including IP25, sterols) and performed quantitative PCR (droplet digital PCR, ddPCR) of the sympagic dinoflagellate Polarella glacialis. The main funding for this project came from:Research Council of Norway project 268062 (Environmental ancient DNA as proxy for sea ice reconstructions - aDNAPROX)Research Council of Norway project 273455/E10 (KLIMAFORSK mobility) Additional funding came from:Bjerknes Centre for Climate ResearchNatural Environment Research Council (NERC) Independent Research Fellowship NE/L011956/1Lord Kelvin Adam Smith Leadership Fellowship (University of Glasgow)European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC grant agreement 610055 as part of the ice2ice project

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