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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ivano Baronchelli; G. Rodighiero; Harry I. Teplitz; Claudia Scarlata; Alberto Franceschini; S. Berta; Laia Barrufet; Mattia Vaccari; Matteo Bonato; Laure Ciesla; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Italy, United States
    Project: EC | HELP (607254)

    For a sample of star forming galaxies in the redshift interval 0.15$<$z$<$0.3, we study how both the relative strength of the AGN infra-red emission, compared to that due to the star formation (SF), and the numerical fraction of AGNs, change as a function of the total stellar mass of the hosting galaxy group (M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$), between $10^{10.25}$ and $10^{11.9}$M$_{\odot}$. Using a multi-component SED fitting analysis, we separate the contribution of stars, AGN torus and star formation to the total emission at different wavelengths. This technique is applied to a new multi-wavelength data-set in the SIMES field (23 not redundant photometric bands), spanning the wavelength range from the UV (GALEX) to the far-IR (Herschel) and including crucial AKARI and WISE mid-IR observations (4.5 \mu m$<\lambda<$24 \mu m), where the BH thermal emission is stronger. This new photometric catalog, that includes our best photo-z estimates, is released through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). Groups are identified through a friends of friends algorithm ($\sim$62% purity, $\sim$51% completeness). We identified a total of 45 galaxies requiring an AGN emission component, 35 of which in groups and 10 in the field. We find BHAR$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.21\pm0.27}$ and (BHAR/SFR)$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.04\pm0.24}$ while, in the same range of M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$, we do not observe any sensible change in the numerical fraction of AGNs. Our results indicate that the nuclear activity (i.e. the BHAR and the BHAR/SFR ratio) is enhanced when galaxies are located in more massive and richer groups. Comment: 31 pages, 23 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Davide Tamburro; Sinisa Bratulic; Souad Abou Shameh; Nikul K. Soni; Andrea Bacconi; Francesca Maccari; Fabio Galeotti; Karin Mattsson; Nicola Volpi; Jens Nielsen; +1 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | AURORAX (849251)

    AbstractGlycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long linear sulfated polysaccharides implicated in processes linked to disease development such as mucopolysaccharidosis, respiratory failure, cancer, and viral infections, thereby serving as potential biomarkers. A successful clinical translation of GAGs as biomarkers depends on the availability of standardized GAG measurements. However, owing to the analytical complexity associated with the quantification of GAG concentration and structural composition, a standardized method to simultaneously measure multiple GAGs is missing. In this study, we sought to characterize the analytical performance of a ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)-based kit for the quantification of 17 GAG disaccharides. The kit showed acceptable linearity, selectivity and specificity, accuracy and precision, and analyte stability in the absolute quantification of 15 GAG disaccharides. In native human samples, here using urine as a reference matrix, the analytical performance of the kit was acceptable for the quantification of CS disaccharides. Intra- and inter-laboratory tests performed in an external laboratory demonstrated robust reproducibility of GAG measurements showing that the kit was acceptably standardized. In conclusion, these results indicated that the UHPLC-MS/MS kit was standardized for the simultaneous measurement of GAG disaccharides allowing for comparability of measurements and enabling translational research.SummaryAnalytical performance of a kit for standardized GAG measurements, based on an established UHPLC-MS/MS method

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    A. Pileri; C. Agostinelli; A. Barisani; A. Patrizi; M. La Placa;
    Country: Italy

    not available

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bolotta, A.; Pini, A.; Abruzzo, P. M.; Ghezzo, A.; Modesti, A.; Gamberi, T.; Ferreri, C.; Bugamelli, F.; Fortuna, F.; Vertuani, S.; +3 more
    Country: Italy
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emanuele Schimmenti; Enrico Viola; Cassandra Funsten; Valeria Borsellino;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Italy

    This study attempts to measure the capacity of the EU geographical certification scheme to positively influence the price of certified products and the incomes of their producers. A comparison of the economic results of two cheese-producing dairy farm enterprises with different business strategies and locations within the Sicilian hinterlands is performed in order to determine the transformation value of each dairy’s sheep milk into pecorino cheese (with and without the Protected Designation of Origin, or PDO, certification) and the related joint products (ricotta). The economic convenience of the total transformation of sheep milk into Pecorino Siciliano PDO and ricotta is also appraised. The results suggest that producing and commercializing Pecorino Siciliano PDO is a promising strategy for differentiating and promoting dairy farm products and improving the financial performance of producers, with foreseeable positive repercussions in the socioeconomically less favored rural areas where they are located.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Gabriele Di Blasio; Carlo Beatrice; Roberto Ianniello; Francesco Concetto Pesce; Alberto Vassallo; Giacomo Belgiorno; Giovanni Avolio;
    Publisher: SAE International
    Country: Italy

    The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off "CO2-system cost" in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles. In this framework, a comprehensive approach covering the whole powertrain is of primary importance in order to simultaneously meet the performance, efficiency, noise and emission targets, and therefore, further development of the combustion system design and injection system represent important levers for additional improvements. For this purpose, a dedicated 0.5 dm3 single-cylinder engine has been developed and equipped with, a state-of-the-art Euro 6 combustion system, and an advanced common rail fuel injection system (FIS) offering higher flexibility in terms of injection strategy and higher quantity accuracy. Three injector nozzles with different hydraulic flow rates (HF) have been selected and employed for the overall combustion process optimization. The optimization has been performed by means of an extensive DoE-based test campaign in which the engine and FIS operating parameters have been parametrized with the aim to carry out a proper combination in terms of HF and injection strategy. The results at partial load conditions evidence significant advantages in applying an advanced injection pattern, while the HF reduction can significantly improve the smoke emission and combustion noise without fuel consumption penalties. Therefore, a proper combination and optimization of the HF and injection strategy can provide low noise and engine-out smoke while maintaining the rated power performance targets.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Celeste Fasano; Enrico Glerean; Benjamin P. Gold; Dana Sheng; Mikko Sams; Peter Vuust; Josef P. Rauschecker; Elvira Brattico;

    Human behavior is inherently multimodal and relies on sensorimotor integration. This is evident when pianists exhibit activity in motor and premotor cortices, as part of a dorsal pathway, while listening to a familiar piece of music, or when naïve participants learn to play simple patterns on the piano. Here we investigated the interaction between multimodal learning and dorsal-stream activity over the course of four weeks in ten skilled pianists by adopting a naturalistic data-driven analysis approach. We presented the pianists with audio-only, video-only and audiovisual recordings of a piano sonata during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after they had learned to play the sonata by heart for a total of four weeks. We followed the learning process and its outcome with questionnaires administered to the pianists, one piano instructor following their training, and seven external expert judges. The similarity of the pianists’ brain activity during stimulus presentations was examined before and after learning by means of inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis. After learning, an increased ISC was found in the pianists while watching the audiovisual performance, particularly in motor and premotor regions of the dorsal stream. While these brain structures have previously been associated with learning simple audio-motor sequences, our findings are the first to suggest their involvement in learning a complex and demanding audiovisual-motor task. Moreover, the most motivated learners and the best performers of the sonata showed ISC in the dorsal stream and in the reward brain network.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Claudio Gennari; Luca Pezzato; Enrico Simonetto; Renato Gobbo; Michele Forzan; Irene Calliari;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Italy

    Since the late 1950s, an effect of electrical current in addition to joule heating on the deformation of metals called the Electroplastic Effect (EPE) has been known. It is used nowadays in the so-called Electrically Assisted Forming (EAF) processes, but the understanding of the phenomenon is not very clear yet. It has been found that EPE increases the formability of high stacking fault energy (SFE) materials, while low SFE materials reach fracture prematurely. Since Duplex Stainless Steels (DSSs) possess a microstructure consisting of two phases with very different SFE (low SFE austenite and high SFE ferrite) and they are widely used in industry, we investigated EPE on those alloys. Tensile tests at 5 A/mm2, 10 A/mm2 and 15 A/mm2 current densities along with thermal counterparts were conducted on UNS S32101, UNS S32205, UNS S32304 and UNS S32750. The DSS grades were characterized by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and their mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength, total elongation, uniform elongation and yield stress). An increase in uniform elongation for the electrical tests compared to the thermal counterparts as well as an increase in total elongation was found. No differences were observed on the yield stress and on the ultimate tensile strength. Un uneven distribution of the current because of the different resistivity and work hardening of the two phases has been hypothesized as the explanation for the positive effect of EPE.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Taramasso L; Bonfanti P; Ricci E; Squillace N; Menzaghi B; Madeddu G; De Socio GV; Orofino G; Celesia BM; Pellicanò G; +10 more
    Country: Italy
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Saliakoura; Matteo Rossi Sebastiano; Chiara Pozzato; Florian H. Heidel; Tina M. Schnöder; Spasenija Savic Prince; Lukas Bubendorf; Paolo Pinton; Ralph A. Schmid; Johanna Baumgartner; +4 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: SNSF | Exploring requirements fo... (163929)

    Mutant KRAS modulates the metabolic plasticity of cancer cells to confer a growth advantage during hypoxia, but the molecular underpinnings are largely unknown. Using a lipidomic screen, we found that PLCγ1 is suppressed during hypoxia in KRAS-mutant human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines. Suppression of PLCγ1 in hypoxia promotes a less oxidative cancer cell metabolism state, reduces the formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and switches tumour bioenergetics towards glycolysis by impairing Ca2+ entry into the mitochondria. This event prevents lipid peroxidation, antagonizes apoptosis and increases cancer cell proliferation. Accordingly, loss of function of Plcg1 in a mouse model of KrasG12D-driven lung adenocarcinoma increased the expression of glycolytic genes, boosted tumour growth and reduced survival. In patients with KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas, low PLCγ1 expression correlates with increased expression of hypoxia markers and predicts poor patient survival. Thus, our work reveals a mechanism of cancer cell adaptation to hypoxia with potential therapeutic value.

search
Include:
445,768 Research products, page 1 of 44,577
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ivano Baronchelli; G. Rodighiero; Harry I. Teplitz; Claudia Scarlata; Alberto Franceschini; S. Berta; Laia Barrufet; Mattia Vaccari; Matteo Bonato; Laure Ciesla; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Italy, United States
    Project: EC | HELP (607254)

    For a sample of star forming galaxies in the redshift interval 0.15$<$z$<$0.3, we study how both the relative strength of the AGN infra-red emission, compared to that due to the star formation (SF), and the numerical fraction of AGNs, change as a function of the total stellar mass of the hosting galaxy group (M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$), between $10^{10.25}$ and $10^{11.9}$M$_{\odot}$. Using a multi-component SED fitting analysis, we separate the contribution of stars, AGN torus and star formation to the total emission at different wavelengths. This technique is applied to a new multi-wavelength data-set in the SIMES field (23 not redundant photometric bands), spanning the wavelength range from the UV (GALEX) to the far-IR (Herschel) and including crucial AKARI and WISE mid-IR observations (4.5 \mu m$<\lambda<$24 \mu m), where the BH thermal emission is stronger. This new photometric catalog, that includes our best photo-z estimates, is released through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). Groups are identified through a friends of friends algorithm ($\sim$62% purity, $\sim$51% completeness). We identified a total of 45 galaxies requiring an AGN emission component, 35 of which in groups and 10 in the field. We find BHAR$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.21\pm0.27}$ and (BHAR/SFR)$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.04\pm0.24}$ while, in the same range of M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$, we do not observe any sensible change in the numerical fraction of AGNs. Our results indicate that the nuclear activity (i.e. the BHAR and the BHAR/SFR ratio) is enhanced when galaxies are located in more massive and richer groups. Comment: 31 pages, 23 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Davide Tamburro; Sinisa Bratulic; Souad Abou Shameh; Nikul K. Soni; Andrea Bacconi; Francesca Maccari; Fabio Galeotti; Karin Mattsson; Nicola Volpi; Jens Nielsen; +1 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | AURORAX (849251)

    AbstractGlycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long linear sulfated polysaccharides implicated in processes linked to disease development such as mucopolysaccharidosis, respiratory failure, cancer, and viral infections, thereby serving as potential biomarkers. A successful clinical translation of GAGs as biomarkers depends on the availability of standardized GAG measurements. However, owing to the analytical complexity associated with the quantification of GAG concentration and structural composition, a standardized method to simultaneously measure multiple GAGs is missing. In this study, we sought to characterize the analytical performance of a ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)-based kit for the quantification of 17 GAG disaccharides. The kit showed acceptable linearity, selectivity and specificity, accuracy and precision, and analyte stability in the absolute quantification of 15 GAG disaccharides. In native human samples, here using urine as a reference matrix, the analytical performance of the kit was acceptable for the quantification of CS disaccharides. Intra- and inter-laboratory tests performed in an external laboratory demonstrated robust reproducibility of GAG measurements showing that the kit was acceptably standardized. In conclusion, these results indicated that the UHPLC-MS/MS kit was standardized for the simultaneous measurement of GAG disaccharides allowing for comparability of measurements and enabling translational research.SummaryAnalytical performance of a kit for standardized GAG measurements, based on an established UHPLC-MS/MS method

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    A. Pileri; C. Agostinelli; A. Barisani; A. Patrizi; M. La Placa;
    Country: Italy

    not available

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bolotta, A.; Pini, A.; Abruzzo, P. M.; Ghezzo, A.; Modesti, A.; Gamberi, T.; Ferreri, C.; Bugamelli, F.; Fortuna, F.; Vertuani, S.; +3 more
    Country: Italy
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emanuele Schimmenti; Enrico Viola; Cassandra Funsten; Valeria Borsellino;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Italy

    This study attempts to measure the capacity of the EU geographical certification scheme to positively influence the price of certified products and the incomes of their producers. A comparison of the economic results of two cheese-producing dairy farm enterprises with different business strategies and locations within the Sicilian hinterlands is performed in order to determine the transformation value of each dairy’s sheep milk into pecorino cheese (with and without the Protected Designation of Origin, or PDO, certification) and the related joint products (ricotta). The economic convenience of the total transformation of sheep milk into Pecorino Siciliano PDO and ricotta is also appraised. The results suggest that producing and commercializing Pecorino Siciliano PDO is a promising strategy for differentiating and promoting dairy farm products and improving the financial performance of producers, with foreseeable positive repercussions in the socioeconomically less favored rural areas where they are located.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Gabriele Di Blasio; Carlo Beatrice; Roberto Ianniello; Francesco Concetto Pesce; Alberto Vassallo; Giacomo Belgiorno; Giovanni Avolio;
    Publisher: SAE International
    Country: Italy

    The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off "CO2-system cost" in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles. In this framework, a comprehensive approach covering the whole powertrain is of primary importance in order to simultaneously meet the performance, efficiency, noise and emission targets, and therefore, further development of the combustion system design and injection system represent important levers for additional improvements. For this purpose, a dedicated 0.5 dm3 single-cylinder engine has been developed and equipped with, a state-of-the-art Euro 6 combustion system, and an advanced common rail fuel injection system (FIS) offering higher flexibility in terms of injection strategy and higher quantity accuracy. Three injector nozzles with different hydraulic flow rates (HF) have been selected and employed for the overall combustion process optimization. The optimization has been performed by means of an extensive DoE-based test campaign in which the engine and FIS operating parameters have been parametrized with the aim to carry out a proper combination in terms of HF and injection strategy. The results at partial load conditions evidence significant advantages in applying an advanced injection pattern, while the HF reduction can significantly improve the smoke emission and combustion noise without fuel consumption penalties. Therefore, a proper combination and optimization of the HF and injection strategy can provide low noise and engine-out smoke while maintaining the rated power performance targets.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Celeste Fasano; Enrico Glerean; Benjamin P. Gold; Dana Sheng; Mikko Sams; Peter Vuust; Josef P. Rauschecker; Elvira Brattico;

    Human behavior is inherently multimodal and relies on sensorimotor integration. This is evident when pianists exhibit activity in motor and premotor cortices, as part of a dorsal pathway, while listening to a familiar piece of music, or when naïve participants learn to play simple patterns on the piano. Here we investigated the interaction between multimodal learning and dorsal-stream activity over the course of four weeks in ten skilled pianists by adopting a naturalistic data-driven analysis approach. We presented the pianists with audio-only, video-only and audiovisual recordings of a piano sonata during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after they had learned to play the sonata by heart for a total of four weeks. We followed the learning process and its outcome with questionnaires administered to the pianists, one piano instructor following their training, and seven external expert judges. The similarity of the pianists’ brain activity during stimulus presentations was examined before and after learning by means of inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis. After learning, an increased ISC was found in the pianists while watching the audiovisual performance, particularly in motor and premotor regions of the dorsal stream. While these brain structures have previously been associated with learning simple audio-motor sequences, our findings are the first to suggest their involvement in learning a complex and demanding audiovisual-motor task. Moreover, the most motivated learners and the best performers of the sonata showed ISC in the dorsal stream and in the reward brain network.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Claudio Gennari; Luca Pezzato; Enrico Simonetto; Renato Gobbo; Michele Forzan; Irene Calliari;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Italy

    Since the late 1950s, an effect of electrical current in addition to joule heating on the deformation of metals called the Electroplastic Effect (EPE) has been known. It is used nowadays in the so-called Electrically Assisted Forming (EAF) processes, but the understanding of the phenomenon is not very clear yet. It has been found that EPE increases the formability of high stacking fault energy (SFE) materials, while low SFE materials reach fracture prematurely. Since Duplex Stainless Steels (DSSs) possess a microstructure consisting of two phases with very different SFE (low SFE austenite and high SFE ferrite) and they are widely used in industry, we investigated EPE on those alloys. Tensile tests at 5 A/mm2, 10 A/mm2 and 15 A/mm2 current densities along with thermal counterparts were conducted on UNS S32101, UNS S32205, UNS S32304 and UNS S32750. The DSS grades were characterized by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and their mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength, total elongation, uniform elongation and yield stress). An increase in uniform elongation for the electrical tests compared to the thermal counterparts as well as an increase in total elongation was found. No differences were observed on the yield stress and on the ultimate tensile strength. Un uneven distribution of the current because of the different resistivity and work hardening of the two phases has been hypothesized as the explanation for the positive effect of EPE.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Taramasso L; Bonfanti P; Ricci E; Squillace N; Menzaghi B; Madeddu G; De Socio GV; Orofino G; Celesia BM; Pellicanò G; +10 more
    Country: Italy
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Saliakoura; Matteo Rossi Sebastiano; Chiara Pozzato; Florian H. Heidel; Tina M. Schnöder; Spasenija Savic Prince; Lukas Bubendorf; Paolo Pinton; Ralph A. Schmid; Johanna Baumgartner; +4 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: SNSF | Exploring requirements fo... (163929)

    Mutant KRAS modulates the metabolic plasticity of cancer cells to confer a growth advantage during hypoxia, but the molecular underpinnings are largely unknown. Using a lipidomic screen, we found that PLCγ1 is suppressed during hypoxia in KRAS-mutant human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines. Suppression of PLCγ1 in hypoxia promotes a less oxidative cancer cell metabolism state, reduces the formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and switches tumour bioenergetics towards glycolysis by impairing Ca2+ entry into the mitochondria. This event prevents lipid peroxidation, antagonizes apoptosis and increases cancer cell proliferation. Accordingly, loss of function of Plcg1 in a mouse model of KrasG12D-driven lung adenocarcinoma increased the expression of glycolytic genes, boosted tumour growth and reduced survival. In patients with KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas, low PLCγ1 expression correlates with increased expression of hypoxia markers and predicts poor patient survival. Thus, our work reveals a mechanism of cancer cell adaptation to hypoxia with potential therapeutic value.

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