The main petroleum product transported through pipelines in Canada is diluted bitumen (dilbit), a semi-liquid form of heavy crude oil mixed with natural gas condensates to facilitate transport. The weathering, fate, behaviour, and environmental effects of dilbit are crucial to consider when responding to a spill, however few environmental studies on dilbit have been completed. Here we report on 11-day long experimental spills of dilbit (Cold Lake Winter Blend) in outdoor micro-cosms meant to simulate a low-energy aquatic system containing natural lake water and sedi-ments treated with a low (1:8,000 oil:water) and high (1:800 oil:water) volume of dilbit. In the first 24 hours of the experiment, volatile hydrocarbons quickly evaporated from the dilbit, result-ing in increased dilbit density and viscosity. These changes in dilbit’s physical and chemical properties ultimately led to its submergence after 8 days. We also detected rapid accumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in the water column of the treated-microcosms following the spills. Our study provides new information on the environmental fate and behaviour of dilbit in a freshwater environment that will be critical to environmental risk assessments of proposed pipe-line projects. In particular, our study demonstrates the propensity for dilbit to sink under ambient environmental conditions in fresh waters typical of many boreal lakes.
ABSTRACT: This study sought to evaluate the number of bruises on bovine carcasses and their relationship with loading rates in different truck models. Bruising percentages in the hindquarter, forequarter and short rib regions were evaluated. The space occupied on the truck by each animal in m² was defined as the Practiced area, obtained by dividing the body area by the number of males and females transported in straight trucks (10.60 x 2.40 m) and livestock trailers (14.80 x 2.60 m), 240 and 168, and 120 and 93, respectively, and 80 males in a straight truck with trailer configuration (17.50 x 2.60 m). The minimum area occupied by the animals was assessed according to the Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) and Animal Welfare Advisory Committee (AWAC). The data was analyzed in a completely randomized design and included two sex classes, three carcass regions and three truck types. For males, the minimum areas (m²) calculated by the FAWC and AWAC were smaller (1.37 and 1.29 m², respectively) for the straight truck. The straight truck with trailer configuration had the lowest (P=0.0025) bruising index in the forequarter region (15.1%) and the highest (P=0.047) in the short rib region (30.5%). Females transported in the livestock trailer had a higher (P<0.001) percentage of bruises in the forequarter region (51.7%). There was a relationship between the high bruising rates and the loading rate Practiced for the males. Estimations made by the AWAC are close to those practiced in the upper Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
ABSTRACT Since atmospheric winds play the most critical natural enviroment (NE) role as input into the design and development of an aerospace launch vehicle, this paper provides a more detailed description of the wind environment and its interaction with engineering design in launch and space vehicle development applications at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).
Abstract According to the Urban Mobility National Policy (UMNP), Brazilian cities with more than 20,000 inhabitants are obligated to elaborate Urban Mobility Plans (UMPs). The literature shows a lack of national research on urban freight planning and a need for better understanding issues on cargo transportation for authorities, especially regarding decision-making on policies and on urban freight transportation planning. City Logistics solutions can be considered on UMPs to reduce the problematic urban freight transport. Therefore, a survey was applied to investigate the resources available within cities to draw UMPs, the solutions for cargo movement in Brazilian cities, and the perceptions of public managers about freight transportation. The results show that “restrictions” are the solutions most adopted by Brazilian authorities, including the representative sample for cities within the São Paulo State with more than 250,000 inhabitants. The conclusions point out that Brazilian cities are not prepared to develop an efficient urban freight plan, as public managers seem to be unconscious about urban logistics demands within their cities or have neglected aspects regarding urban freight within the UMNP.
Abstract Justified purpose of the topic: Knowledge of how passengers perceive hospitality aboard Brazilian aircraft allows us to know the tangible and intangible factors that customers value and that can influence airline choice. Objective: Within aviation hospitality, the present study aims to investigate hospitality in Brazilian domestic air transportation from passenger viewpoint. Method and approach: The study is of a mixed nature comprising a qualitative stage with literature review and quantitative one, with the development of a data collection instrument and the analysis of 1,163 questionnaires, using SPSS software as an analysis tool. Results: The findings allow us to conclude that passengers perceive hospitality aboard Brazilian domestic air transport aircraft, comprising a set of 19 items that can be explained using 5 factors that were named "attractions", "service", "well-being", "low cost" and "cleanliness". Originality: This work aims to present an original model to measure hospitality aboard Brazilian aircraft.
Objectives: The aim of this article is to report on the possible relationships between tramway front-end geometry and pedestrian injury risk over a wide range of possible tramway shapes. Methods: To study the effect of tramway front-end shape on pedestrian injury metrics, accidents were simulated using a custom parameterized model of tramway front-end and pedestrian models available with the MADYMO multibody solver. The approach was automated, allowing the systematic exploration of tramway shapes in conjunction with 4 pedestrian sizes (e.g., 50th percentile male or M50). Results: A total of 8,840 simulations were run, showing that the injury risk is more important for the head than for other body regions (thorax and lower extremities). The head of the M50 impacted the windshield of the tramway in most of the configurations. Two antagonist mechanisms affecting impact velocity of the head and corresponding head injury criterion (HIC) values were observed. The first is a trunk rotation resulting from an engagement of the lower body that can contribute to an increase in head velocity in the direction of the tram. The second is the loading of the shoulder, which can accelerate the upper trunk and head away from the windshield, resulting in lower impact velocities. Groups of design were defined based on 2 main parameters (windshield height and offset), some of which seem more beneficial than others for tramway design. The pedestrian size and tramway velocity (30 vs. 20 km/h) also affected the results. Conclusions: When considering only the front-end shape, the best strategy to limit the risk of head injury due to contact with the stiff windshield seems to be to promote the mechanism involving shoulder loading. Because body regions engaged vary with the pedestrian size, none of the groups of designs performed equally well for all pedestrian sizes. The best compromise is achieved with a combination of a large windscreen offset and a high windscreen. Conversely, particularly unfavorable configurations are observed for low windshield heights, especially with a large offset. Beyond the front-end shape, considering the stiffness of the current windshields and the high injury risks predicted for 30 km/h, the stiffness of the windshield should be considered in the future for further gains in pedestrian safety.
Abstract The prevalent idea of smart cities presupposes the use of digital technologies for an alleged more efficient management of urban dynamics and systems. There is a scientific need to know more about such processes in the social sciences. Among the various sectors of urban management, mobility is one of the most sensitive to technological changes. The aim of this article is to historically deconstruct the SwissPass project and to understand its sociotechnical nuances through the identification of social groups and interests, as well as through the mapping of controversies involved in the implementation of this smart mobility system in Switzerland. The results indicate power disputes, dominance of the process by large, state-run transport companies, and dissipation of the controversies by persuasion strategies focusing on its alleged innovative role.