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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Karnezi, E.; Riipinen, I.; Pandis, S. N.;

    Organic compounds represent a significant fraction of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol mass. Even if most of these compounds are semi-volatile in atmospheric concentrations, the ambient organic aerosol volatility is quite uncertain. The most common volatility measurement method relies on the use of a thermodenuder (TD). The aerosol passes through a heated tube where its more volatile components evaporate, leaving the less volatile components behind in the particulate phase. The typical result of a thermodenuder measurement is the mass fraction remaining (MFR), which depends, among other factors, on the organic aerosol (OA) vaporization enthalpy and the accommodation coefficient. We use a new method combining forward modeling, introduction of "experimental" error, and inverse modeling with error minimization for the interpretation of TD measurements. The OA volatility distribution, its effective vaporization enthalpy, the mass accommodation coefficient and the corresponding uncertainty ranges are calculated. Our results indicate that existing TD-based approaches quite often cannot estimate reliably the OA volatility distribution, leading to large uncertainties, since there are many different combinations of the three properties that can lead to similar thermograms. We propose an improved experimental approach combining TD and isothermal dilution measurements. We evaluate this experimental approach using the same model, and show that it is suitable for studies of OA volatility in the lab and the field.

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    Authors: Heckel, A.; Kim, S.-W.; Frost, G. J.; Richter, A.; +2 Authors

    The retrieval of tropospheric columns of NO2 and other trace gases from satellite observations of backscattered solar radiation relies on the use of accurate a priori information. The spatial resolution of current space sensors is often significantly higher than that of the a priori datasets used, introducing uncertainties from spatial misrepresentation. In this study, the effect of spatial under-sampling of a priori data on the retrieval of NO2 columns was studied for a typical coastal area (around San Francisco). High-resolution (15 × 15 km2) NO2 a priori data from the WRF-Chem model in combination with high-resolution MODIS surface reflectance and aerosol data were used to investigate the uncertainty introduced by applying a priori data at typical global chemical transport model resolution. The results show that the relative uncertainties can be large (more than a factor of 2 if all a priori data used is at the coarsest resolution) for individual measurements, mainly due to spatial variations in NO2 profile and surface albedo, with smaller contributions from aerosols and surface height changes. Similar sensitivities are expected for other coastal regions and localised sources such as power plants, highlighting the need for high-resolution a priori data in quantitative analysis of the spatial patterns retrieved from satellite observations of tropospheric pollution.

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    Authors: Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Jorga, Spiro D.; Louvaris, Evangelos; Florou, Kalliopi; +1 Authors

    Smog chamber experiments using ambient air as a starting point can improve our understanding of the evolution of atmospheric particulate matter at timescales longer than those achieved by traditional laboratory experiments. These types of studies can take place under more realistic environmental conditions addressing the interactions among multiple pollutants. The use of two identical smog chambers, with the first serving as the baseline chamber and the second as the perturbation chamber (in which addition or removal of pollutants, addition of oxidants, change in the relative humidity, etc.), can facilitate the interpretation of the results in such inherently complex experiments. The differences of the measurements in the two chambers can be used as the basis for the analysis of the corresponding chemical or physical processes of ambient air. A portable dual-smog-chamber system was developed using two identical pillow-shaped smog chambers (1.5 m3 each). The two chambers are surrounded by UV lamps in a hexagonal arrangement yielding a total JNO2 of 0.1 min−1. The system can be easily disassembled and transported, enabling the study of various atmospheric environments. Moreover, it can be used with natural sunlight. The results of test experiments using ambient air as the starting point are discussed as examples of applications of this system.

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    Authors: Wang, Z.; Su, H.; Wang, X.; Ma, N.; +3 Authors

    Knowledge about the chemical composition of aerosol particles is essential to understand their formation and evolution in the atmosphere. Due to analytical limitations, however, relatively little information is available for sub-10 nm particles. We present the design of a nano-cloud condensation nuclei counter (nano-CCNC) for measuring size-resolved hygroscopicity and inferring chemical composition of sub-10 nm aerosol particles. We extend the use of counting efficiency spectra from a water-based condensation particle counter (CPC) and link it to the analysis of CCN activation spectra, which provides a theoretical basis for the application of a scanning supersaturation CPC (SS-CPC) as a nano-CCNC. Measurement procedures and data analysis methods are demonstrated through laboratory experiments with monodisperse particles of diameter down to 2.5 nm, where sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, sucrose and tungsten oxide can be easily discriminated by different characteristic supersaturations of water droplet formation. A near-linear relationship between hygroscopicity parameter κ and organic mass fraction is also found for sucrose-ammonium sulfate mixtures. The design is not limited to the water CPC, but also applies to CPCs with other working fluids (e.g. butanol, perfluorotributylamine). We suggest that a combination of SS-CPCs with multiple working fluids may provide further insight into the chemical composition of nanoparticles and the role of organic and inorganic compounds in the initial steps of atmospheric new particle formation and growth.

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    Authors: Roscoe, H. K.; Roozendael, M.; Fayt, C.; Piesanie, A.; +47 Authors

    In June 2009, 22 spectrometers from 14 institutes measured tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 from the ground for more than 11 days during the Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI), at Cabauw, NL (51.97° N, 4.93° E). All visible instruments used a common wavelength range and set of cross sections for the spectral analysis. Most of the instruments were of the multi-axis design with analysis by differential spectroscopy software (MAX-DOAS), whose non-zenith slant columns were compared by examining slopes of their least-squares straight line fits to mean values of a selection of instruments, after taking 30-min averages. Zenith slant columns near twilight were compared by fits to interpolated values of a reference instrument, then normalised by the mean of the slopes of the best instruments. For visible MAX-DOAS instruments, the means of the fitted slopes for NO2 and O4 of all except one instrument were within 10% of unity at almost all non-zenith elevations, and most were within 5%. Values for UV MAX-DOAS instruments were almost as good, being 12% and 7%, respectively. For visible instruments at zenith near twilight, the means of the fitted slopes of all instruments were within 5% of unity. This level of agreement is as good as that of previous intercomparisons, despite the site not being ideal for zenith twilight measurements. It bodes well for the future of measurements of tropospheric NO2, as previous intercomparisons were only for zenith instruments focussing on stratospheric NO2, with their longer heritage.

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    Authors: Ruusuvuori, K.; Hietala, P.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Jokinen, T.; +4 Authors

    Sulfuric acid is generally considered one of the most important substances taking part in atmospheric particle formation. However, in typical atmospheric conditions in the lower troposphere, sulfuric acid and water alone are unable to form particles. It has been suggested that strong bases may stabilize sulfuric acid clusters so that particle formation may occur. More to the point, amines – strong organic bases – have become the subject of interest as possible cause for such stabilization. To probe whether amines play a role in atmospheric nucleation, we need to be able to measure accurately the gas-phase amine vapour concentration. Such measurements often include charging the neutral molecules and molecular clusters in the sample. Since amines are bases, the charging process should introduce a positive charge. This can be achieved by, for example, using chemical ionization with a positively charged reagent with a suitable proton affinity. In our study, we have used quantum chemical methods combined with a cluster dynamics code to study the use of acetone as a reagent ion in chemical ionization and compared the results with measurements performed with a chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF). The computational results indicate that protonated acetone is an effective reagent in chemical ionization. However, in the experiments the reagent ions were not depleted at the predicted dimethylamine concentrations, indicating that either the modelling scheme or the experimental results – or both – contain unidentified sources of error.

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    Authors: Sirch, Tobias; Bugliaro, Luca; Zinner, Tobias; Möhrlein, Matthias; +1 Authors

    A novel approach for the nowcasting of clouds and direct normal irradiance (DNI) based on the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite is presented for a forecast horizon up to 120 min. The basis of the algorithm is an optical flow method to derive cloud motion vectors for all cloudy pixels. To facilitate forecasts over a relevant time period, a classification of clouds into objects and a weighted triangular interpolation of clear-sky regions are used. Low and high level clouds are forecasted separately because they show different velocities and motion directions. Additionally a distinction in advective and convective clouds together with an intensity correction for quickly thinning convective clouds is integrated. The DNI is calculated from the forecasted optical thickness of the low and high level clouds. In order to quantitatively assess the performance of the algorithm, a forecast validation against MSG/SEVIRI observations is performed for a period of 2 months. Error rates and Hanssen–Kuiper skill scores are derived for forecasted cloud masks. For a forecast of 5 min for most cloud situations more than 95 % of all pixels are predicted correctly cloudy or clear. This number decreases to 80–95 % for a forecast of 2 h depending on cloud type and vertical cloud level. Hanssen–Kuiper skill scores for cloud mask go down to 0.6–0.7 for a 2 h forecast. Compared to persistence an improvement of forecast horizon by a factor of 2 is reached for all forecasts up to 2 h. A comparison of forecasted optical thickness distributions and DNI against observations yields correlation coefficients larger than 0.9 for 15 min forecasts and around 0.65 for 2 h forecasts.

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    Authors: Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Jorga, Spiro D.; Louvaris, Evangelos; Florou, Kalliopi; +1 Authors

    Smog chamber experiments using as a starting point ambient air can improve our understanding of the evolution of atmospheric particulate matter at timescales longer than those achieved by traditional laboratory experiments. These types of studies can take place under more realistic environmental conditions addressing the interactions among multiple pollutants. The use of two identical smog chambers, with the first serving as the baseline chamber and the second as the perturbation chamber (in which addition or removal of pollutants, addition of oxidants, change in the relative humidity, etc.), can facilitate the interpretation of the results in such inherently complex experiments. The differences of the measurements in the two chambers can be used as the basis for the analysis of the corresponding chemical or physical processes of ambient air. A portable dual smog chamber system was developed using two identical pillow-shaped smog chambers (1.5 m3 each). The two chambers are surrounded by UV lamps in a hexagonal arrangement yielding a total JNO2 of 0.1 min−1. The system can be easily disassembled and transported enabling the study of various atmospheric environments. Moreover, it can be used with natural sunlight. The results of test experiments using ambient air as starting point are discussed as examples of applications of this system.

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    Authors: Fuchs, H.; Dorn, H.-P.; Bachner, M.; Bohn, B.; +8 Authors

    During recent field campaigns, hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations that were measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were up to a factor of ten larger than predicted by current chemical models for conditions of high OH reactivity and low NO concentration. These discrepancies, which were observed in forests and urban-influenced rural environments, are so far not entirely understood. In summer 2011, a series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, in order to investigate the photochemical degradation of isoprene, methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK), methacrolein (MACR) and aromatic compounds by OH. Conditions were similar to those experienced during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, in 2006, where a large difference between OH measurements and model predictions was found. During experiments in SAPHIR, OH was simultaneously detected by two independent instruments: LIF and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Because DOAS is an inherently calibration-free technique, DOAS measurements are regarded as a reference standard. The comparison of the two techniques was used to investigate potential artifacts in the LIF measurements for PRD-like conditions of OH reactivities of 10 to 30 s−1 and NO mixing ratios of 0.1 to 0.3 ppbv. The analysis of twenty experiment days shows good agreement. The linear regression of the combined data set (averaged to the DOAS time resolution, 2495 data points) yields a slope of 1.02 ± 0.01 with an intercept of (0.10 ± 0.03) × 106 cm−3 and a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.86. This indicates that the sensitivity of the LIF instrument is well-defined by its calibration procedure. No hints for artifacts are observed for isoprene, MACR, and different aromatic compounds. LIF measurements were approximately 30–40% (median) larger than those by DOAS after MVK (20 ppbv) and toluene (90 ppbv) had been added. However, this discrepancy has a large uncertainty and requires further laboratory investigation. Observed differences between LIF and DOAS measurements are far too small to explain the unexpected high OH concentrations during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign.

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    Authors: Karnezi, E.; Riipinen, I.; Pandis, S. N.;

    Organic compounds represent a significant fraction of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol mass. Even if most of these compounds are semi-volatile in atmospheric concentrations, the ambient organic aerosol volatility is quite uncertain. The most common volatility measurement method relies on the use of a thermodenuder (TD). The aerosol passes through a heated tube where its more volatile components evaporate, leaving the less volatile components behind in the particulate phase. The typical result of a thermodenuder measurement is the mass fraction remaining (MFR), which depends, among other factors, on the organic aerosol (OA) vaporization enthalpy and the accommodation coefficient. We use a new method combining forward modeling, introduction of "experimental" error, and inverse modeling with error minimization for the interpretation of TD measurements. The OA volatility distribution, its effective vaporization enthalpy, the mass accommodation coefficient and the corresponding uncertainty ranges are calculated. Our results indicate that existing TD-based approaches quite often cannot estimate reliably the OA volatility distribution, leading to large uncertainties, since there are many different combinations of the three properties that can lead to similar thermograms. We propose an improved experimental approach combining TD and isothermal dilution measurements. We evaluate this experimental approach using the same model, and show that it is suitable for studies of OA volatility in the lab and the field.

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    Authors: Heckel, A.; Kim, S.-W.; Frost, G. J.; Richter, A.; +2 Authors

    The retrieval of tropospheric columns of NO2 and other trace gases from satellite observations of backscattered solar radiation relies on the use of accurate a priori information. The spatial resolution of current space sensors is often significantly higher than that of the a priori datasets used, introducing uncertainties from spatial misrepresentation. In this study, the effect of spatial under-sampling of a priori data on the retrieval of NO2 columns was studied for a typical coastal area (around San Francisco). High-resolution (15 × 15 km2) NO2 a priori data from the WRF-Chem model in combination with high-resolution MODIS surface reflectance and aerosol data were used to investigate the uncertainty introduced by applying a priori data at typical global chemical transport model resolution. The results show that the relative uncertainties can be large (more than a factor of 2 if all a priori data used is at the coarsest resolution) for individual measurements, mainly due to spatial variations in NO2 profile and surface albedo, with smaller contributions from aerosols and surface height changes. Similar sensitivities are expected for other coastal regions and localised sources such as power plants, highlighting the need for high-resolution a priori data in quantitative analysis of the spatial patterns retrieved from satellite observations of tropospheric pollution.

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    Authors: Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Jorga, Spiro D.; Louvaris, Evangelos; Florou, Kalliopi; +1 Authors

    Smog chamber experiments using ambient air as a starting point can improve our understanding of the evolution of atmospheric particulate matter at timescales longer than those achieved by traditional laboratory experiments. These types of studies can take place under more realistic environmental conditions addressing the interactions among multiple pollutants. The use of two identical smog chambers, with the first serving as the baseline chamber and the second as the perturbation chamber (in which addition or removal of pollutants, addition of oxidants, change in the relative humidity, etc.), can facilitate the interpretation of the results in such inherently complex experiments. The differences of the measurements in the two chambers can be used as the basis for the analysis of the corresponding chemical or physical processes of ambient air. A portable dual-smog-chamber system was developed using two identical pillow-shaped smog chambers (1.5 m3 each). The two chambers are surrounded by UV lamps in a hexagonal arrangement yielding a total JNO2 of 0.1 min−1. The system can be easily disassembled and transported, enabling the study of various atmospheric environments. Moreover, it can be used with natural sunlight. The results of test experiments using ambient air as the starting point are discussed as examples of applications of this system.

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    Authors: Wang, Z.; Su, H.; Wang, X.; Ma, N.; +3 Authors

    Knowledge about the chemical composition of aerosol particles is essential to understand their formation and evolution in the atmosphere. Due to analytical limitations, however, relatively little information is available for sub-10 nm particles. We present the design of a nano-cloud condensation nuclei counter (nano-CCNC) for measuring size-resolved hygroscopicity and inferring chemical composition of sub-10 nm aerosol particles. We extend the use of counting efficiency spectra from a water-based condensation particle counter (CPC) and link it to the analysis of CCN activation spectra, which provides a theoretical basis for the application of a scanning supersaturation CPC (SS-CPC) as a nano-CCNC. Measurement procedures and data analysis methods are demonstrated through laboratory experiments with monodisperse particles of diameter down to 2.5 nm, where sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, sucrose and tungsten oxide can be easily discriminated by different characteristic supersaturations of water droplet formation. A near-linear relationship between hygroscopicity parameter κ and organic mass fraction is also found for sucrose-ammonium sulfate mixtures. The design is not limited to the water CPC, but also applies to CPCs with other working fluids (e.g. butanol, perfluorotributylamine). We suggest that a combination of SS-CPCs with multiple working fluids may provide further insight into the chemical composition of nanoparticles and the role of organic and inorganic compounds in the initial steps of atmospheric new particle formation and growth.

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    Authors: Roscoe, H. K.; Roozendael, M.; Fayt, C.; Piesanie, A.; +47 Authors

    In June 2009, 22 spectrometers from 14 institutes measured tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 from the ground for more than 11 days during the Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI), at Cabauw, NL (51.97° N, 4.93° E). All visible instruments used a common wavelength range and set of cross sections for the spectral analysis. Most of the instruments were of the multi-axis design with analysis by differential spectroscopy software (MAX-DOAS), whose non-zenith slant columns were compared by examining slopes of their least-squares straight line fits to mean values of a selection of instruments, after taking 30-min averages. Zenith slant columns near twilight were compared by fits to interpolated values of a reference instrument, then normalised by the mean of the slopes of the best instruments. For visible MAX-DOAS instruments, the means of the fitted slopes for NO2 and O4 of all except one instrument were within 10% of unity at almost all non-zenith elevations, and most were within 5%. Values for UV MAX-DOAS instruments were almost as good, being 12% and 7%, respectively. For visible instruments at zenith near twilight, the means of the fitted slopes of all instruments were within 5% of unity. This level of agreement is as good as that of previous intercomparisons, despite the site not being ideal for zenith twilight measurements. It bodes well for the future of measurements of tropospheric NO2, as previous intercomparisons were only for zenith instruments focussing on stratospheric NO2, with their longer heritage.

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    Authors: Ruusuvuori, K.; Hietala, P.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Jokinen, T.; +4 Authors

    Sulfuric acid is generally considered one of the most important substances taking part in atmospheric particle formation. However, in typical atmospheric conditions in the lower troposphere, sulfuric acid and water alone are unable to form particles. It has been suggested that strong bases may stabilize sulfuric acid clusters so that particle formation may occur. More to the point, amines – strong organic bases – have become the subject of interest as possible cause for such stabilization. To probe whether amines play a role in atmospheric nucleation, we need to be able to measure accurately the gas-phase amine vapour concentration. Such measurements often include charging the neutral molecules and molecular clusters in the sample. Since amines are bases, the charging process should introduce a positive charge. This can be achieved by, for example, using chemical ionization with a positively charged reagent with a suitable proton affinity. In our study, we have used quantum chemical methods combined with a cluster dynamics code to study the use of acetone as a reagent ion in chemical ionization and compared the results with measurements performed with a chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF). The computational results indicate that protonated acetone is an effective reagent in chemical ionization. However, in the experiments the reagent ions were not depleted at the predicted dimethylamine concentrations, indicating that either the modelling scheme or the experimental results – or both – contain unidentified sources of error.

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    Authors: Sirch, Tobias; Bugliaro, Luca; Zinner, Tobias; Möhrlein, Matthias; +1 Authors

    A novel approach for the nowcasting of clouds and direct normal irradiance (DNI) based on the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite is presented for a forecast horizon up to 120 min. The basis of the algorithm is an optical flow method to derive cloud motion vectors for all cloudy pixels. To facilitate forecasts over a relevant time period, a classification of clouds into objects and a weighted triangular interpolation of clear-sky regions are used. Low and high level clouds are forecasted separately because they show different velocities and motion directions. Additionally a distinction in advective and convective clouds together with an intensity correction for quickly thinning convective clouds is integrated. The DNI is calculated from the forecasted optical thickness of the low and high level clouds. In order to quantitatively assess the performance of the algorithm, a forecast validation against MSG/SEVIRI observations is performed for a period of 2 months. Error rates and Hanssen–Kuiper skill scores are derived for forecasted cloud masks. For a forecast of 5 min for most cloud situations more than 95 % of all pixels are predicted correctly cloudy or clear. This number decreases to 80–95 % for a forecast of 2 h depending on cloud type and vertical cloud level. Hanssen–Kuiper skill scores for cloud mask go down to 0.6–0.7 for a 2 h forecast. Compared to persistence an improvement of forecast horizon by a factor of 2 is reached for all forecasts up to 2 h. A comparison of forecasted optical thickness distributions and DNI against observations yields correlation coefficients larger than 0.9 for 15 min forecasts and around 0.65 for 2 h forecasts.

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    Authors: Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Jorga, Spiro D.; Louvaris, Evangelos; Florou, Kalliopi; +1 Authors

    Smog chamber experiments using as a starting point ambient air can improve our understanding of the evolution of atmospheric particulate matter at timescales longer than those achieved by traditional laboratory experiments. These types of studies can take place under more realistic environmental conditions addressing the interactions among multiple pollutants. The use of two identical smog chambers, with the first serving as the baseline chamber and the second as the perturbation chamber (in which addition or removal of pollutants, addition of oxidants, change in the relative humidity, etc.), can facilitate the interpretation of the results in such inherently complex experiments. The differences of the measurements in the two chambers can be used as the basis for the analysis of the corresponding chemical or physical processes of ambient air. A portable dual smog chamber system was developed using two identical pillow-shaped smog chambers (1.5 m3 each). The two chambers are surrounded by UV lamps in a hexagonal arrangement yielding a total JNO2 of 0.1 min−1. The system can be easily disassembled and transported enabling the study of various atmospheric environments. Moreover, it can be used with natural sunlight. The results of test experiments using ambient air as starting point are discussed as examples of applications of this system.

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    Authors: Fuchs, H.; Dorn, H.-P.; Bachner, M.; Bohn, B.; +8 Authors

    During recent field campaigns, hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations that were measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were up to a factor of ten larger than predicted by current chemical models for conditions of high OH reactivity and low NO concentration. These discrepancies, which were observed in forests and urban-influenced rural environments, are so far not entirely understood. In summer 2011, a series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, in order to investigate the photochemical degradation of isoprene, methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK), methacrolein (MACR) and aromatic compounds by OH. Conditions were similar to those experienced during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, in 2006, where a large difference between OH measurements and model predictions was found. During experiments in SAPHIR, OH was simultaneously detected by two independent instruments: LIF and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Because DOAS is an inherently calibration-free technique, DOAS measurements are regarded as a reference standard. The comparison of the two techniques was used to investigate potential artifacts in the LIF measurements for PRD-like conditions of OH reactivities of 10 to 30 s−1 and NO mixing ratios of 0.1 to 0.3 ppbv. The analysis of twenty experiment days shows good agreement. The linear regression of the combined data set (averaged to the DOAS time resolution, 2495 data points) yields a slope of 1.02 ± 0.01 with an intercept of (0.10 ± 0.03) × 106 cm−3 and a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.86. This indicates that the sensitivity of the LIF instrument is well-defined by its calibration procedure. No hints for artifacts are observed for isoprene, MACR, and different aromatic compounds. LIF measurements were approximately 30–40% (median) larger than those by DOAS after MVK (20 ppbv) and toluene (90 ppbv) had been added. However, this discrepancy has a large uncertainty and requires further laboratory investigation. Observed differences between LIF and DOAS measurements are far too small to explain the unexpected high OH concentrations during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign.

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