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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Perosa, Giulia;
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mauro, Mancuso; Marco, Iosa; Laura, Abbruzzese; Alessandro, Matano; +15 Authors

    The recovery of independence in activities of daily living is a fundamental goal of rehabilitation programs in subjects affected by subacute stroke. Rehabilitation is focused both on motor and cognitive aspects, and some evidence has reported cognitive deficits as prognostic factors of motor recovery. However, rehabilitation is a dynamic process during which executive functions and motor functions should be improved.The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationships between impairments in cognitive functions and recovery of functional independence in stroke patients during the subacute phase.Multicenter observational study.Intensive rehabilitation units.A sample of 319 stroke patients in subacute phase (70.6±11.6 years, 40.4% females), consecutively admitted from November 2019 to July 2021 at sixteen rehabilitation centers were enrolled in this observational, prospective and multicentric study with longitudinal assessments.Cognitive and functional assessments were performed at hospital admission and discharge, including Oxford Cognitive Screen, modified Barthel Index, Functional Independent Measure, Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale.A regression analysis identified five predictors (out of about 200 tested variables) of functional recovery related to four aspects assessed at admission: functional status (P0.001), lower limb functioning (P=0.002), attention (P=0.011), and executive functions (P=0.017). Furthermore, patients who recovered deficits in executive functions had the same recovery of those without deficits, whereas those who maintained deficits had a smaller recovery (P=0.019).The relationship between cognitive and motor deficits is increasingly highlighted and the recovery of executive functions deficits seems to contribute to motor recovery.Our results suggest that the recovery of executive functions may promote the recovery of the functional outcome of the patient with subacute stroke. Future treatment protocols may benefit from paying more attention to the recovery of executive functions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Morello, Lucia; Rattotti, Sara; Giordano, Laura; Jerkeman, Mats; +16 Authors

    Abstract While classical nodal mantle cell lymphoma (cMCL) is often associated with involvement of multiple extranodal sites, isolated extranodal disease (ED) at the time of diagnosis is a rare event; data on the outcome of these forms are lacking. On behalf of the European MCL Network, we conducted a retrospective analysis on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MCL presenting with isolated or predominant ED (MALT MCL). We collected data on 127 patients with MALT MCL diagnosed from 1998 to 2015: 78 patients (61%) were male with a median age of 65 years. The involved sites include: upper airways + Waldeyer ring (40; 32%), gastrointestinal tract (32; 25%), ocular adnexa (17; 13%), oral cavity and salivary glands (17; 13%) and others (13; 1%); 7 patients showed multiple extranodal sites. The median follow-up was 80 months (range: 6–182), 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 45% (95% CI: 35–54) and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 71% (95% CI: 62–79). In an explorative setting, we compared MALT MCL with a group of 128 cMCL patients: MALT MCL patients showed a significantly longer PFS and OS compared with nodal cMCL; with a median PFS of 4.5 years vs 2.8 years (p = 0.001) and median OS of 9.8 years vs 6.9 years (p = 0.018), respectively. Patients with MALT MCL at diagnosis showed a more favorable prognosis and indolent course than classical nodal type. This clinical variant of MCL should be acknowledged to avoid possible over-treatment. Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HemaSphere; NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HemaSphere; NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Comotti;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Christof Pabinger; Isabella Malaj; Harald Lothaller; Elena Manuela Samaila; +1 Authors

    Background:Morton’s neuroma is a common cause of forefoot pain. Various conservative methods (injections of various pharmacologic agents) have been published with an outcome of 6%-75% success rate (free of pain in daily life) per injection. The aim of the present study was to assess the outcome of an improved localization technique, a higher dosage, and a higher percentage of ethanol.Methods:Using fluoroscopic and electroneurographic guidance, 2.5 mL of 70% ethanol were injected into 33 feet with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–verified neuroma. We evaluated patients at up to 5-year follow-up.Results:A “success rate” of more than 82% per single injection (defined as free of pain in daily life) was achieved and no recurrence was seen over 5 years. All scores (visual analog scale; Short Form–36 subscales, American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score) showed significant improvement ( P < .0001). Mean 1.2 injections were necessary. No significant side effects were seen. However, some mild pain persisted in some patients who participated in sports.Conclusion:The injection of 2.5 mL of 70% ethanol under fluoroscopic and electroneurographic guidance was a safe method for the treatment of MRI-verified Morton’s neuromas. Combining the effect of a higher percentage of alcohol and a higher dosage and an improved localization technique resulted in a high rate of patients without pain.Level of Evidence:Level IV, cases series, prospective.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Foot & Ankle International
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Foot & Ankle International
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Francesco Niccoli; Tiziana Danise; Michele Innangi; Francesco Pelleri; +5 Authors

    Species interactions in mixed plantations can influence tree growth, resources capture and soil fertility of the stands. A combined approach of tree-ring analyses and carbon stable isotope was used to check tree growth and water use efficiency of two species, Populus alba L. and Juglans regia L., intercropped with each other and with N-fixing or competitive production species. Furthermore, soil analyses were performed to understand how the different intercropping systems can influence soil characteristics, in particular soil carbon stock. Dendrochronological data showed that during the first years, the growth of principal species was favored by intercropping. This positive effect decreased in the following years in most of intercropped stands, due to light competition with the crown of companion species. Carbon isotope data showed that P. alba and J. regia had the highest intrinsic water use efficiency when growing with Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb, a shrubby species with a shallow root system that favors a non-competitive exploitation of soil water resources. Finally, the intercropping of the principal species with Corylus  avellana L. promoted the highest soil C stock. Our findings confirmed the importance to consider the plantation dynamics and wood formation in the long-run and to apply appropriate thinning and pruning interventions to counteract interspecific competition.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archivio Istituziona...arrow_drop_down
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    Forests
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    Forests
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    Authors: Sohaib Ali Korai; Federico Ranieri; Vincenzo Di Lazzaro; Michele Papa; +3 Authors

    Non-invasive low-intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) of the brain is an evolving field that has brought remarkable attention in the past few decades for its ability to directly modulate specific brain functions. Neurobiological after-effects of tES seems to be related to changes in neuronal and synaptic excitability and plasticity, however mechanisms are still far from being elucidated. We aim to review recent results from in vitro and in vivo studies that highlight molecular and cellular mechanisms of transcranial direct (tDCS) and alternating (tACS) current stimulation. Changes in membrane potential and neural synchronization explain the ongoing and short-lasting effects of tES, while changes induced in existing proteins and new protein synthesis is required for long-lasting plastic changes (LTP/LTD). Glial cells, for decades supporting elements, are now considered constitutive part of the synapse and might contribute to the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. This review brings into focus the neurobiological mechanisms and after-effects of tDCS and tACS from in vitro and in vivo studies, in both animals and humans, highlighting possible pathways for the development of targeted therapeutic applications.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Battistelli, Stefania;
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    Authors: Valeria Donisi; Annalisa De Lucia; Ilenia Pasini; Marialuisa Gandolfi; +3 Authors

    There is growing evidence to support the potential benefit of e-Health interventions targeting psychosocial outcomes and/or pain-related psychological variables for chronic pain conditions, including fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). This systematic review aims at providing an in-depth description of the available e-Health psychological and/or multicomponent interventions for patients with FMS. Searches were made in PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PsycINFO up to 15 May 2023, finally including twenty-six articles. The quality of the included articles was medium–high (average quality assessment score of 77.1%). 50% of studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (n = 13), and the majority of them focused exclusively on adult patients with FMS (n = 23) who were predominantly female. Four categories of e-Health modalities were identified: web-based (n = 19), mobile application (m-Health) (n = 3), virtual reality (VR) (n = 2), and video consulting (n = 2). Interventions were mainly based on the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach (n = 14) and mostly involved contact with a healthcare professional through different digital tools. Overall, a growing number of psychological and multicomponent interventions have been created and delivered using digital tools in the context of FMS, showing their potentiality for improving psychosocial outcomes and pain-related psychological variables. However, some digital tools resulted as underrepresented, and the literature on this topic appears highly heterogeneous precluding robust conclusions.

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    Healthcare
    Article . 2023
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    Healthcare
    Article . 2023
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      Healthcare
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Rocco Capuano; Luca Prosperini; Manuela Altieri; Lorena Lorefice; +20 Authors

    Background: Little is known about COVID-19 course and outcomes after a third booster dose of mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 (mRNA-Vax) in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with ocrelizumab (OCR) and fingolimod (FNG), which showed a weakened immune response to mRNA-vax. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate COVID-19 course and outcomes in pwMS on OCR and FNG after receiving the third dose of mRNA-Vax and to compare it with pwMS on natalizumab (NTZ). Methods: Inclusion criteria: >18 years of age, being treated with OCR/FNG/NTZ since the first mRNA-Vax dose; COVID-19 after a third booster dose of mRNA-Vax; no steroids use. Results: Overall, 290 pwMS (79 NTZ, 126 OCR, and 85 FNG) from 17 Italian MS centers were included. Age, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, MS phenotype, disease, and treatment duration were significantly different across groups. PwMS who had COVID-19 on OCR and FNG compared with those on NTZ were slightly more symptomatic with higher hospitalization rates (11.1% vs 7.1% vs 1.3%, respectively). Regression models showed that the majority of the differences observed were not related to the disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) used. No fatal cases were observed. Conclusion: Our results support the effectiveness of the third booster dose of mRNA-Vax against severe forms of COVID-19 in pwMS treated with OCR and FNG.

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    Authors: Perosa, Giulia;
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    Authors: Mauro, Mancuso; Marco, Iosa; Laura, Abbruzzese; Alessandro, Matano; +15 Authors

    The recovery of independence in activities of daily living is a fundamental goal of rehabilitation programs in subjects affected by subacute stroke. Rehabilitation is focused both on motor and cognitive aspects, and some evidence has reported cognitive deficits as prognostic factors of motor recovery. However, rehabilitation is a dynamic process during which executive functions and motor functions should be improved.The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationships between impairments in cognitive functions and recovery of functional independence in stroke patients during the subacute phase.Multicenter observational study.Intensive rehabilitation units.A sample of 319 stroke patients in subacute phase (70.6±11.6 years, 40.4% females), consecutively admitted from November 2019 to July 2021 at sixteen rehabilitation centers were enrolled in this observational, prospective and multicentric study with longitudinal assessments.Cognitive and functional assessments were performed at hospital admission and discharge, including Oxford Cognitive Screen, modified Barthel Index, Functional Independent Measure, Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale.A regression analysis identified five predictors (out of about 200 tested variables) of functional recovery related to four aspects assessed at admission: functional status (P0.001), lower limb functioning (P=0.002), attention (P=0.011), and executive functions (P=0.017). Furthermore, patients who recovered deficits in executive functions had the same recovery of those without deficits, whereas those who maintained deficits had a smaller recovery (P=0.019).The relationship between cognitive and motor deficits is increasingly highlighted and the recovery of executive functions deficits seems to contribute to motor recovery.Our results suggest that the recovery of executive functions may promote the recovery of the functional outcome of the patient with subacute stroke. Future treatment protocols may benefit from paying more attention to the recovery of executive functions.

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