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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Villar, J.; Kacmarek, R.M.;

    In 1994, an American-European Consensus Conference (AECC) formalized the criteria for the diagnosis of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although that definition is simple to apply in the clinical setting, it has been challenged over the years in several studies since the assessment of the oxygenation defect does not require standardized ventilatory support. We were the first to propose new guidelines, based on a specific, standard method of evaluating oxygenation status, a proposal that was later advocated by others. To address the limitations of the AECC definition, a modified ARDS definition has been proposed by a task force panel of experts, referred to as the Berlin Defintion, using a terminology similar to that we previously proposed. However, that proposal has several methodological flaws. Since all ARDS patients start off with terrible oxygenation, the Berlin Definition offers no room for stratifying and identifyng true ARDS patients since there is no further re-evaluation of the hypoxemia under standard ventilator setting in a specific time period. In this Point of View, we review the history of the definition of ARDS and discussed the methodological concerns regarding adopting this new, revised ARDS definition. En 1994, una Conferencia de Consenso Americana-Europea (CCAE) formalizó los criterios para el diagnóstico del Síndrome de Distrés Respiratorio Agudo (SDRA). Aunque esa definición es sencilla de aplicar en la clínica, ha sido criticada en varios estudios ya que la medida del defecto de oxigenación no requiere de la estandarización del soporte ventilatorio. Nosotros fuimos los primeros en proponer nuevas guías basadas en un método estándar específico para evaluar el estado de la oxigenación, una propuesta que más tarde fue apoyada por otros autores. Para solucionar las limitaciones de la definición de la CCAE del SDRA, una modificación de esta definición ha sido propuesta por un panel de expertos, denominada Definición de Berlín, utilizando una terminología similar a la que nosotros habíamos propuesto previamente. Sin embargo, esta nueva propuesta tiene varios fallos metodológicos. Debido a que todos los pacientes con SDRA presentan inicialmente una oxigenación terrible, la Definición de Berlín no facilita la estratificación e identificación de verdaderos pacientes con SDRA porque no da la posibilidad de volver a evaluar el grado de hipoxemia bajo un patrón estándar de ventilación en un tiempo determinado. En este Punto de Vista revisaremos la historia de la definición del SDRA y analizaremos los problemas metodológicos relacionados con la adopción de esta nueva revisión de la definición del SDRA.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Scientific Electroni...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aranguren Garacochea, Patricia; Díaz de Garayo, Sergio; Martínez Echeverri, Álvaro; Araiz Vega, Miguel; +1 Authors

    The nZEB standards reduce the energy demand of these buildings to a minimum, obtaining this little energy from renewable resources. Taking these aspect into consideration, a thermoelectric cooler-heat pump is proposed to achieve the comfort temperature along the whole year. The same device can provide heat in winter and it can cool down the buildings in summer just by switching the voltage supply polarity. Heat pipes are studied to work on both sides of the thermoelectric modules in order to optimize the heat transfer as these devices present really good thermal resistances and they can work in any position. However, they present pretty different thermal resistances if they work on the cold or on the hot side of the modules. A methodology to thermally characterize these heat exchangers working in both orientations is proposed and a validated computational model is developed to optimize the thermoelectric cooler-heat pump for a nZEB application. The number of thermoelectric modules, the position of the device, the ambient temperature and the air mass flow determine the operation and consequently they need to be studied in order to optimize the application. The authors are indebted to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for the economic support to this work, included in the DPI2014-53158-R research project.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Academica-e; Recolec...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Energy and Buildings
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Energy and Buildings
    Article . 2019
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Academica-e; Recolec...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Energy and Buildings
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Energy and Buildings
      Article . 2019
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: E Ann, Yeh; B, Weinstock-Guttman;

    This paper presents a summary of the current knowledge of the mechanism of action of fingolimod (FTY720; Gilenya®; Novartis Pharma Stein AG, Stein, Switzerland) and the phase 2 and 3 studies that have been performed on the drug. This study will discuss specific safety issues that should be considered when initiating this therapy. Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is considered to be a leading cause of neurologic disability in young adults, and predominantly affects young women. The past two decades have seen significant growth in therapeutic options for relapsing forms of MS, including FTY720. Fingolimod (FTY720) is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator, and currently the approved dosage is 0.5 mg daily. Notable side effects include bradycardia in the first hours after administration and macular edema. There may be an increased risk of herpetic infections (varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus) associated with this medication. This oral therapy has been shown to be effective in double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, and in trials comparing it to weekly interferon beta-1a therapy. However, the long-term efficacy and safety of this oral medication in relapsing MS, including the effect on reduction of disability progression and cognitive decline, remains to be established.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Advances in Therapyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Advances in Therapy
    Article . 2011
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Advances in Therapyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Advances in Therapy
      Article . 2011
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: M, Alahyari-Shahrasb; H, Moravej; R, Kianfar; W K, Kim;

    SummaryAn experiment was carried out to determine nitrogen‐corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) values of processed wheat products with two levels of enzyme (0 and 0.5 g/kg) and five processing methods [control (C), water‐soaking for 12 h (SO12h), 24 h (SO24h) and 48 h (SO48h) and fermentation with lactobacillus (FL)] in two species of poultry (cockerel and Japanese quail). In this study, each processing method group had six replications with two cockerels or four quails per replication. The results showed that the calculated AMEn values of processed wheat by different methods were as follows: C‐12.61 and 12.60; SO12h‐12.75 and 12.73; SO24h‐12.80 and 12.79; SO48h‐12.97 and 12.96; and FL‐13.36 and 13.33 MJ/kg for cockerels and quails, respectively, indicating that fermentation improved AMEn values compared with the others. The mean AMEn of processed wheat with enzyme (13.12 MJ/kg) was significantly higher than that of processed wheat without enzyme (12.64 MJ/kg). However, there were no significant differences in the AMEn of processed wheat between cockerels and quails. The interaction between species and levels of enzyme in AMEn values was not significant. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in three‐way interactions among species, levels of enzyme and wheat processing methods for AMEn values. In conclusion, the results of the experiment suggest that the FL was more effective processing method of wheat to obtain high level of AMEn values than the others, and the combination of enzyme and processing methods can increase the AMEn values compared with processing methods alone.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Animal Ph...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
    Article . 2016
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Animal Ph...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Saxena, Ram Raghuvir.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Haller, E.E.; Falicov, L.M.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Cécile Mons; Thomas Botzanowski; Anton Nikolaev; Petra Hellwig; +4 Authors

    International audience; Human mitoNEET (mNT) is the first identified Fe−S protein of the mammalian outer mitochondrial membrane. Recently, we demonstrated the involvement of mNT in a specific cytosolic pathway dedicated to the reactivation of oxidatively damaged cytosolic aconitase by cluster transfer. In vitro studies using apo-ferredoxin (FDX) reveal that mNT uses an Fe-based redox switch mechanism to regulate the transfer of its cluster. Using the "gold standard" cluster recipient protein, FDX, we show that this transfer is direct and that only one of the two mNT clusters is transferred when the second one is decomposed. Combining complementary biophysical and biochemical approaches, we show that pH affects both the sensitivity of the cluster to O 2 and dimer stability. Around physiological cytosolic pH, the ability of mNT to transfer its cluster is tightly regulated by the pH. Finally, mNT is extremely resistant to H 2 O 2 compared to ISCU and SufB, two other Fe−S cluster transfer proteins, which is consistent with its involvement in a repair pathway of stress-damaged Fe−S proteins. Taken together, our results suggest that the ability of mNT to transfer its cluster to recipient proteins is not only controlled by the redox state of its cluster but also tightly modulated by the pH of the cytosol. We propose that when pathophysiological conditions such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases dysregulate cellular pH homeostasis, this pH-dependent regulation of mNT is lost, as is the regulation of cellular pathways under the control of mNT. I ron−sulfur (Fe−S) clusters are evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved prosthetic cofactors. Composed of only iron and sulfur, they are involved in many essential biological processes. 1,2 MitoNEET (mNT), also known as CISD1, is the first identified Fe−S protein of the mammalian outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). 3,4 This is a small homodimeric protein (13 kDa for each monomer) anchored to the OMM by its 32-amino acid N-terminus with the major part of the protein, including the C-terminal Fe−S binding domain, located in the cytosol. 4 Each monomer accommodates one [2Fe-2S] cluster coordinated by three cysteines (C72, C74, and C83) and one histidine (H87) in a CDGSH domain 5−8 as other members of the NEET protein family, 9 which also includes Miner1 (or CISD2) and Miner2 (or CISD3) in mammals. 10 Although the biological activity of mNT is still debated, 11 studies have shown that it is involved in the regulation of iron/reactive oxygen species homeo-stasis, 12−14 in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism , 13,15 and in cell proliferation in breast cancer. 16 In vitro studies revealed that holo-mNT (the form of the protein with the cluster) is able to transfer its Fe−S cluster to very diverse apoprotein (an Fe−S protein, which has lost its cluster) recipients assembling either a [2Fe-2S] cluster as ferredoxin from various organisms, 17,18 human anamorsin 19 and CISD2, 20 or a [4Fe-4S] cluster as mammalian iron regulatory protein-1 (IRP-1)/cytosolic aconitase (c-aconi-tase). 14 On the basis of in cellulo experiments, we showed that mNT is able to repair the oxidatively damaged Fe−S cluster of human IRP-1/c-aconitase by transferring its cluster to the damaged protein. 14 Recently, we started to investigate in depth the in vitro cluster transfer reaction, focusing on the transfer from holo-mNT to [2Fe-2S] recipient protein. We unambiguously demonstrated that oxidized mNT ([2Fe-2S] 2+) triggers cluster transfer, whereas reduction of its cluster abrogates this transfer. Moreover, while O 2 significantly affects the lability of the oxidized mNT cluster, it does not interfere with the cluster

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biochemistry; Hal-Di...arrow_drop_down
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    Biochemistry
    Article . 2018
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    Authors: Covington, Martin B.;

    This paper examines the issues involved in the resolution of interjurisdictional water transfer disputes in Virginia. Current interjurisdictional water transfers take place without the full compensation of all individuals and corporate entities that are damaged by the transfers. Water transfer projects remove land from the property tax base of host jurisdiction without compensation for the permanent loss of property tax revenue involved. Due to these uncompensated losses political resistance to such proposals is automatic and intense and leads to delays in the implementation of even worthwhile projects with low levels of negative environmental and social impacts. The existence of these uncompensated, and in some cases unrecognised, external costs and the delays and costs associated with political opposition to water transfers leads to economically less than optimum proposals being adopted to satisfy the water needs of transferring jurisdictions. After examining the institutional mechanisms available in Virginia to facilitate the resolution of interjurisdictional disputes, and similar mechanisms in other states, a proposal is developed to help resolve such conflicts in a more efficient manner that will lead to more nearly optimum proposals for water supply development being adopted and a lessening of the political conflict currently associated with attempts to implement interjurisdictional water transfer proposals in Virginia. M.S.

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    Authors: Kurt, Mislow;

    AbstractScrutiny of the purported misuse of some current stereochemical terms shows that obsolescence and faulty syntax may be less of a problem than previously assumed. Furthermore, changes in stereochemical terminology over time are not always due to obsolescence or to novel developments in chemical technology; for example, technical developments played no role whatsoever in the semantic transmutations over time of the terms “diastereomer” and “pseudoasymmetry.” Finally, definitions of many stereochemical terms acquire meaning only within a given context and therefore cannot always be easily formulated. A prime example is the definition of “chirality,” the concept at the heart of stereochemistry and, not coincidentally, the name of the journal in which this essay appears in print. Chirality 14:126–134, 2002. © 2002 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

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    Chirality
    Article . 2002
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    Authors: Albert-Lőrincz, Eniko; Paulik, Edit; Szabo, Bela; Foley, Kristie; +1 Authors

    ABSTRACT Objective To identify the effect of social capital on adolescent smoking. Method A stratified random sample of 1313 7th and 8th grade students from three counties in Transylvania, Romania, completed a self-administered questionnaire on smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. The impact of social capital was measured (personal and community activities, school achievements and smoking-related knowledge). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to measure the association between social participation and smoking. Results Experimenting with smoking was mostly related to knowledge about smoking, academic performance and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure at home. The strongest risk factor of adolescent smoking was the smoking behaviour of classmates: those who reported a significant proportion of smokers among their classmates were nine times more likely to smoke themselves than in other cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 9.05). Those who considered smoking to be harmless were 4 times more likely to be smokers than those who considered this behaviour to be dangerous (aOR: 4.28). Poor academic results increased adolescents’ smoking (aOR: 3.22 and 2.66). The odds were significantly higher for smoking, if they had an active social life (aOR: 2.54). Regular church attendance proved to be a protective factor (aOR: 0.45). Conclusions Several social capital factors can play a role in adolescent smoking. The organization and the development of community activities aimed at prevention must strengthen the factors related to the community's social capital to reduce the likelihood of teenage smoking. RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar el efecto del capital social sobre el consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. Método El estudio se realizó en un grupo aleatorizado y estratificado compuesto por 1313 estudiantes de séptimo y octavo grado de tres municipios en Transilvania (Rumanía). Los participantes contestaron un cuestionario autocumplimentado en relación con el consumo de tabaco y sobre actitudes y comportamientos respecto a este. El impacto del capital social, entendido como actividades personales y comunitarias, así como el desarrollo académico y la información sobre el consumo de tabaco, fueron algunas de las medidas. Resultados Experimentar con el hábito de fumar se relaciona principalmente con el conocimiento sobre dicha adicción, el rendimiento académico y la exposición al consumo de tabaco en el hogar. El mayor riesgo para el consumo se deriva de la interacción con compañeros de clase que incurren en el consumo de tabaco. En tal caso, la probabilidad de consumo aumenta nueve veces (odds ratio ajustada [ORa]: 9,05). Quienes consideraron que fumar es inofensivo tuvieron cuatro veces más probabilidades de ser fumadores que quienes consideraron este comportamiento como peligroso (ORa: 4,28). En cuanto a los/las estudiantes con bajo rendimiento académico se observa un mayor incremento del consumo (ORa: 3,22 y 2,66). Al mismo tiempo, dicho patrón también se observa entre aquellos/as con un entorno social activo (ORa: 2,54). La asistencia a la iglesia de manera regular es un factor protector (ORa: 0,45). Conclusiones Diferentes aspectos relacionados con el capital social se asocian al consumo de tabaco en adolescentes. La organización de actividades y el desarrollo comunitario deberán tener en cuenta estos aspectos para prevenir el consumo de tabaco. Hay que prestar especial atención a la clase social con el fin de reducir las probabilidades de consumo en adolescentes.

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    Authors: Villar, J.; Kacmarek, R.M.;

    In 1994, an American-European Consensus Conference (AECC) formalized the criteria for the diagnosis of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although that definition is simple to apply in the clinical setting, it has been challenged over the years in several studies since the assessment of the oxygenation defect does not require standardized ventilatory support. We were the first to propose new guidelines, based on a specific, standard method of evaluating oxygenation status, a proposal that was later advocated by others. To address the limitations of the AECC definition, a modified ARDS definition has been proposed by a task force panel of experts, referred to as the Berlin Defintion, using a terminology similar to that we previously proposed. However, that proposal has several methodological flaws. Since all ARDS patients start off with terrible oxygenation, the Berlin Definition offers no room for stratifying and identifyng true ARDS patients since there is no further re-evaluation of the hypoxemia under standard ventilator setting in a specific time period. In this Point of View, we review the history of the definition of ARDS and discussed the methodological concerns regarding adopting this new, revised ARDS definition. En 1994, una Conferencia de Consenso Americana-Europea (CCAE) formalizó los criterios para el diagnóstico del Síndrome de Distrés Respiratorio Agudo (SDRA). Aunque esa definición es sencilla de aplicar en la clínica, ha sido criticada en varios estudios ya que la medida del defecto de oxigenación no requiere de la estandarización del soporte ventilatorio. Nosotros fuimos los primeros en proponer nuevas guías basadas en un método estándar específico para evaluar el estado de la oxigenación, una propuesta que más tarde fue apoyada por otros autores. Para solucionar las limitaciones de la definición de la CCAE del SDRA, una modificación de esta definición ha sido propuesta por un panel de expertos, denominada Definición de Berlín, utilizando una terminología similar a la que nosotros habíamos propuesto previamente. Sin embargo, esta nueva propuesta tiene varios fallos metodológicos. Debido a que todos los pacientes con SDRA presentan inicialmente una oxigenación terrible, la Definición de Berlín no facilita la estratificación e identificación de verdaderos pacientes con SDRA porque no da la posibilidad de volver a evaluar el grado de hipoxemia bajo un patrón estándar de ventilación en un tiempo determinado. En este Punto de Vista revisaremos la historia de la definición del SDRA y analizaremos los problemas metodológicos relacionados con la adopción de esta nueva revisión de la definición del SDRA.

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    Authors: Aranguren Garacochea, Patricia; Díaz de Garayo, Sergio; Martínez Echeverri, Álvaro; Araiz Vega, Miguel; +1 Authors

    The nZEB standards reduce the energy demand of these buildings to a minimum, obtaining this little energy from renewable resources. Taking these aspect into consideration, a thermoelectric cooler-heat pump is proposed to achieve the comfort temperature along the whole year. The same device can provide heat in winter and it can cool down the buildings in summer just by switching the voltage supply polarity. Heat pipes are studied to work on both sides of the thermoelectric modules in order to optimize the heat transfer as these devices present really good thermal resistances and they can work in any position. However, they present pretty different thermal resistances if they work on the cold or on the hot side of the modules. A methodology to thermally characterize these heat exchangers working in both orientations is proposed and a validated computational model is developed to optimize the thermoelectric cooler-heat pump for a nZEB application. The number of thermoelectric modules, the position of the device, the ambient temperature and the air mass flow determine the operation and consequently they need to be studied in order to optimize the application. The authors are indebted to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for the economic support to this work, included in the DPI2014-53158-R research project.

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    Energy and Buildings
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    Energy and Buildings
    Article . 2019
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      Energy and Buildings
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    Authors: E Ann, Yeh; B, Weinstock-Guttman;

    This paper presents a summary of the current knowledge of the mechanism of action of fingolimod (FTY720; Gilenya®; Novartis Pharma Stein AG, Stein, Switzerland) and the phase 2 and 3 studies that have been performed on the drug. This study will discuss specific safety issues that should be considered when initiating this therapy. Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is considered to be a leading cause of neurologic disability in young adults, and predominantly affects young women. The past two decades have seen significant growth in therapeutic options for relapsing forms of MS, including FTY720. Fingolimod (FTY720) is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator, and currently the approved dosage is 0.5 mg daily. Notable side effects include bradycardia in the first hours after administration and macular edema. There may be an increased risk of herpetic infections (varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus) associated with this medication. This oral therapy has been shown to be effective in double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, and in trials comparing it to weekly interferon beta-1a therapy. However, the long-term efficacy and safety of this oral medication in relapsing MS, including the effect on reduction of disability progression and cognitive decline, remains to be established.

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    Advances in Therapy
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      Advances in Therapy
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    Authors: M, Alahyari-Shahrasb; H, Moravej; R, Kianfar; W K, Kim;

    SummaryAn experiment was carried out to determine nitrogen‐corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) values of processed wheat products with two levels of enzyme (0 and 0.5 g/kg) and five processing methods [control (C), water‐soaking for 12 h (SO12h), 24 h (SO24h) and 48 h (SO48h) and fermentation with lactobacillus (FL)] in two species of poultry (cockerel and Japanese quail). In this study, each processing method group had six replications with two cockerels or four quails per replication. The results showed that the calculated AMEn values of processed wheat by different methods were as follows: C‐12.61 and 12.60; SO12h‐12.75 and 12.73; SO24h‐12.80 and 12.79; SO48h‐12.97 and 12.96; and FL‐13.36 and 13.33 MJ/kg for cockerels and quails, respectively, indicating that fermentation improved AMEn values compared with the others. The mean AMEn of processed wheat with enzyme (13.12 MJ/kg) was significantly higher than that of processed wheat without enzyme (12.64 MJ/kg). However, there were no significant differences in the AMEn of processed wheat between cockerels and quails. The interaction between species and levels of enzyme in AMEn values was not significant. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in three‐way interactions among species, levels of enzyme and wheat processing methods for AMEn values. In conclusion, the results of the experiment suggest that the FL was more effective processing method of wheat to obtain high level of AMEn values than the others, and the combination of enzyme and processing methods can increase the AMEn values compared with processing methods alone.

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    Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
    Article . 2016
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