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  • Authors: Gemma Shay; Marilena Tauro; Antonio Laghezza; Paolo Tortorella; +2 Authors

    Abstract Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy that is hallmarked by areas of extensive bone destruction. Our group, and others have recently shown that individual host or tumor derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in the progression of many cancers in the bone microenvironment, including MM. These data support the design of selective inhibitors of individual MMPs for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Previous clinical trials with broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors failed, arguably because the precise roles of individual MMPs had not been fully appreciated. Therefore, in the current study, we have developed novel bone seeking MMP inhibitors (BMMPIs) that are highly selective to MMP-2 and structurally are based on the bone targeting bisphosphonate, Tiludronate. In vitro, BMMPIs showed greater enzyme inhibition, and specificity for MMP-2 than previously synthesized bisphosphonates (e.g. Zoledronate, Etidronate and Tiludronate) with Ki values in the nanomolar range. Further treatment of the 5TGM1 mouse MM cell line with low micromolar concentrations of the BMMPI inhibitors significantly reduced cell viability through inhibition of cell growth (p<0.05). In vivo, 5TGMI tumor-bearing mice receiving BMMP inhibitors three times a week, showed significant increase in overall survival compared to vehicle and tiludronate treated mice over 80 days (p<0.05). This was associated with a reduction in tumor burden and protection from tumor-associated bone loss compared to vehicle treated mice as measured by x-ray and histomorphometry. These data suggest that given the roles for MMPs in tumor progression in bone, that our novel BMMPIs may be effective in the treatment of MM. We predict that MMP-2 specific BMMPIs may be more effective than current clinically used bisphosphonates for the treatment of MM, and may eliminate undesirable side effects of broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors due to their high specificity and bone seeking nature. We are currently continuing to characterize these BMMPI both as single agents, and in combination with existing MM treatments (eg. Bortezomib) for the treatment and eradication of MM. Citation Format: Gemma Shay, Marilena Tauro, Antonio Laghezza, Paolo Tortorella, Lori A. Hazlehurst, Conor C. Lynch. Bone-targeted MMP inhibitors for the treatment of multiple myeloma. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2013 Apr 6-10; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2013;73(8 Suppl):Abstract nr 2134. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2013-2134

    Cancer Researcharrow_drop_down
    Cancer Research
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Cancer Researcharrow_drop_down
      Cancer Research
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Rosalia Maria Cigala; Concetta De Stefano; Anna Irto; Paola Lanzafame; +2 Authors
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio Istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Kenta Hayashi; Hiroshi Gotoda; Pier Luigi Gentili;

    The convective motions within a solution of a photochromic spiro-oxazine being irradiated by UV only on the bottom part of its volume, give rise to aperiodic spectrophotometric dynamics. In this paper, we study three nonlinear properties of the aperiodic time series: permutation entropy, short-term predictability and long-term unpredictability, and degree distribution of the visibility graph networks. After ascertaining the extracted chaotic features, we show how the aperiodic time series can be exploited to implement all the fundamental two-inputs binary logic functions (AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR, and XNOR) and some basic arithmetic operations (half-adder, full-adder, half-subtractor). This is possible due to the wide range of states a nonlinear system accesses in the course of its evolution. Therefore, the solution of the convective photochemical oscillator results in hardware for chaos-computing alternative to conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-based integrated circuits.

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    Authors: Manuela Portaro; Paola Tuccimei; Gianfranco Galli; Michele Soligo; +2 Authors

    Indoor radon is the second cause of lung cancer. Mitigation strategies are based on (i) building protection with radon barrier materials, (ii) increasing home ventilation or (iii) room pressurization. A scale model room created with a porous ignimbrite rich in radon precursors was used as an analogue to test the indoor radon reduction ability of various radon barrier materials in a real room. The properties of these materials were tested with and without room pressurization by introducing outdoor air at different flow rates. The best materials reduced indoor radon up to 80% and, when the highest pressurization was applied, to 93%.

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      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Rogoza R.; Donini L. M.;

    Abstract Background Orthorexia nervosa has attracted significant attention in the field, however, alongside increasing knowledge, more and more gaps are being identified. One of the fundamental problems concerns measurement of orthorexia nervosa. The most commonly used self-report measure, the ORTO-15, demonstrated an unstable factorial structure across different populations. Therefore, one might question whether the knowledge obtained from past research using ORTO-15 is valid or not. The aim of the present paper is to re-analyse original data used for the validation of ORTO-15 to assess its factorial structure and propose its revision, the ORTO-R. Methods The description of the sample and procedure corresponds to the one reported in Donini et al. (Eat Weight Disord 10:28–32, 2005). N = 525 subjects were enrolled. To evaluate whether the factorial structure of ORTO-15, we used confirmatory factor analysis. The results revealed that the ORTO-15 indeed does not capture the structure of orthorexia nervosa adequately and revision is needed. The ORTO-R contains six items from ORTO-15, which were identified as the best markers of orthorexia nervosa. Discussion and conclusion In the current paper, we present a refined measure of orthorexia nervosa—the ORTO-R. It is based on a frequently used ORTO-15, overcoming its main limitations. We strongly believe that the current work will act as a bridge, linking past with the future research, and that alongside a new measure, the field of research on orthorexia nervosa will move forward. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

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    Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia Bulimia and Obesity
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia Bulimia and Obesity
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mapelli C.; Villa G.; Barella S.; Gruttadauria A.; +3 Authors

    Abstract Different lightweight steels alloys have been treated by different isothermal treatments in order to understand the basics of precipitation kinetics of κ-carbide for such class of new steel grades featured by high concentration of Mn and Al. The κ-carbide precipitation plays a significant role to induce the strengthening of these steel grades that maintain a significant ductility up to the fracture as a consequence of their duplex ferrite-austenite structure that exploits the twinning mechanism of austenite during the plastic deformation. In this paper the results about isothermal transformations involving the κ-carbide precipitation have been discussed. In order to deepen the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in precipitation of κ-carbides, the study has been performed by isothermal (Temperature Transformation Treatment) experiments applying different temperatures and holding times. The observed transformations have been measured and it has been possible to apply the JMAK model to fit such results. In addition, it has been observed a relationship between the steel composition and the activation energy for the transformation.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Simona Gatti; Elena Lionetti; L. Balanzoni; Anil K Verma; +15 Authors

    Background & Aims Celiac disease is one of the most common diseases worldwide, with an apparent trend of increasing prevalence. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease in children in Italy in 2015–2016 and compared that with data from 25 years ago. Methods We screened 4570 children (5–11 years old, 80.1% of the eligible population) from metropolitan areas of Ancona and Verona for HLA genes associated with increased risk of celiac disease, and for total serum levels of IgA and IgA class anti-tissue transglutaminase in HLA positives. Diagnoses of celiac disease were confirmed by detection of anti-endomysial antibody and analysis of intestinal biopsies. The prevalence of celiac autoimmunity and celiac disease were calculated and compared with values from the same geographical area during the years 1993–1995, after adjustment for the different diagnostic algorithm. Results We identified 1960 children with celiac disease-associated haplotypes (43% of children screened; 95% CI, 40.8%–45.2%). The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity in the HLA-positive subjects was 96/1706 (5.62%; 95% CI, 4.53%–6.71%) and 54 of these children satisfied the diagnostic criteria for celiac disease. In the eligible population there were other 23 known cases of celiac disease. The overall estimated prevalence of celiac disease was 1.58% (95% CI, 1.26%–1.90%); this value is significantly higher than the 1993–1995 adjusted prevalence (0.88%; 95% CI, 0.74%–1.02%). Conclusions We found the prevalence of celiac disease in children in Italy to be greater than 1.5%; this value has increased significantly over the past 25 years. Studies are needed to determine the causes of this large increase.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Clinical Gastroenter...arrow_drop_down
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    Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Clinical Gastroenter...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: SUSTO, GIAN ANTONIO; Pampuri S.; Schirru A.; BEGHI, ALESSANDRO; +1 Authors

    In semiconductor manufacturing, wafer quality control strongly relies on product monitoring and physical metrology. However, the involved metrology operations, generally performed by means of scanning electron microscopes, are particularly cost-intensive and time-consuming. For this reason, in common practice a small subset only of a productive lot is measured at the metrology stations and it is devoted to represent the entire lot. Virtual Metrology (VM) methodologies are used to obtain reliable predictions of metrology results at process time, without actually performing physical measurements. This goal is usually achieved by means of statistical models and by linking process data and context information to target measurements. Since semiconductor manufacturing processes involve a high number of sequential operations, it is reasonable to assume that the quality features of a given wafer (such as layer thickness and critical dimensions) depend on the whole processing and not on the last step before measurement only. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities to enhance VM prediction accuracy by exploiting the knowledge collected in the previous process steps. We present two different schemes of multi-step VM, along with dataset preparation indications. Special emphasis is placed on regression techniques capable of handling high-dimensional input spaces. The proposed multi-step approaches are tested on industrial production data.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Computers & Operations Research
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Computers & Operations Research
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Chang Cui; Kasturi Chakraborty; Xu Anna Tang; Kelly Q. Schoenfelt; +10 Authors

    Activating CD8+ T cells by antigen cross-presentation is remarkably effective at eliminating tumours. Although this function is traditionally attributed to dendritic cells, tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) can also cross-present antigens. TAMs are the most abundant tumour-infiltrating leukocyte. Yet, TAMs have not been leveraged to activate CD8+ T cells because mechanisms that modulate their ability to cross-present antigens are incompletely understood. Here we show that TAMs harbour hyperactive cysteine protease activity in their lysosomes, which impedes antigen cross-presentation, thereby preventing CD8+ T cell activation. We developed a DNA nanodevice (E64-DNA) that targets the lysosomes of TAMs in mice. E64-DNA inhibits the population of cysteine proteases that is present specifically inside the lysosomes of TAMs, improves their ability to cross-present antigens and attenuates tumour growth via CD8+ T cells. When combined with cyclophosphamide, E64-DNA showed sustained tumour regression in a triple-negative-breast-cancer model. Our studies demonstrate that DNA nanodevices can be targeted with organelle-level precision to reprogram macrophages and achieve immunomodulation in vivo.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Ioannis Bratsos; Simone Calmo; ZANGRANDO, ENNIO; BALDUCCI, GABRIELE; +1 Authors

    The preparation and structural characterization of three cationic Ru(II)-dmso carbonyls and of four neutral mono- and dicarbonyl Os(II)-dmso derivatives is reported. The two monocarbonyl species fac-[Ru(CO)(dmso-O)3 (dmso-S)2][PF6]2 (11) and cis,cis,cis-[RuCl(CO)(dmso-O)2(dmso-S)2][PF6] (12) were obtained from the neutral monocarbonyl precursor cis,trans,cis-[RuCl2(CO)(dmso-O)(dmso-S)2] (3) upon stepwise replacement of the chlorides with dmso, that binds in each case through the oxygen atom. The dicarbonyl cationic complex cis,cis,trans-[Ru(CO)2(dmso-O)2(dmso-S)Cl][PF6] (13) was instead obtained upon treatment of the neutral tricarbonyl precursor fac-[RuCl2(CO)3(dmso-O)] (8) with AgPF6 in the presence of DMSO: replacement of a Cl− with a dmso-O impliedalso the substitution of one CO ligand by another dmso (that binds through S trans to Cl). The Os(II) carbonyls trans,trans,trans-[OsCl2(CO)(dmso-O)(dmso-S)2] (17), trans,cis,cis-[OsCl2(CO)2(dmso-O)2] (18), cis,mer-[OsCl2(CO)(dmso-S)3] (19), and cis,trans,cis-[OsCl2(CO)(dmso-O)(dmso-S)2] (20) were obtained by treatment of the Os(II)-dmso precursors trans-[OsCl2(dmso-S)4] (14) and cis,fac-[OsCl2(dmso-O)(dmso-S)3] (15) with CO. Each one of them is structurally similar to an already known Ru(II) analog, even though - in agreement with the expected greater inertness of Os(II) - more forcing reaction conditions were required for their preparation. Interestingly, compound 20 could not be isolated in pure form, but only as a 1:1 cocrystallized mixture with its precursor 15. The dmso ligand is always bound through the oxygen atom when trans to CO. We are con fi dent that the new Ru(II)- and Os(II)-dmso carbonyl species described here represent a contribution to expand the pool of complexes bearing some easily replaceable dmso ligands to be used as well-behaved precursors in inorganic synthesis.

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  • Authors: Gemma Shay; Marilena Tauro; Antonio Laghezza; Paolo Tortorella; +2 Authors

    Abstract Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy that is hallmarked by areas of extensive bone destruction. Our group, and others have recently shown that individual host or tumor derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in the progression of many cancers in the bone microenvironment, including MM. These data support the design of selective inhibitors of individual MMPs for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Previous clinical trials with broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors failed, arguably because the precise roles of individual MMPs had not been fully appreciated. Therefore, in the current study, we have developed novel bone seeking MMP inhibitors (BMMPIs) that are highly selective to MMP-2 and structurally are based on the bone targeting bisphosphonate, Tiludronate. In vitro, BMMPIs showed greater enzyme inhibition, and specificity for MMP-2 than previously synthesized bisphosphonates (e.g. Zoledronate, Etidronate and Tiludronate) with Ki values in the nanomolar range. Further treatment of the 5TGM1 mouse MM cell line with low micromolar concentrations of the BMMPI inhibitors significantly reduced cell viability through inhibition of cell growth (p<0.05). In vivo, 5TGMI tumor-bearing mice receiving BMMP inhibitors three times a week, showed significant increase in overall survival compared to vehicle and tiludronate treated mice over 80 days (p<0.05). This was associated with a reduction in tumor burden and protection from tumor-associated bone loss compared to vehicle treated mice as measured by x-ray and histomorphometry. These data suggest that given the roles for MMPs in tumor progression in bone, that our novel BMMPIs may be effective in the treatment of MM. We predict that MMP-2 specific BMMPIs may be more effective than current clinically used bisphosphonates for the treatment of MM, and may eliminate undesirable side effects of broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors due to their high specificity and bone seeking nature. We are currently continuing to characterize these BMMPI both as single agents, and in combination with existing MM treatments (eg. Bortezomib) for the treatment and eradication of MM. Citation Format: Gemma Shay, Marilena Tauro, Antonio Laghezza, Paolo Tortorella, Lori A. Hazlehurst, Conor C. Lynch. Bone-targeted MMP inhibitors for the treatment of multiple myeloma. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2013 Apr 6-10; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2013;73(8 Suppl):Abstract nr 2134. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2013-2134

    Cancer Researcharrow_drop_down
    Cancer Research
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Cancer Research
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Rosalia Maria Cigala; Concetta De Stefano; Anna Irto; Paola Lanzafame; +2 Authors
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Kenta Hayashi; Hiroshi Gotoda; Pier Luigi Gentili;

    The convective motions within a solution of a photochromic spiro-oxazine being irradiated by UV only on the bottom part of its volume, give rise to aperiodic spectrophotometric dynamics. In this paper, we study three nonlinear properties of the aperiodic time series: permutation entropy, short-term predictability and long-term unpredictability, and degree distribution of the visibility graph networks. After ascertaining the extracted chaotic features, we show how the aperiodic time series can be exploited to implement all the fundamental two-inputs binary logic functions (AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR, and XNOR) and some basic arithmetic operations (half-adder, full-adder, half-subtractor). This is possible due to the wide range of states a nonlinear system accesses in the course of its evolution. Therefore, the solution of the convective photochemical oscillator results in hardware for chaos-computing alternative to conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-based integrated circuits.

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