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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2020
    License: CC 0
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2020
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
  • Authors: Thibaut, Aurore; Russo, C.; Morales-Quezada, L.; Hurtado-Puerto, A.; +4 Authors

    Transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive neuromodulatory brain stimulation techniques whose effects on human brain and behavior have been studied individually. In the present study we aimed to quantify the effects of tDCS and tPCS, individually and in combination, on cortical activity, sensitivity and pain-related assessments in healthy individuals in order to understand their neurophysiological mechanisms and potential applications in clinical populations. A total of 48 healthy individuals participated in this randomized double blind sham controlled study. Participants were randomized to receive a single stimulation session of either: active or sham tPCS and active or sham tDCS. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), sensitivity and pain assessments were used before and after each stimulation session. We observed that tPCS had a higher effect on power, as compared to tDCS, in several bandwidths on various cortical regions: the theta band in the parietal region (p = 0.021), the alpha band in the temporal (p = 0.009), parietal (p = 0.0063), and occipital (p < 0.0001) regions. We found that the combination of tPCS and tDCS significantly decreased power in the low beta bandwidth of the frontal (p = 0.0006), central (p = 0.0001), and occipital (p = 0.0003) regions, when compared to sham stimulation. Additionally, tDCS significantly increased power in high beta over the temporal (p = 0.0015) and parietal (p = 0.0007) regions, as compared to sham. We found no effect on sensitivity or pain-related assessments. We concluded that tPCS and tDCS have different neurophysiological mechanisms, elicit distinct signatures, and that the combination of the two leads to no effect or a decrease on qEEG power. Further studies are required to examine the effects of these techniques on clinical populations in which EEG signatures have been found altered. © 2016

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  • Authors: DELVENNE, Eléonore; Farnir, Florent; GUIOT, Julien; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste; +1 Authors

    The prevalence of Nocardia infections is increasing because of both improved detection laboratory techniques and a higher number of immunosuppressed patients. We report the case of a patient with brain abcesses resulting from Nocardia farcinica cerebral dissemination associated with lung infection, endocarditis and ocular lesions for which we suspected a similar origin. This case gives the opportunity to discuss the main issues of these infections and the current therapeutic guidelines.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ziegler, Erik; Rouillard, Maud; André, Elodie; Coolen, Tim; +4 Authors

    Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach-track density imaging (TDI). Twenty-seven non-demented Parkinsons patients (mean disease duration: 5years, mean score on the Hoehn & Yahr scale=1.5) were compared with 26 elderly controls matched for age, sex, and education level. Track density images were created by sampling each subjects spatially normalized fiber tracks in 1mm isotropic intervals and counting the fibers that passed through each voxel. Whole-brain voxel-based analysis was performed and significance was assessed with permutation testing. Statistically significant increases in track density were found in the Parkinsons patients, relative to controls. Clusters were distributed in disease-relevant areas including motor, cognitive, and limbic networks. From the lower medulla to the diencephalon and striatum, clusters encompassed the known location of the locus coeruleus and pedunculopontine nucleus in the pons, and from the substantia nigra up to medial aspects of the posterior putamen, bilaterally. The results identified in brainstem and nigrostriatal pathways show a large overlap with the known distribution of neuropathological changes in non-demented PD patients. Our results also support an early involvement of limbic and cognitive networks in Parkinsons disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2014
    License: CC 0
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2014
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  • Authors: Rochat, Lucien; Van der Linden, Martial; Renaud, Olivier; Epiney, Jean-Benoît; +4 Authors

    Objective: To examine the relationship between reward sensitivity and self-reported apathy in stroke patients and to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of both reward sensitivity and apathy. Methods: In this prospective study, 55 chronic stroke patients were administered a questionnaire to assess apathy and a laboratory task to examine reward sensitivity by measuring motivationally driven behavior ("reinforcement-related speeding"). Fifteen participants without brain damage served as controls for the laboratory task. Negative mood, working memory, and global cognitive functioning were also measured to determine whether reward insensitivity and apathy were secondary to cognitive impairments or negative mood. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of reward sensitivity and apathy. Results: Participants showed reinforcement-related speeding in the highly reinforced condition of the laboratory task. However, this effect was significant for the controls only. For patients, poorer reward sensitivity was associated with greater self-reported apathy (p < 0.05) beyond negative mood and after lesion size was controlled for. Neither apathy nor reward sensitivity was related to working memory or global cognitive functioning. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping showed that damage to the ventral putamen and globus pallidus, dorsal thalamus, and left insula and prefrontal cortex was associated with poorer reward sensitivity. The putamen and thalamus were also involved in self-reported apathy. Conclusions: Poor reward sensitivity in stroke patients with damage to the ventral basal ganglia, dorsal thalamus, insula, or prefrontal cortex constitutes a core feature of apathy. These results provide valuable insight into the neural mechanisms and brain substrate underlying apathy. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: De Keyser, Jacques; Steen, Christel; Mostert, Jop P.; Koch, Marcus W.;

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by patchy areas of demyelination, inflammation, axonal loss and gliosis, and a diffuse axonal degeneration throughout the so-called normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A number of recent studies using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in both relapsing and progressive forms of MS have shown a decreased perfusion of the NAWM, which does not appear to be secondary to axonal loss. The reduced perfusion of the NAWM in MS might be caused by a widespread astrocyte dysfunction, possibly related to a deficiency in astrocytic beta(2)-adrenergic receptors and a reduced formation of cAMP, resulting in a reduced uptake of K+ at the nodes of Ranvier and a reduced release of K+ in the perivascular spaces. Pathologic and imaging studies suggest that ischemic changes might be involved in the development of a subtype of focal demyelinating lesions (type III lesions), and there appears to exist a relationship between decreased white matter perfusion and cognitive dysfunction in patients with MS.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Other ORP type . 2008
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Other ORP type . 2008
      Data sources: NARCIS
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Other ORP type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Other ORP type . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: den Boer, Johan A.; de Vries, Erik F.; Borra, Ronald; van Waarde, Aren; +2 Authors

    Background: Over the last decades many brain imaging studies have contributed to new insights in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. However, in spite of these developments, progress in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for prevalent psychiatric health conditions has been limited. Objective: In this review we discuss translational, diagnostic and methodological issues that have hampered drug development in CNS disorders with a particular focus on psychiatry. The role of preclinical models is critically reviewed and opportunities for brain imaging in early stages of drug development using PET and fMRI are discussed. The role of PET and fMRI in drug development is reviewed emphasizing the need to engage in collaborations between industry, academia and phase I units. Conclusion: Brain imaging technology has revolutionized the study of psychiatric illnesses and during the last decade neuroimaging has provided valuable insights at different levels of analysis and brain organization, such as effective connectivity (anatomical), functional connectivity patterns and neurochemical information that may support both preclinical and clinical drug development. Since there is no unifying pathophysiological theory of individual psychiatric syndromes and since many symptoms cut across diagnostic boundaries, a new theoretical framework has been proposed that may help in defining new targets for treatment and thus enhance drug development in CNS diseases. In addition, it is argued that new proposals for data-mining and mathematical modelling as well as freely available databanks for neural network and neurochemical models of rodents combined with revised psychiatric classification will lead to validated new targets for drug development.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Other ORP type . 2022
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Other ORP type . 2022
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  • Authors: Romagno, Domenica;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shimada, Kazutake;

    The term neurosteroids applies to those steroids that are both synthesized in the nervous system, either de novo from cholesterol or from steroid hormone precursors, and that accumulate in the nervous system to levels that are at least in part independent of steroidogenic gland secretion rates. Neurosteroids consist of 17- or 20-oxosteroids and accumulate in the brain as unconjugated form and their sulfates, fatty acid esters and sulfolipid conjugates.The separation and characterization of pregennolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their 3-fatty acid esters (stearate, palmitate) in the brain are carried out using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS) operating in the positive ion mode. These obtained from rat brains were identified in comparison with their chromatographic behavior with authentic samples during LC/APCI-MS.Pregnenolone 3-sulfate in rat brains was also identified as above.The quantitative determination of pregnenolone in rat brains was done using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was applied to the determination of pregnenolone in rat brains, most of which showed lower amounts than that previously reported. 脳内ステロイドホルモンの化学構造は比較的簡単な17-又は20-オキソステロイドよりなることが知られている.しかし,遊離型のみならず硫酸あるいは脂肪酸抱合型などとしても存在し複雑であるとされているが,詳細については明らかでない.そこで,HPLC,LC/MSを駆使してラット脳を検索したところ,pregnenolone,dehydroepiandrosteroneの3-stearate,-palmitate(計4種)を同定することに成功した.また,脳内におけるpregnenolone,dehydroepiandrostrone,pregnenolone 3-sulfateの存在もLC/MSなどにより改めて確認した.この際,methyloxime誘導体へ導くことが,分子イオンピーク又は関連するピークの検出を容易とし,LC/MSでの同定上極めて有用なことも見出した.一方,定量法の開発は以下のようにして行った.測定法は簡便性を考慮して蛍光検出HPLCを,測定対象は脳内ステロイドホルモン中で最も多くを占めるとされているpregnenoloneを,蛍光誘導体化試薬には1-anthroylcyanideを選択した,確立した分析法を実試料(ラット脳)へ適用したところ,文献記載値(測定法はRIA又はGC/MS)と符合する個体も見られたが,著しい低値を示す個体もあり,大きな疑問を生じるに至った.この原因がサンプル採取上の問題によるのか,あるいは報告されている分析法に問題があるのかは明らかでないが,いずれにしてもその生理作用と共に解決されるべき重要な課題を提起したことになる.このように,本研究は今後の脳内ステロイドホルモンの研究に一つの方向を示唆したものとして評価される. 出典:研究課題「脳内ステロイドホルモン分析法の開発と脳機能解明への応用」課題番号08457594(KAKEN:科学研究費助成事業データベース(国立情報学研究所)) (https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/report/KAKENHI-PROJECT-08457594/084575941997kenkyu_seika_hokoku_gaiyo/)を加工して作成 研究課題/領域番号:08457594, 研究期間(年度):1996-1997 金沢大学自然科学研究科薬学系

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ JAIROarrow_drop_down
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    JAIRO
    1999
    Data sources: JAIRO
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      JAIRO
      1999
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3,241 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2020
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      NeuroVault
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  • Authors: Thibaut, Aurore; Russo, C.; Morales-Quezada, L.; Hurtado-Puerto, A.; +4 Authors

    Transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive neuromodulatory brain stimulation techniques whose effects on human brain and behavior have been studied individually. In the present study we aimed to quantify the effects of tDCS and tPCS, individually and in combination, on cortical activity, sensitivity and pain-related assessments in healthy individuals in order to understand their neurophysiological mechanisms and potential applications in clinical populations. A total of 48 healthy individuals participated in this randomized double blind sham controlled study. Participants were randomized to receive a single stimulation session of either: active or sham tPCS and active or sham tDCS. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), sensitivity and pain assessments were used before and after each stimulation session. We observed that tPCS had a higher effect on power, as compared to tDCS, in several bandwidths on various cortical regions: the theta band in the parietal region (p = 0.021), the alpha band in the temporal (p = 0.009), parietal (p = 0.0063), and occipital (p < 0.0001) regions. We found that the combination of tPCS and tDCS significantly decreased power in the low beta bandwidth of the frontal (p = 0.0006), central (p = 0.0001), and occipital (p = 0.0003) regions, when compared to sham stimulation. Additionally, tDCS significantly increased power in high beta over the temporal (p = 0.0015) and parietal (p = 0.0007) regions, as compared to sham. We found no effect on sensitivity or pain-related assessments. We concluded that tPCS and tDCS have different neurophysiological mechanisms, elicit distinct signatures, and that the combination of the two leads to no effect or a decrease on qEEG power. Further studies are required to examine the effects of these techniques on clinical populations in which EEG signatures have been found altered. © 2016

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  • Authors: DELVENNE, Eléonore; Farnir, Florent; GUIOT, Julien; GIOT, Jean-Baptiste; +1 Authors

    The prevalence of Nocardia infections is increasing because of both improved detection laboratory techniques and a higher number of immunosuppressed patients. We report the case of a patient with brain abcesses resulting from Nocardia farcinica cerebral dissemination associated with lung infection, endocarditis and ocular lesions for which we suspected a similar origin. This case gives the opportunity to discuss the main issues of these infections and the current therapeutic guidelines.

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    Authors: Ziegler, Erik; Rouillard, Maud; André, Elodie; Coolen, Tim; +4 Authors

    Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach-track density imaging (TDI). Twenty-seven non-demented Parkinsons patients (mean disease duration: 5years, mean score on the Hoehn & Yahr scale=1.5) were compared with 26 elderly controls matched for age, sex, and education level. Track density images were created by sampling each subjects spatially normalized fiber tracks in 1mm isotropic intervals and counting the fibers that passed through each voxel. Whole-brain voxel-based analysis was performed and significance was assessed with permutation testing. Statistically significant increases in track density were found in the Parkinsons patients, relative to controls. Clusters were distributed in disease-relevant areas including motor, cognitive, and limbic networks. From the lower medulla to the diencephalon and striatum, clusters encompassed the known location of the locus coeruleus and pedunculopontine nucleus in the pons, and from the substantia nigra up to medial aspects of the posterior putamen, bilaterally. The results identified in brainstem and nigrostriatal pathways show a large overlap with the known distribution of neuropathological changes in non-demented PD patients. Our results also support an early involvement of limbic and cognitive networks in Parkinsons disease.

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2014
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      NeuroVault
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  • Authors: Rochat, Lucien; Van der Linden, Martial; Renaud, Olivier; Epiney, Jean-Benoît; +4 Authors

    Objective: To examine the relationship between reward sensitivity and self-reported apathy in stroke patients and to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of both reward sensitivity and apathy. Methods: In this prospective study, 55 chronic stroke patients were administered a questionnaire to assess apathy and a laboratory task to examine reward sensitivity by measuring motivationally driven behavior ("reinforcement-related speeding"). Fifteen participants without brain damage served as controls for the laboratory task. Negative mood, working memory, and global cognitive functioning were also measured to determine whether reward insensitivity and apathy were secondary to cognitive impairments or negative mood. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was used to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of reward sensitivity and apathy. Results: Participants showed reinforcement-related speeding in the highly reinforced condition of the laboratory task. However, this effect was significant for the controls only. For patients, poorer reward sensitivity was associated with greater self-reported apathy (p < 0.05) beyond negative mood and after lesion size was controlled for. Neither apathy nor reward sensitivity was related to working memory or global cognitive functioning. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping showed that damage to the ventral putamen and globus pallidus, dorsal thalamus, and left insula and prefrontal cortex was associated with poorer reward sensitivity. The putamen and thalamus were also involved in self-reported apathy. Conclusions: Poor reward sensitivity in stroke patients with damage to the ventral basal ganglia, dorsal thalamus, insula, or prefrontal cortex constitutes a core feature of apathy. These results provide valuable insight into the neural mechanisms and brain substrate underlying apathy. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: De Keyser, Jacques; Steen, Christel; Mostert, Jop P.; Koch, Marcus W.;

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by patchy areas of demyelination, inflammation, axonal loss and gliosis, and a diffuse axonal degeneration throughout the so-called normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A number of recent studies using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in both relapsing and progressive forms of MS have shown a decreased perfusion of the NAWM, which does not appear to be secondary to axonal loss. The reduced perfusion of the NAWM in MS might be caused by a widespread astrocyte dysfunction, possibly related to a deficiency in astrocytic beta(2)-adrenergic receptors and a reduced formation of cAMP, resulting in a reduced uptake of K+ at the nodes of Ranvier and a reduced release of K+ in the perivascular spaces. Pathologic and imaging studies suggest that ischemic changes might be involved in the development of a subtype of focal demyelinating lesions (type III lesions), and there appears to exist a relationship between decreased white matter perfusion and cognitive dysfunction in patients with MS.

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    Other ORP type . 2008
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: den Boer, Johan A.; de Vries, Erik F.; Borra, Ronald; van Waarde, Aren; +2 Authors

    Background: Over the last decades many brain imaging studies have contributed to new insights in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. However, in spite of these developments, progress in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for prevalent psychiatric health conditions has been limited. Objective: In this review we discuss translational, diagnostic and methodological issues that have hampered drug development in CNS disorders with a particular focus on psychiatry. The role of preclinical models is critically reviewed and opportunities for brain imaging in early stages of drug development using PET and fMRI are discussed. The role of PET and fMRI in drug development is reviewed emphasizing the need to engage in collaborations between industry, academia and phase I units. Conclusion: Brain imaging technology has revolutionized the study of psychiatric illnesses and during the last decade neuroimaging has provided valuable insights at different levels of analysis and brain organization, such as effective connectivity (anatomical), functional connectivity patterns and neurochemical information that may support both preclinical and clinical drug development. Since there is no unifying pathophysiological theory of individual psychiatric syndromes and since many symptoms cut across diagnostic boundaries, a new theoretical framework has been proposed that may help in defining new targets for treatment and thus enhance drug development in CNS diseases. In addition, it is argued that new proposals for data-mining and mathematical modelling as well as freely available databanks for neural network and neurochemical models of rodents combined with revised psychiatric classification will lead to validated new targets for drug development.

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    Other ORP type . 2022
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