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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu; Dimitri A. Svistunenko; Daniela Cioloboc; Cristina Bischin; +2 Authors

    The nitrite adducts of globins can potentially bind via O- or N- linkage to the heme iron. We have used EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) and DFT (density functional theory) to explore these binding modes to myoglobin and hemoglobin. We demonstrate that the nitrite adducts of both globins have detectable EPR signals; we provide an explanation for the difficulty in detecting these EPR features, based on uniaxial state considerations. The EPR and DFT data show that both nitrite linkage isomers can be present at the same time and that the two isomers are readily interconvertible in solution. The millisecond-scale process of nitrite reduction by Hb is investigated in search of the elusive Fe(II)-nitrite adduct. Highlights • A DFT-derived barrier for nitrite linkage isomerism on heme center is reported. • EPR spectra of nitrite adducts show evidence for linkage isomerism. • The electronic structure of Fe(III)-nitrite heme is conformation-dependent. • Certain conformations are inducive to EPR silence. • Fe(II)-nitrite is undetectable on stopped-flow time scales. Graphic Abstract Graphic entry for the Table of Contents (TOC).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hossein Eskandari Sabzi; Pedro E.J. Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo;

    Abstract Understanding the factors influencing yield strengthening in alloys processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is critical in designing new formulations, and for predicting the optimum parameters for their processing. In this work, a relationship between the heat input and strengthening and softening mechanisms is proposed for a titanium, nickel and stainless steel alloy (Ti-6Al-4V, IN718 and 316L, respectively). Maximum strength is obtained with increasing heat input in 316L stainless steel; whereas IN718 and Ti-6Al-4V require low heat inputs. The results demonstrate that yield strength can be described in terms of the normalised enthalpy. The variation in the yield strength of LPBFed alloys depends prominently on dislocation multiplication/annihilation at certain processing temperatures and thermal straining, which are alloy dependent; as well as on dislocation strengthening and heat dissipation during cooling, which are process dependent. These dependencies are modelled via well-known metallurgical approaches. The relative contribution of various strengthening mechanisms is revealed. The findings of this work can be used as a metric for the prediction and further improvement of yield strength based on the choice of LPBF process parameters and chemical composition.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Materials & Design
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Materials & Design
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Materials & Desi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Materials & Design
      Article . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Materials & Design
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Patel, Karishma B.; Boizot, Bruno; Facq, Sébastien P.; Peuget, Sylvain; +2 Authors

    Borosilicate glasses for nuclear waste applications are limited in waste loading by the precipitation of water-soluble molybdates. In order to increase storage efficiency, new compositions are sought out that trap molybdenum in a water-durable CaMoO₄ crystalline phase. Factors affecting CaMoO₄ combination and glass-in-glass phase separation in calcium borosilicate systems as a function of changing [MoO₃] and [B₂O₃] are examined in this study in order to understand how competition for charge balancers affects phase separation. It further examines the influence of radiation damage on structural modifications using 0.77 to 1.34 GGy of 2.5 MeV electron radiation that replicates inelastic collisions predicted to occur over long-term storage. The resulting microstructure of separated phases and the defect structure were analyzed using electron microscopy, XRD, Raman and EPR spectroscopy prior to and post irradiation. Synthesized calcium borosilicates are observed to form an unusual heterogeneous microstructure composed of three embedded amorphous phases with a solubility limit ~ 2.5 mol% MoO₃. Increasing [B₂O₃] increased the areas of immiscibility and order of (MoO₄)²‾anions, while increasing [MoO₃] increased both the phase separation and crystallization temperature resulting in phases closer to metastable equilibrium, and initiated clustered crystallization for [MoO₃] > 2.5 mol%. β-irradiation was found to have favorable properties in amorphous systems by creating structural disorder and defect assisted ion migration that thus prevented crystallization. It also increased reticulation in the borosilicate network through 6-membered boroxyl ring and Si ring cleavage to form smaller rings and isolated units. This occurred alongside an increased reduction of Mo⁶+ with dose that can be correlated to molybdenum solubility. In compositions with existing CaMoO₄ crystallites, radiation caused a scattering effect, though the crystal content remained unchanged. Therefore β-irradiation can preferentially prevent crystallization in calcium borosilicates for [MoO₃] < 2.5mol%, but has a smaller impact on systems with existing CaMoO₄ crystallites.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Apollo
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Apollo
      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stephen D. Lawn; Andrew D. Kerkhoff; Rosie Burton; Charlotte Schutz; +5 Authors

    Abstract Background Autopsy studies of HIV/AIDS-related hospital deaths in sub-Saharan Africa reveal frequent failure of pre-mortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), which is found in 34–64 % of adult cadavers. We determined the overall prevalence and predictors of TB among consecutive unselected HIV-positive adults requiring acute hospital admission and the comparative diagnostic yield obtained by screening urine and sputum samples obtained on day 1 of admission with Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). Methods To determine overall TB prevalence accurately, comprehensive clinical sampling (sputum, urine, blood plus other relevant samples) was done and TB was defined by detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in any sample using Xpert and/or mycobacterial liquid culture. To evaluate a rapid screening strategy, we compared the diagnostic yield of Xpert testing sputum samples and urine samples obtained with assistance from a respiratory study nurse in the first 24 h of admission. Results Unselected HIV-positive acute adult new medical admissions (n = 427) who were not receiving TB treatment were enrolled irrespective of clinical presentation or symptom profile. From 2,391 cultures and Xpert tests done (mean, 5.6 tests/patient) on 1,745 samples (mean, 4.1 samples/patient), TB was diagnosed in 139 patients (median CD4 cell count, 80 cells/μL). TB prevalence was very high (32.6 %; 95 % CI, 28.1–37.2 %; 139/427). However, patient symptoms and risk factors were poorly predictive for TB. Overall, ≥1 non-respiratory sample(s) tested positive in 115/139 (83 %) of all TB cases, including positive blood cultures in 41/139 (29.5 %) of TB cases. In the first 24 h of admission, sputum (spot and/or induced samples) and urine were obtainable from 37.0 % and 99.5 % of patients, respectively (P <0.001). From these, the proportions of total TB cases (n = 139) that were diagnosed by Xpert testing sputum, urine or both sputum and urine combined within the first 24 h were 39/139 (28.1 %), 89/139 (64.0 %) and 108/139 (77.7 %) cases, respectively (P <0.001). Conclusions The very high prevalence of active TB and its non-specific presentation strongly suggest the need for routine microbiological screening for TB in all HIV-positive medical admissions in high-burden settings. The incremental diagnostic yield from Xpert testing urine was very high and this strategy might be used to rapidly screen new admissions, especially if sputum is difficult to obtain.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2015
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    OpenUCT; BMC Medicine
    Other literature type . Article . 2015
    License: Springer TDM
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    BMC Medicine
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    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Article . 2015
      License: CC BY
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      OpenUCT; BMC Medicine
      Other literature type . Article . 2015
      License: Springer TDM
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      BMC Medicine
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Tito Akindele; Richard Bayliss;

    Inhibition of protein kinases using ATP-competitive compounds is an important strategy in drug discovery. In contrast, the allosteric regulation of kinases through the disruption of protein-protein interactions has not been widely adopted, despite the potential for selective targeting. Aurora-A kinase regulates mitotic entry and mitotic spindle assembly and is a promising target for anticancer therapy. The microtubule-associated protein TPX2 activates Aurora-A through binding to two sites. Aurora-A recognition is mediated by two motifs within the first 43 residues of TPX2, connected by a flexible linker. To characterize the contributions of these three structural elements, we prepared a series of TPX2 proteomimetics and investigated their binding affinity for Aurora-A using isothermal titration calorimetry. A novel stapled TPX2 peptide was developed that has improved binding affinity for Aurora-A and mimics the function of TPX2 in activating Aurora-A's autophosphorylation. We conclude that the helical region of TPX2 folds upon binding Aurora-A, and that stabilization of this helix does not compromise Aurora-A activation. This study demonstrates that the preparation of these proteomimetics using modern synthesis methods is feasible and their biochemical evaluation demonstrates the power of proteomimetics as tool compounds for investigating PPIs involving intrinsically disordered regions of proteins.

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    ACS Chemical Biology
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      ACS Chemical Biology
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    Authors: Di Gessa, Giorgio; Glaser, Karen; Tinker, Anthea;

    Grandparents are becoming an increasingly important source of childcare. However, caring for grandchildren may have negative health consequences particularly for grandparents with intensive commitments such as those with primary care responsibilities. To date most studies on this issue are based on cross-sectional data and do not take earlier life circumstances into account. Thus, it is not known whether (or to what extent) the relationship between grandparental childcare and health is due to cumulative advantage or disadvantage throughout the lifecourse or to the impact of grandchild care per se.Employing data from waves 1-3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe we investigated the longitudinal relationship between grandparental childcare (i.e. intensive and non-intensive) and health once cumulative histories of advantage or disadvantage are taken into account. We used latent class analysis to categorise respondents according to childhood socio-economic and health conditions drawing on life history information. Experiences in adulthood (e.g. periods of ill health) were also captured. We created a latent continuous physical health variable based on self- and observer-measured indicators. OLS regression was used to explore the association between physical health at wave 2 and grandparental childcare at baseline, controlling for conditions in childhood and adulthood, and for health and socio-economic characteristics.We found a positive longitudinal association between grandchild care and health even after earlier life health and socio-economic conditions were taken into account. However, this significant association was found only for grandmothers, and not grandfathers. Our results suggesting the health benefits of grandchild care are important given the widespread provision of grandparental childcare in Europe. However, further research on underlying mechanisms and causal pathways between grandchild care and grandparent health, as well as on gender differences in the pattern of association, is needed.

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    Authors: Gannon, William J. F.; Jones, Daniel R.; Dunnill, Charles W.;

    The use of hydrogen gas as a means of decoupling supply from demand is crucial for the transition to carbon-neutral energy sources and a greener, more distributed energy landscape. This work shows how simple commercially available titanium nitride coatings can be used to extend the lifetime of 316 grade stainless-steel electrodes for use as the cathode in an alkaline electrolysis cell. The material was subjected to accelerated ageing, with the specific aim of assessing the coating&rsquo s suitability for use with intermittent renewable energy sources. Over 2000 cycles lasting 5.5 days, an electrolytic cell featuring the coating outperformed a control cell by 250 mV, and a reduction of overpotential at the cathode of 400 mV was observed. This work also confirms that the coating is solely suitable for cathodic use and presents an analysis of the surface changes that occur if it is used anodically.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    Authors: Markus Henningsson; David Atkinson; Claudia Prieto; Gastao Cruz; +2 Authors

    PurposeTo develop a respiratory motion correction framework to accelerate free‐breathing three‐dimensional (3D) whole‐heart coronary lumen and coronary vessel wall MRI.MethodsWe developed a 3D flow‐independent approach for vessel wall imaging based on the subtraction of data with and without T2‐preparation prepulses acquired interleaved with image navigators. The proposed method corrects both datasets to the same respiratory position using beat‐to‐beat translation and bin‐to‐bin nonrigid corrections, producing coregistered, motion‐corrected coronary lumen and coronary vessel wall images. The proposed method was studied in 10 healthy subjects and was compared with beat‐to‐beat translational correction (TC) and no motion correction for the left and right coronary arteries. Additionally, the coronary lumen images were compared with a 6‐mm diaphragmatic navigator gated and tracked scan.ResultsNo significant differences (P > 0.01) were found between the proposed method and the gated and tracked scan for coronary lumen, despite an average improvement in scan efficiency to 96% from 59%. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were found in right coronary artery vessel wall thickness, right coronary artery vessel wall sharpness, and vessel wall visual score between the proposed method and TC.ConclusionThe feasibility of a highly efficient motion correction framework for simultaneous whole‐heart coronary lumen and vessel wall has been demonstrated. Magn Reson Med 77:1894–1908, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

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    Authors: Geraint H. Jones; Nadia Berthouze; Roman Bielski; Simon Julier;

    Multiple autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used to complement human teams. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study to investigate gesture/speech interfaces for interaction with robots in a situated manner and the development of three iterations of a prototype command set. A command set was compiled from observing users interacting with a simulated interface in a virtual reality environment. We discovered that users find this type of interface intuitive and their commands tend to naturally group into both ‘High-Level’ and ‘Low-Level’ instructions. However, as the robots moved further away, the loss of depth perception and direct feedback was inimical to the interaction. In a second experiment we found that using simple heads up display elements could mitigate these issues.

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    Authors: Matija Strlic; Cecilia null;

    We don’t know much about the smells of the past. Yet, odours play an important role in our daily lives: they affect us emotionally, psychologically and physically, and influence the way we engage with history. Can this lead us to consider certain smells as cultural heritage? And if so, what would be the processes for the identification, protection and conservation of those heritage smells? In order to answer these questions, the connection between olfaction and heritage was approached in three ways: (1) through theoretical analysis of the concept and role of olfaction in heritage guidelines, leading to identification of places and practices where smell is fundamental to their identity, (2) through exploration of the evidence for use of smells in heritage as a tool to communicate with audiences; and (3) through experimental evaluation of the techniques and methods for analysing and archiving the smells, therefore enabling their documentation and preservation. We present this through the framework of Significance Assessment—Chemical Analysis—Sensory Analysis—Archiving. The smell of historic paper was chosen as the case study, based on its well-recognized cultural significance and available research. Odour characterization was achieved by collecting visitor descriptions of a historic book extract through a survey, and by conducting a sensory evaluation at a historic library. These were combined with the chemical information on the VOCs sampled from both a historic book and a historic library, to create the Historic Book Odour Wheel, a novel documentation tool representing the first step towards documenting and archiving historic smells.

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    Authors: Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu; Dimitri A. Svistunenko; Daniela Cioloboc; Cristina Bischin; +2 Authors

    The nitrite adducts of globins can potentially bind via O- or N- linkage to the heme iron. We have used EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) and DFT (density functional theory) to explore these binding modes to myoglobin and hemoglobin. We demonstrate that the nitrite adducts of both globins have detectable EPR signals; we provide an explanation for the difficulty in detecting these EPR features, based on uniaxial state considerations. The EPR and DFT data show that both nitrite linkage isomers can be present at the same time and that the two isomers are readily interconvertible in solution. The millisecond-scale process of nitrite reduction by Hb is investigated in search of the elusive Fe(II)-nitrite adduct. Highlights • A DFT-derived barrier for nitrite linkage isomerism on heme center is reported. • EPR spectra of nitrite adducts show evidence for linkage isomerism. • The electronic structure of Fe(III)-nitrite heme is conformation-dependent. • Certain conformations are inducive to EPR silence. • Fe(II)-nitrite is undetectable on stopped-flow time scales. Graphic Abstract Graphic entry for the Table of Contents (TOC).

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    Article . 2014
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    Authors: Hossein Eskandari Sabzi; Pedro E.J. Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo;

    Abstract Understanding the factors influencing yield strengthening in alloys processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is critical in designing new formulations, and for predicting the optimum parameters for their processing. In this work, a relationship between the heat input and strengthening and softening mechanisms is proposed for a titanium, nickel and stainless steel alloy (Ti-6Al-4V, IN718 and 316L, respectively). Maximum strength is obtained with increasing heat input in 316L stainless steel; whereas IN718 and Ti-6Al-4V require low heat inputs. The results demonstrate that yield strength can be described in terms of the normalised enthalpy. The variation in the yield strength of LPBFed alloys depends prominently on dislocation multiplication/annihilation at certain processing temperatures and thermal straining, which are alloy dependent; as well as on dislocation strengthening and heat dissipation during cooling, which are process dependent. These dependencies are modelled via well-known metallurgical approaches. The relative contribution of various strengthening mechanisms is revealed. The findings of this work can be used as a metric for the prediction and further improvement of yield strength based on the choice of LPBF process parameters and chemical composition.

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    Materials &amp; Design
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Materials &amp; Design
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Materials &amp; Design
      Article . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Materials &amp; Design
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: Patel, Karishma B.; Boizot, Bruno; Facq, Sébastien P.; Peuget, Sylvain; +2 Authors

    Borosilicate glasses for nuclear waste applications are limited in waste loading by the precipitation of water-soluble molybdates. In order to increase storage efficiency, new compositions are sought out that trap molybdenum in a water-durable CaMoO₄ crystalline phase. Factors affecting CaMoO₄ combination and glass-in-glass phase separation in calcium borosilicate systems as a function of changing [MoO₃] and [B₂O₃] are examined in this study in order to understand how competition for charge balancers affects phase separation. It further examines the influence of radiation damage on structural modifications using 0.77 to 1.34 GGy of 2.5 MeV electron radiation that replicates inelastic collisions predicted to occur over long-term storage. The resulting microstructure of separated phases and the defect structure were analyzed using electron microscopy, XRD, Raman and EPR spectroscopy prior to and post irradiation. Synthesized calcium borosilicates are observed to form an unusual heterogeneous microstructure composed of three embedded amorphous phases with a solubility limit ~ 2.5 mol% MoO₃. Increasing [B₂O₃] increased the areas of immiscibility and order of (MoO₄)²‾anions, while increasing [MoO₃] increased both the phase separation and crystallization temperature resulting in phases closer to metastable equilibrium, and initiated clustered crystallization for [MoO₃] > 2.5 mol%. β-irradiation was found to have favorable properties in amorphous systems by creating structural disorder and defect assisted ion migration that thus prevented crystallization. It also increased reticulation in the borosilicate network through 6-membered boroxyl ring and Si ring cleavage to form smaller rings and isolated units. This occurred alongside an increased reduction of Mo⁶+ with dose that can be correlated to molybdenum solubility. In compositions with existing CaMoO₄ crystallites, radiation caused a scattering effect, though the crystal content remained unchanged. Therefore β-irradiation can preferentially prevent crystallization in calcium borosilicates for [MoO₃] < 2.5mol%, but has a smaller impact on systems with existing CaMoO₄ crystallites.

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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Apollo
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Apollo
      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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