The Federal Elections in Ontario (1867-1911): Voting and Census Data file was created to enable testing and hypotheses dealing with the effect of religious and ethnic background on voting patterns in Canada. Since subconstituencies tend to remain relatively stable from election to election, the subconstituency was selected as the basic unit of analysis. Each record consists of election returns data and census figures describing the ethnic and religious background of the subconstituency population. Election results were correlated with figures drawn from the next decennial census. Reports of the Chief Electoral Officer (for each election in the Parliamentary Sessional Papers), served as the source of the returns data.