The development of resources on and near Indigenous territories has many potential benefits including employment creation, wealth sharing, and improved service delivery. However, the development of oil and gas resources can also lead to economic inequality, displacement, loss of traditional lifestyles, and significant environmental damage. This paper is a review of the how oil and gas development on Indigenous lands and traditional territories has been regulated in Canada to balance these benefits and risks. Some of the legislation discussed include the Indian Oil and Gas Act, the First Nations Oil and Gas and Moneys Management Act, the Umbrella Final Agreement in the Canadian North, as well as unregulated impact benefit agreements between First Nations and industry. These regimes and others are examined in terms of their provisions for environmental protection and meaningful Aboriginal consultation, and is intended to inform discussions on how to improve the policy approach to resource development.
Esta presente labor tiene como finalidad presentar la confección de una ficha terminológica que muestra la recopilación de 100 términos de un campo especializado, las ciencias del medio ambiente. Para este estudio, el ámbito considerado es la contaminación de la atmósfera, el cambio climático y efecto invernadero. Se da un esbozo sobre los orígenes de la terminología y su necesidad absoluta en el siglo actual por algunos proponentes más importantes del área. Se proporcionan los procedimientos realizados en este trabajo con fines de dar como resultado una ficha elaborada. Igualmente, se mencionan las fases obligatorias en la elaboración de glosarios, diccionarios y listados especializados tanto como los componentes imprescindibles que se deben tomar en cuenta al momento de crear una ficha terminológica. Luego, se presenta un análisis de los resultados de la fabricación de la ficha mediante tablas y gráficos, y una discusión sobre los resultados obtenidos. Se establecen la importancia y la envergadura de esta investigación para todos los interesados en trabajos de tal carácter. Finalmente, se da una muestra de la ficha terminológica confeccionada a través de la recopilación de dos términos especializados. The objective of this present work is to produce a terminology record that highlights the collection of 100 terms from a specialized field, that is, environmental science. For this study, the area under consideration is air pollution, climate change and the greenhouse effect”. An outline is given, as it relates to the origins of terminology, and its absolute necessity in this century, by some of the leading proponents in this ambit. The procedures performed in this work are also discussed, with the aim of arriving at a compiled record. Mentioned also are the obligatory steps required for the preparation of glossaries, dictionaries and specialized listings, as well as the essential components which must be taken into account when creating a terminology record. An analysis of the results of the created record is then presented by means of tables and graphs, followed by a discussion of the results. The importance and scope of this research are established for all those interested in works of such character. Finally, a sample of 2 specialized terms is given from the compiled glossary.
The conclusion to the book situates the chapters within four programs of anthropological research on climate change: (1) documentation of local impacts of and adaptations to climate change, (2) connections to socioeconomic and political contexts, (3) collaborations with nonanthropologists, and (4) activism and social transformation. The final section notes the persistent challenges to creating positive change and meaningful research outcomes. It highlights some examples of success and outlines future directions for politically engaged anthropological work around climate change.
Indigenous Peoples in Canada and around the world have, for years, used blockades and direct action when alternative means of asserting their rights have failed. The Secwépemc First Nation of British Columbia, Canada, has a myth where a character, Sk’elép, encounters strangers who try to “transform” him, but fail. He tells them he could turn them to stone, but he will not. This myth is used as a lens to reflect, from a settler perspective, on the potential for future Indigenous-led blockades, which could reach the point of mass economic shutdowns, in response to a lack of action on both Indigenous rights and climate change. Up until now, the policy of most colonial nations has been to deal with Indigenous blockades by force or at best with localised solutions. This policy will not work regarding climate change. This article proposes that the Western world faces a stark choice: truly embrace “free, prior, and informed consent” (FPIC), or else face the possibility of large scale shutdowns from a growing alliance of Indigenous Peoples, environmentalists, and concerned citizens.
On September 13, 2007, the United Nations General Assembly voted to adopt the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). This was an historic event as work on UNDRIP had been ongoing for 30 years before its passage. Today, UNDRIP provides a framework for addressing human rights protections for Indigenous peoples globally. This article examines the significance of UNDRIP as a public policy tool for developing national policy to support future resource and land management consultations that are based on free, prior, and informed consent.
Issues related to fisheries governance are a source of debate and tension between the Indigenous Mi’kmaq people of Nova Scotia and the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) in matters concerning Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Within the context of the existing governance regime, this analysis compares the concept of salmon conservation and management from a Mi’kmaq perspective and proposes a collaborative co-existence approach for effective salmon governance in Nova Scotia. This approach begins by using co-management as a process, Two-Eyed Seeing as the design, and treaties as the model to achieve shared objectives of maintaining and improving abundances of salmon populations, in spite of differing mechanisms for addressing the interwoven complexities of multiple realities, conservation, and cultural identity.