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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Barbara Rossi; Bruno Santos-Lima; Eleonora Terrabuio; Elena Zenaro; +2 Authors

    Neurodegenerative diseases are closely related to inflammatory and autoimmune events, suggesting that the dysregulation of the immune system is a key pathological factor. Both multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by infiltrating immune cells, activated microglia, astrocyte proliferation, and neuronal damage. Moreover, MS and AD share a common pro-inflammatory signature, characterized by peripheral leukocyte activation and transmigration to the central nervous system (CNS). MS and AD are both characterized by the accumulation of activated neutrophils in the blood, leading to progressive impairment of the blood–brain barrier. Having migrated to the CNS during the early phases of MS and AD, neutrophils promote local inflammation that contributes to pathogenesis and clinical progression. The role of circulating T cells in MS is well-established, whereas the contribution of adaptive immunity to AD pathogenesis and progression is a more recent discovery. Even so, blocking the transmigration of T cells to the CNS can benefit both MS and AD patients, suggesting that common adaptive immunity mechanisms play a detrimental role in each disease. There is also growing evidence that regulatory T cells are beneficial during the initial stages of MS and AD, supporting the link between the modulatory immune compartments and these neurodegenerative disorders. The number of resting regulatory T cells declines in both diseases, indicating a common pathogenic mechanism involving the dysregulation of these cells, although their precise role in the control of neuroinflammation remains unclear. The modulation of leukocyte functions can benefit MS patients, so more insight into the role of peripheral immune cells may reveal new targets for pharmacological intervention in other neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, including AD.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Immunology
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Frontiers in Immunology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Immunology
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Immunology
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Habed, Adriano Jose';
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    Authors: Nišević, Maja;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Anna Maria Chiarini; Ubaldo Armato; Peng Hu; Ilaria Pierpaola Dal Prà;

    Fibrillar aggregates and soluble oligomers of both Amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) and hyperphosphorylated Tau proteins (p-Tau-es), as well as a chronic neuroinflammation are the main drivers causing progressive neuronal losses and dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still much disputed. Several endogenous neurotoxic ligands, including Aβs, and/or p-Tau-es activate innate immunity-related danger-sensing/pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) thereby advancing AD’s neuroinflammation and progression. The major PRR families involved include scavenger, Toll-like, NOD-like, AIM2-like, RIG-like, and CLEC-2 receptors, plus the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). This quite intricate picture stresses the need to identify the pathogenetically topmost Aβ-activated PRR, whose signaling would trigger AD’s three main drivers and their intra-brain spread. In theory, the candidate might belong to any PRR family. However, results of preclinical studies using in vitro nontumorigenic human cortical neurons and astrocytes and in vivo AD-model animals have started converging on the CaSR as the pathogenetically upmost PRR candidate. In fact, the CaSR binds both Ca2+ and Aβs and promotes the spread of both Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and AD’s three main drivers, causing a progressive neurons’ death. Since CaSR’s negative allosteric modulators block all these effects, CaSR’s candidacy for topmost pathogenetic PRR has assumed a growing therapeutic potential worth clinical testing.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ International Journa...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ International Journa...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zahra Raisi-Estabragh; Ahmed Salih; Polyxeni Gkontra; Angélica Atehortúa; +6 Authors

    AbstractWe developed a novel interpretable biological heart age estimation model using cardiovascular magnetic resonance radiomics measures of ventricular shape and myocardial character. We included 29,996 UK Biobank participants without cardiovascular disease. Images were segmented using an automated analysis pipeline. We extracted 254 radiomics features from the left ventricle, right ventricle, and myocardium of each study. We then used Bayesian ridge regression with tenfold cross-validation to develop a heart age estimation model using the radiomics features as the model input and chronological age as the model output. We examined associations of radiomics features with heart age in men and women, observing sex-differential patterns. We subtracted actual age from model estimated heart age to calculate a “heart age delta”, which we considered as a measure of heart aging. We performed a phenome-wide association study of 701 exposures with heart age delta. The strongest correlates of heart aging were measures of obesity, adverse serum lipid markers, hypertension, diabetes, heart rate, income, multimorbidity, musculoskeletal health, and respiratory health. This technique provides a new method for phenotypic assessment relating to cardiovascular aging; further studies are required to assess whether it provides incremental risk information over current approaches.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Reportsarrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mulubirhan Assefa Alemayohu; Elisabetta Zanolin; Lucia Cazzoletti; Liliya Chamitava; +4 Authors

    OBJECTIVES: As part of the multinational Burden of Lung Disease (BOLD) survey, this study investigated the flavonoid content and agreement levels of foods included in BOLD's food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), using four international flavonoid composition tables. METHODS: The USDA (American), BioActive Substances in Food Information System (eBASIS; European), Indian Food Composition (IFCT), and Phenol-Explorer (European) Tables were selected for their comparable data on five subclasses of flavonoids (flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones). Flavonoid estimates were derived for all foods available in each table (n = 117 USDA; n = 77 eBASIS; n = 69 IFCT; n = 90 Phenol-Explorer), and comparisons were carried out for foods common between tables. Percentage differences of flavonoid content were calculated, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI]) estimated. ICC reliability was categorized as low (0.90). RESULTS: Compared to the USDA Table, total flavonoid content was overestimated by 181.5%, 14.1%, and 26.5%, in the eBASIS, IFCT, and Phenol-Explorer tables, respectively. Compared to Phenol-Explorer, total flavonoid content was overestimated by 53.0% in eBASIS and by 29.6% in IFCT. The reliability for total flavonoid content between the USDA and Phenol-Explorer tables was moderate (ICC 0.51; 95% CI 0.33, 0.65), low between Phenol-Explorer and eBASIS (ICC 0.27; 95% CI 0.02, 0.49), and low between Phenol-Explorer and IFCT (ICC 0.22, 95%CI −0.07, 0.48). There was good-to-excellent reliability between USDA and Phenol-Explorer for flavanones and flavones (ICC 0.93; 95%CI 0.82, 0.98; and ICC 0.86; 95%CI 0.73, 0.93, respectively). Phenol-Explorer and IFCT showed good reliability for flavanone and flavanol subclasses. ICCs for other subclasses was low across tables. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoid estimates varied considerably across international tables. These differences should be taken into consideration when deriving flavonoid content in population-based surveys. FUNDING SOURCES: MAA is funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme (Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement). The UK's Medical Research Council (MR/R011192/1) funds the BOLD stud.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Current Developments in Nutrition
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2020
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      Current Developments in Nutrition
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    Authors: Salih, Ahmed; Galazzo, Ilaria Boscolo; Petersen, Steffen E.; Lekadir, Karim; +3 Authors

    Recent evidence suggests that shorter telomere length (TL) is associated with neuro degenerative diseases and aging related outcomes. The causal association between TL and brain characteristics represented by image derived phenotypes (IDPs) from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities remains unclear. Here, we use two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to systematically assess the causal relationships between TL and 3,935 brain IDPs. Overall, the MR results suggested that TL was causally associated with 193 IDPs with majority representing diffusion metrics in white matter tracts. 68 IDPs were negatively associated with TL indicating that longer TL causes decreasing in these IDPs, while the other 125 were associated positively (longer TL leads to increased IDPs measures). Among them, ten IDPs have been previously reported as informative biomarkers to estimate brain age. However, the effect direction between TL and IDPs did not reflect the observed direction between aging and IDPs: longer TL was associated with decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in axial, radial and mean diffusivity. For instance, TL was positively associated with radial diffusivity in the left perihippocampal cingulum tract and with mean diffusivity in right perihippocampal cingulum tract. Our results revealed a causal role of TL on white matter integrity which makes it a valuable factor to be considered when brain age is estimated and investigated.

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ahmed Salih; Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo; Akshay Jaggi; Zahra Raisi Estabragh; +4 Authors

    Brain age inferred from neuroimaging data could reveal important information about the evolution of structural and functional cerebral features across the life span. This has important implications for understanding healthy aging and for identifying Imaging-Derived Phenotypes (IDPs) that characterise age-related neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The so-called brain age delta refers to the difference between image-derived brain age and chronological age. Accelerated aging (positive delta) or resilience to aging (negative delta) have been found to be useful correlates of factors such as disease and cognitive decline. Multiple studies have proposed prediction models using brain IDPs as predictor variables, mostly relying on simple linear regression. However, methodological and population heterogeneity in these studies precludes definitive conclusions regarding the most informative modelling methodologies or predictor IDPs. To provide first hints in this respect, in this paper we propose to address three questions. First, four different state-of-the-art models are ranked based on well-known performance indices (e.g., mean absolute error) using the UK Biobank brain MRI data in different single/multi-modal settings. Second, for the best model, the association with individual IDPs are calculated to identify those that could play a prominent role in the aging process. Third, associations with non-brain variables are assessed as a first step towards a holistic approach. Our findings demonstrate a prominent role for dMRI IDPs in reducing the mean absolute error and rank high in the association study, dominating the first ten positions and being preceded only by three structural measures that are known to be related to the aging process. This provides evidence of the potential of dMRI IDPs as biomarkers of aging in health and disease.

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    Mathematics and Visualization
    Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
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      Mathematics and Visualization
      Other literature type . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
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    Authors: Cristian Andres Carmona-Carmona; Elisa Dalla Pozza; Giulia Ambrosini; Barbara Cisterna; +5 Authors

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common type of pancreatic cancer with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 9%. The high aggressiveness of PDAC is linked to the presence of a subpopulation of cancer cells with a greater tumorigenic capacity, generically called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs present a heterogeneous metabolic profile that might be supported by an adaptation of mitochondrial function; however, the role of this organelle in the development and maintenance of CSCs remains controversial. To determine the role of mitochondria in CSCs over longer periods, which may reflect more accurately their quiescent state, we studied the mitochondrial physiology in CSCs at short-, medium-, and long-term culture periods. We found that CSCs show a significant increase in mitochondrial mass, more mitochondrial fusion, and higher mRNA expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis than parental cells. These changes are accompanied by a regulation of the activities of OXPHOS complexes II and IV. Furthermore, the protein OPA1, which is involved in mitochondrial dynamics, is overexpressed in CSCs and modulates the tumorsphere formation. Our findings indicate that CSCs undergo mitochondrial remodeling during the stemness acquisition process, which could be exploited as a promising therapeutic target against pancreatic CSCs.

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    Cancers
    Article . 2022
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      Cancers
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo; Lorenza Brusini; Muge Akinci; Federica Cruciani; +9 Authors

    BACKGROUND The mechanisms driving primary progressive and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (PPMS/RRMS) phenotypes are unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies support the involvement of gray matter (GM) in the degeneration, highlighting its damage as an early feature of both phenotypes. However, the role of GM microstructure is unclear, calling for new methods for its decryption. PURPOSE To investigate the morphometric and microstructural GM differences between PPMS and RRMS to characterize GM tissue degeneration using MRI. STUDY TYPE Prospective cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS Forty-five PPMS (26 females) and 45 RRMS (32 females) patients. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE 3T scanner. Three-dimensional (3D) fast field echo T1-weighted (T1-w), 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) T2-w, 3D TSE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and spin echo-echo planar imaging diffusion MRI (dMRI). ASSESSMENT T1-w and dMRI data were employed for providing information about morphometric and microstructural features, respectively. For dMRI, both diffusion tensor imaging and 3D simple harmonics oscillator based reconstruction and estimation models were used for feature extraction from a predefined set of regions. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to perform patients' classification relying on all these measures. STATISTICAL TESTS Differences between MS phenotypes were investigated using the analysis of covariance and statistical tests (P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant). RESULTS All the dMRI indices showed significant microstructural alterations between the considered MS phenotypes, for example, the mode and the median of the return to the plane probability in the hippocampus. Conversely, thalamic volume was the only morphometric feature significantly different between the two MS groups. Ten of the 12 features retained by the selection process as discriminative across the two MS groups regarded the hippocampus. The SVM classifier using these selected features reached an accuracy of 70% and a precision of 69%. DATA CONCLUSION We provided evidence in support of the ability of dMRI to discriminate between PPMS and RRMS, as well as highlight the central role of the hippocampus. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3.

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    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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      Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Barbara Rossi; Bruno Santos-Lima; Eleonora Terrabuio; Elena Zenaro; +2 Authors

    Neurodegenerative diseases are closely related to inflammatory and autoimmune events, suggesting that the dysregulation of the immune system is a key pathological factor. Both multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by infiltrating immune cells, activated microglia, astrocyte proliferation, and neuronal damage. Moreover, MS and AD share a common pro-inflammatory signature, characterized by peripheral leukocyte activation and transmigration to the central nervous system (CNS). MS and AD are both characterized by the accumulation of activated neutrophils in the blood, leading to progressive impairment of the blood–brain barrier. Having migrated to the CNS during the early phases of MS and AD, neutrophils promote local inflammation that contributes to pathogenesis and clinical progression. The role of circulating T cells in MS is well-established, whereas the contribution of adaptive immunity to AD pathogenesis and progression is a more recent discovery. Even so, blocking the transmigration of T cells to the CNS can benefit both MS and AD patients, suggesting that common adaptive immunity mechanisms play a detrimental role in each disease. There is also growing evidence that regulatory T cells are beneficial during the initial stages of MS and AD, supporting the link between the modulatory immune compartments and these neurodegenerative disorders. The number of resting regulatory T cells declines in both diseases, indicating a common pathogenic mechanism involving the dysregulation of these cells, although their precise role in the control of neuroinflammation remains unclear. The modulation of leukocyte functions can benefit MS patients, so more insight into the role of peripheral immune cells may reveal new targets for pharmacological intervention in other neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, including AD.

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    Frontiers in Immunology
    Article . 2021
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Immunology
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    Authors: Habed, Adriano Jose';
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    Authors: Nišević, Maja;
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    Authors: Anna Maria Chiarini; Ubaldo Armato; Peng Hu; Ilaria Pierpaola Dal Prà;

    Fibrillar aggregates and soluble oligomers of both Amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) and hyperphosphorylated Tau proteins (p-Tau-es), as well as a chronic neuroinflammation are the main drivers causing progressive neuronal losses and dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still much disputed. Several endogenous neurotoxic ligands, including Aβs, and/or p-Tau-es activate innate immunity-related danger-sensing/pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) thereby advancing AD’s neuroinflammation and progression. The major PRR families involved include scavenger, Toll-like, NOD-like, AIM2-like, RIG-like, and CLEC-2 receptors, plus the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). This quite intricate picture stresses the need to identify the pathogenetically topmost Aβ-activated PRR, whose signaling would trigger AD’s three main drivers and their intra-brain spread. In theory, the candidate might belong to any PRR family. However, results of preclinical studies using in vitro nontumorigenic human cortical neurons and astrocytes and in vivo AD-model animals have started converging on the CaSR as the pathogenetically upmost PRR candidate. In fact, the CaSR binds both Ca2+ and Aβs and promotes the spread of both Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and AD’s three main drivers, causing a progressive neurons’ death. Since CaSR’s negative allosteric modulators block all these effects, CaSR’s candidacy for topmost pathogenetic PRR has assumed a growing therapeutic potential worth clinical testing.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Zahra Raisi-Estabragh; Ahmed Salih; Polyxeni Gkontra; Angélica Atehortúa; +6 Authors

    AbstractWe developed a novel interpretable biological heart age estimation model using cardiovascular magnetic resonance radiomics measures of ventricular shape and myocardial character. We included 29,996 UK Biobank participants without cardiovascular disease. Images were segmented using an automated analysis pipeline. We extracted 254 radiomics features from the left ventricle, right ventricle, and myocardium of each study. We then used Bayesian ridge regression with tenfold cross-validation to develop a heart age estimation model using the radiomics features as the model input and chronological age as the model output. We examined associations of radiomics features with heart age in men and women, observing sex-differential patterns. We subtracted actual age from model estimated heart age to calculate a “heart age delta”, which we considered as a measure of heart aging. We performed a phenome-wide association study of 701 exposures with heart age delta. The strongest correlates of heart aging were measures of obesity, adverse serum lipid markers, hypertension, diabetes, heart rate, income, multimorbidity, musculoskeletal health, and respiratory health. This technique provides a new method for phenotypic assessment relating to cardiovascular aging; further studies are required to assess whether it provides incremental risk information over current approaches.

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